The High Renaissance
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Architecture - 4
Sculpture - 5

Painting - 6

Sculpture - 7
Architecture - 8
The High Renaissance & Mannerism
Leonardo da Vinci
Donato Bramante
Filippino Lippi
Andrea Sansovino
Giovanni della Robbia
Baldassarre Peruzzi
Sebastiano del Piombo
Andrea del Sarto
Matthias Grunewald
Albrecht Durer
Dosso Dossi
Carlo Crivelli
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lorenzo Lotto
Albrecht Altdorfer
Hans Baldung Grien
Hans Holbein the Younger

Francois Clouet

Nicholas Hilliard

Jan Gossaert (Mabuse)
Joachim Patinir
Pieter Aertsen
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Barthel Bruyn
Lucas van Leyden

Rosso Fiorentino
Federico Barocci
Agnolo Bronzino
Giorgio Vasari
Sofonisba Anguissola
Jacopo Tintoretto
El Greco
Girolamo Savoldo
Jacopo Bassano

Paolo Veronese
Alonzo Sanchez Coello
Hans Burgkmair

Jean Goujon

Germain Pilon
Tilman Riemenschneider
Adriaen de Vries

Alonso Berruguete
Baccio Bartolommeo
Benedetto Briosco
Benvenuto Cellini
Leone Leoni
Pompeo Leoni
Alessandro Vittoria
Giovanni da Bologna

Hector Sohier
Pierre Lescot
Giulio Romano
Pirro Ligorio
Bartolomeo Ammanati
Jacopo Sansovino
Andrea Palladio
Giacomo Vignola
Giacomo della Porta
Vittore Carpaccio
Francesco del Cossa
Vincenzo Foppa
Lorenzo Costa
Francesco Francia
Bernardino Luini
Joos van Cleve


Equally un-Italian is the rich sculptural decoration covering almost the entire wall surface of the third story. These relicts, admirably adapted to the architecture, are by Jean Goujon (c.
1510-1565?), the finest French sculptor of the mid-sixteenth century. Unfortunately, they have been much restored. To get a more precise idea of Goujon's style we must turn to the relief panels from the Fontaine des Innocents, which have survived intact, although their architectural framework by Lescot is lost. These graceful figures recall the Mannerism of Cellini and, even more, Primaticcio's decorations at Fontainebleau. Like Lescot's architecture, their design combines classical details of remarkable purity with a delicate slcndemess that gives them a uniquely French air.

JEAN GOUION. Reliefs from the Fontaine des Innocents. 1548-49. Paris

Jean Goujon

Jean Goujon, (born c. 1510, Normandy?, Fr.—died c. 1568), French Renaissance sculptor of the mid-16th century.

The earliest record of Goujon’s activity as an architectural sculptor dates from 1540 at Rouen. His mature mastery was first reflected in a screen relief depicting the deposition of Christ from the cross (1544–45; Louvre). Created for the Church of Saint-Germain l’Auxerrois, Paris, this work marked the beginning of his collaboration with architect Pierre Lescot and exemplifies his personal version of Mannerism. Goujon’s masterpiece is the set of six relief figures of nymphs (1547–49) that originally ornamented the Fontaine des Innocents in Paris. The elongated figures of these nymphs, confined within narrow rectangular panels, are exquisitely adorned with a linear play of rippling draperies. Goujon’s reliefs on the court facade of the old Louvre (c. 1549–53) were marred by inept restoration in the 19th century. The later of these, in the attic portion, show a bolder relief, freer from his earlier architectural restraint. The great hall inside contains his most ambitious sculpture, especially the gallery caryatids carved in the round, which were also falsified by restoration. Goujon’s career after 1562 remains obscure, though as a Protestant he may have fled the hostile Roman Catholic atmosphere of Paris.


Jean Goujon. Salle des Cariatides
Palais du Louvre, Paris
Germain Pilon
Germain Pilon (c. 1535-1590), the greatest sculptor of the later sixteenth century, was a more powerful artist. In his early years he, too, learned a good deal from Primaticcio, but he soon developed his own idiom by merging the Mannerism of Fontainebleau with elements taken from ancient sculpture, Michelangelo, and the Gothic tradition. His main works are monumental tombs, of which the earliest and largest was for Henry II and Catherine de' Medici (fig. 738). Primaticcio built the architectural framework, an oblong, freestanding chapel on a platform decorated with bronze and marble reliefs. Four large bronze statues of Virtues, their style reminiscent of Fontainebleau's, mark the corners.

