TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  The High Renaissance
Painting
- 1 - 2 - 3
Architecture - 4
Sculpture - 5

&
Mannerism
Painting - 6

Sculpture - 7
 
Architecture - 8
 
     
     
 
CONTENTS
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The High Renaissance & Mannerism
 
 
 
Leonardo da Vinci
Donato Bramante
Michelangelo
Raphael
Giorgione
Titian
Filippino Lippi
Andrea Sansovino
Giovanni della Robbia
Baldassarre Peruzzi
Sebastiano del Piombo
Andrea del Sarto
Matthias Grunewald
Albrecht Durer
Dosso Dossi
Carlo Crivelli
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lorenzo Lotto
Albrecht Altdorfer
Hans Baldung Grien
Hans Holbein the Younger

Francois Clouet

Nicholas Hilliard

Jan Gossaert (Mabuse)
Joachim Patinir
Pieter Aertsen
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Barthel Bruyn
Lucas van Leyden

Rosso Fiorentino
Pontormo
Parmigianino
Federico Barocci
Agnolo Bronzino
Giorgio Vasari
  Arcimboldo
Sofonisba Anguissola
Jacopo Tintoretto
El Greco
Girolamo Savoldo
Jacopo Bassano

Paolo Veronese
Correggio
Alonzo Sanchez Coello
Hans Burgkmair

Jean Goujon

Germain Pilon
Tilman Riemenschneider
Adriaen de Vries

Alonso Berruguete
Baccio Bartolommeo
Benedetto Briosco
Benvenuto Cellini
Primaticcio
Leone Leoni
Pompeo Leoni
Alessandro Vittoria
Giovanni da Bologna

Hector Sohier
Pierre Lescot
Giulio Romano
Pirro Ligorio
Bartolomeo Ammanati
Jacopo Sansovino
Andrea Palladio
Giacomo Vignola
Giacomo della Porta
 
Pinturicchio
Vittore Carpaccio
Francesco del Cossa
Vincenzo Foppa
Lorenzo Costa
Francesco Francia
Bernardino Luini
Joos van Cleve
 
 
 
Giorgione
 
The distinction between Early and High Renaissance art, so marked in Florence and Rome, is far less sharp in Venice. Giorgione (1478-1510), the first Venetian painter to belong to the new era, left the orbit of Giovanni Bellini only during the final years of his short career.
 
THE TEMPEST.

Among his few mature works, The Tempest
is both the most individual and the most enigmatic. There have been many attempts to explain this peculiar image. The most persuasive one is that the painting represents Adam and Eve after the Fall. Their fate as decreed by God, whose awesome voice is represented by the lightning bolt, is that man shall till the ground from which he was taken, and that woman shall bring forth children in sorrow. Adam, dressed in contemporary Venetian costume, is seen resting from his labors, while Eve, whose draped nudity signifies shame and carnal knowledge, suckles Cain, her first-born son. In the distance is a bridge over the river surrounding the city of the earthly Paradise, from which they have been expelled. Barely visible near the rock at river's edge is a snake, signifying the Temptation.
The broken columns complete the tragic vision: they stand for death, the ultimate punishment of Original Sin.
 
The Tempest was probably commissioned by the wealthy merchant Gabriele Vendramin, one of Venice's greatest patrons of the arts, who owned the picture when it was first recorded in 1530. It certainly reflects the predilection for learned humanist allegories in Venetian painting, whose subjects are often obscured, as here, by static poses and alien settings. The iconography does not tell us the whole story of The Tempest, however. It is the landscape, rather than Giorgione's figures, that interprets the scene for us. Belonging themselves to nature, Adam and Eve are passive victims of the thunderstorm seemingly about to engulf them. The contrast to Bellini's St. Francis in Ecstasy is striking. Bellini's landscape is meant to be seen through the eyes of the saint, as a piece of God's creation. Despite its biblical subject, the mood in The Tempest is subtly, pervasively pagan. The scene is like an enchanted idyll, a dream of pastoral beauty soon to be swept away. Only poets had hitherto captured this air of nostalgic reverie. Now, it entered the repertory of the painter. The Tempest initiates what was to become an important new tradition.
 
 

Giorgione. The Tempest, с 1505.
Oil on canvas, 79.5 x 73 cm.
Galleria del'Accademia, Venice
 
 
 
 
Titian
 
Giorgione died before he could explore in full the sensuous, lyrical world he had created in The Tempest. This task was taken up by Titian (1488/90—1576), an artist of comparable gifts who was decisively influenced by Giorgione and who dominated Venetian painting for the next half-century.
 