On the top of the tomb are bronze figures of the king and queen kneeling in prayer, while inside the chapel the couple reappear recumbent as marble gisants, or nude corpses (fig. 739).

This contrast of effigies had been a characteristic feature of Gothic tombs since the fourteenth century. The gisant expressed the transient nature of the flesh, usually showing the body in an advanced stage of decomposition, with vermin sometimes crawling through its open cavities. How could this gruesome image take on Renaissance form without losing its emotional significance? Pilon's solution is brilliant: by idealizing the gisants he reverses their former meaning. The recum-

bent queen in the pose of a classical Venus and the king in that of the dead Christ evoke neither horror nor pity but, rather, the pathos of a beauty that persists even in death. The shock effect of their predecessors has given way to a poignancy that is no less intense. Remembering our earlier distinction between the classical and medieval attitudes toward death, this quality may be defined. The Gothic gisant, which emphasizes physical decay, represents the future state of the body, in keeping with the whole "prospective" character of the medieval tomb. Pilon's gisants, however, are "retrospective," yet do not deny the reality of death. In this union of opposites—never to be achieved again, even by Pilon himself—lies the greatness of these figures.


Germain Pilon. Monument to Valentine Balbiani
Marble, 83 x 191 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris

Tilman Riemenschneider

Tilman Riemenschneider, (born c. 1460, Heilgenstadt or Osterode, Domain of the Teutonic Order [Germany]—died July 7, 1531, Würzburg), master sculptor whose wood portrait carvings and statues made him one of the major artists of the late Gothic period in Germany; he was known as the leader of the Lower Franconia school.

Riemenschneider was the son of the mint master of Würzburg, and the younger Riemenschneider opened a highly successful workshop there in 1483. As a civic leader he was councillor (1504–20) and burgomaster (1520–25). During the Peasants’ Revolt (1525), he sympathized with the revolutionaries and was imprisoned for a short time, during which he temporarily lost his civic responsibilities and patrons.

His first documented work was the altar for the Münnerstadt parish church (1490–92), which was later dismantled. He had a continuous flow of commissions; his major work, the Altar of the Virgin (c. 1505–10) in Herrgotts Church at Creglingen, is a wood altar, 32 feet (10 metres) high, depicting the life of Mary. Riemenschneider employed numerous assistants on the massive monument, but he executed the dominant life-size figures himself. Other major works are Adam and Eve, stone figures from the Würzburg Lady Chapel; the Altar of the Holy Blood (1501–05), in St. Jakob, Rothenburg; and the Tomb of Henry II and Kunigunde (1499–1513), in Bamberg Cathedral.

Although wood was his major medium, he also created pieces in marble, limestone, and alabaster. The sharply folded, flowing drapery on Riemenschneider’s figures make his work easily identifiable. His later years in Kitzingen were spent restoring altarpieces and carving.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Tilman Riemenschneider. The Annunciation
Adriaen de Vries
Adriaen de Vries, (born , 1545/46, The Hague—died Dec. 15, 1626, Prague), the most important Dutch Mannerist sculptor. De Vries left his homeland, where there was little interest in sculpture at the time, and he never returned. In Florence he studied under Giambologna, the leading Italian Mannerist sculptor of his day. De Vries lived for a time in Rome and later worked for Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, and as court sculptor (from 1601) under the emperor Rudolf II in Prague. De Vries’s most significant work is the “Hercules Fountain” (1596–1602), a monumental Italianate work created in Augsburg for the city festival of 1600. His “Psyche with Pandora’s Box” is a characteristic example of his style—shimmering satin finish, spiraling complexity, and a soaring grace.  

Adriaen de Vries. Vir Dolorum
Bronze, height 149 cm
Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna

Christ at the column, 1604. (National Museum, Warsaw)
Adriaen de Vries. Laokoon

Adriaen de Vries. Ratto delle Sabine; Venere e Adone

Adriaen de Vries. Mercury and Psyche; Psyke, buren av amoriner

Bacchus Discovering Ariadne on Naxos
c. 1610
Bronze, 52,5 x 42 cm
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Giocoliere, 1615

Hercules Fountain
Maximilianstrasse, Augsburg

Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

St Sebastian
Bronze, height 200 cm
Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna

Victory of Rudolph II over the Turks
Bronze, height 71 cm
Hofmuseum, Vienna

Vulcan's Forge
Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich

Cain killing Abel, 1622