Titian
. Bacchanal, с. 1518.
Museo del Prado, Madrid
BACCHANAL.

Titian's Bacchanal of about
1518 is frankly pagan, inspired by an ancient author's description of such a revel. T

he landscape, rich in contrasts of cool and warm tones, has all the poetry of Giorgione, but the figures are of another breed. Active and muscular, they move with a joyous freedom that recalls Raphael's Galatea
.

By this time, many of Raphael's compositions had been engraved
, and from these reproductions Titian became familiar with the Roman High Renaissance. A number of the celebrants in his Bacchanal also reflect the influence of classical art. Titian's approach to antiquity, however, is very different from Raphael's.
He visualizes the realm of classical myths as part of the natural world, inhabited not by animated statues but by beings of flesh and blood. The figures of the Bacchanal are idealized just enough beyond everyday reality to persuade us that they belong to a long-lost golden age.

They invite us to share their blissful state in a way that makes Raphael's Galatea seem cold and remote by comparison.
 
 
THE PESARO MADONNA.

This quality of festive animation reappears in many of Titian's religious paintings, such as the Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family
. Although we recognize the composition as a variant of the sacra conversazione, Titian has thoroughly transformed it by replacing the familiar frontal view with an oblique one. The Virgin is now enthroned in a great barrel-vaulted hall open on either side, a High Renaissance counterpart of the architectural setting in Bellini's Madonna and Saints in S. Zaccaria.

Because the view is diagonal, open sky and clouds now fill most of the background. Except for the kneeling donors, every figure is in motionturning, leaning, gesturingwhile the officer with the flag seems almost to lead a charge up the steps. Yet the design remains harmoniously self-contained despite the strong element of drama. Brilliant sunlight makes every color and texture sparkle, in keeping with the joyous spirit of the altar.

The only hint of tragedy is the Cross of the Passion held by two angel-putti, hidden by clouds from the participants in the sacra conversazione but not from us, adding a note of poignancy to the scene.
 

Titian
. Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family. 1526.
Sta. Maria del Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
 
 
 
PORTRAITS.

After Raphael's death, Titian became the most sought-after portraitist of the age. His prodigious gifts, evident in the donors' portraits in the Pesaro Madonna, are even more striking in the Man with the Glove
. The dreamy intimacy of this portrait, with its soft outline and deep shadows, still reflects the style of Giorgione. Lost in thought, the young man seems quite unaware of us. This slight melancholy in his features conjures up the poetic appeal of The Tempest. The breadth and power of form, however, go tar beyond Giorgione's. In Titian's hands, the possibilities of oil techniquerich, creamy highlights, deep dark tones that are transparent and delicately modulatednow are fully realized, and the separate brushstrokes, hardly visible before, become increasingly free. We can see the rapid pace of his development by turning from the Man with the Glove to the papal group portrait Pope Paul III and His Grandsons, painted a quarter-century later, whose formal composition is derived from Raphael's Pope Leo X. The quick, slashing strokes here endow the entire canvas with the spontaneity of a first sketch (some parts of it are, in fact, unfinished). In the freer technique Titian's uncanny grasp of human character also comes out. The tiny figure of the pope, shriveled with age, dominates his tall attendants with awesome authority. Comparing these two portraits by Titian, we see that a change of pictorial technique is not a surface phenomenon. It reflects a change of the artist's aim.
 

Titian. Man with the Glove.
с. 1520. Musee du Louvre, Paris
Titian. Pope Paul III and His Grandsons.
1546. Museo di Capodimonte, Naples
 
 
 

Titian. Christ Crowned with Thorns, с 1570.
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
  LATE WORKS.

This correspondence of form and technique, which we have already seen in the Dana'e
, is even clearer in Christ Crowned with Thorns, a masterpiece of Titian's old age.

The shapes emerging from the semidarkness now consist wholly of light and color. Despite the heavy impasto, the shimmering surfaces have lost every trace of material solidity and seem translucent, as if aglow from within.

In consequence, the violent physical action has been miraculously suspended. What lingers in our minds is not the drama but the strange mood of serenity engendered by deep religious feeling.

The painting participates in a widespread visionary tendency that was shared by other late-sixteenth-century Venetian artists. We shall meet it again in the work of Tintoretto and El Greco.
 
 
 
Andrea Sansovino
 
Andrea Sansovino, original name Andrea Contucci (born c. 1467, Monte San Savino, Republic of Florence—died 1529, Monte San Savino), Italian architect and sculptor whose works reflect the transition from early to High Renaissance.
 

Andrea Sansovino. Baptism of Christ
1502-05
Baptistry, Florence
  His earliest great work was the marble Altar of the Sacrament in S. Spirito, Florence, executed for the Corbinelli family between 1485 and 1490; the fineness of detail, high emotional pitch, and lively narrative quality seen in the altar are typical of his early style. After several years in Portugal, according to Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Italian artists, Sansovino was again in Florence in 1502, when he began the marble group of the “Baptism of Christ,” now above the central door of the baptistery. The calm and dignified poses, the strong but controlled emotion, and the generalized beauty of the bodies mark this as one of the first works in the style of the High Renaissance.

In 1505 Sansovino went to Rome and was commissioned by Pope Julius II to execute the almost identical tombs of cardinals Ascanio Sforza and Girolamo Basso della Rovere in Sta. Maria del Popolo. These tombs, completed by 1509, were the most influential of all Sansovino’s innovations, with their adaptation of the triumphal-arch form and the novel sleeping attitude of the deceased cardinals. Sansovino’s last great charge was to supervise both the decoration of the Santa Casa (Holy House of the Virgin) and the construction of several buildings at Loreto. His marble relief of the “Annunciation” on the shrine there is a composition of great richness that still has some of the narrative charm of his very early work.

The influence of Sansovino’s suave and graceful style acted as a counterbalance to Michelangelo’s titanic and muscular sculpture throughout the 16th century. His most important follower was Jacopo Tatti, called Sansovino after his master.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 
 
 
 
Giovanni della Robbia
 
 
Giovanni della Robbia, (born May 19, 1469, Florence [Italy]—died 1529), Florentine sculptor, son of Andrea della Robbia and grandnephew of Luca della Robbia who, upon the death of his father in 1525, assumed control of the family workshop.

Giovanni’s early works, of which the most remarkable are a lavabo in the sacristy of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1497), and medallions in the Loggia di San Paolo (1490–95), were executed in collaboration with or under the strong influence of his father. His most ambitious work is a frieze with representations of the works of mercy on the Ospedale del Ceppo at Pistoia (1525–29), in which he was assisted by his pupils Benedetto Buglioni (1461–1521) and Santi Buglioni (1494–1576).

Giovanni’s younger brother, Girolamo (1488–1566), was trained in Andrea’s studio and collaborated with his father and brother until he moved to France (c. 1527–28), where he was employed on the terra-cotta decoration of the demolished Château de Madrid. After the death of Francis I (1547), Girolamo returned to Florence, but some years later (1559) he resumed his work at the Château de Madrid and at Fontainebleau and was employed on the monuments of Francis II and Catherine de Médicis at Saint-Denis.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

Giovanni della Robbia.
The Nativity
 
 
 
Baldassarre Peruzzi
 
Baldassarre Peruzzi, (born Jan. 15, 1481, Anciano, Republic of Siena [Italy]—died Jan. 6, 1536, Rome), Sienese architect and painter, one of the earliest artists to attempt illusionist architectural painting (quadratura), the extension of real architecture into imaginary space. Peruzzi was a contemporary of Raphael and Donato Bramante.

He began his career as a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni in Siena’s cathedral. His first architectural work was the Villa Farnesina in Rome (1509–21), and he also assisted in the fresco decoration of this palace. On Raphael’s death, in 1520, Peruzzi was appointed one of the architects for St. Peter’s in Rome. Among the many edifices attributed to Peruzzi, the most significant is probably the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne (begun 1532) in Rome.

To meet the challenge of an unusual site, Peruzzi curved the facade to match the road, organizing the design of the structure for its site rather than according to prevailing principles of central focus and vertical linkages between floors. The atrium was designed with reference to ancient Roman houses, as a reminder of the family’s long Roman heritage. Once a year, on March 16, the palace is open to the public as a commemoration of a miracle performed on that date in 1583 by the priest who became Saint Philip Neri.

Encyclopaedia Britannica
 
 

Baldassarre Peruzzi. Villa Farnesina, Rome
 
 
 

Baltassare Peruzzi
Tomb of Pope Hadrian VI
1524-29
Marble
Santa Maria dell'Anima, Rome
 
 
 

Baltassare Peruzzi
Musee, Pan, Amphion et Marsyas
 
 
 

 
 
 
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