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  Late Gothic & Early Renaissance

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Late Gothic & Early Renaissance
 
 
Architecture
 
 
 
Architecture

Filippo Brunelleschi
Michelozzo

Fra Giocondo
Biagio Rossetti
Leon Battista Alberti
Giuliano da Sangallo
Antonio da Sangallo the Elder
Francesco da Sangallo
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger

 
 
 

THE SANGALLO FAMILY


Giuliano da Sangallo (c.1443-1516), his brother Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (c.1453-1534), Francesco da Sangallo, son of Giuliano da Sangallo and their nephew Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1484-1546) were among the most eminent architects of the Florentine Renaissance. Giuliano designed the church of Santa Maria delle Carceri at Prato (1485-92) and the Medici Villa at Poggio a Caiano (from 1480), while his brother created the church and fine palazzi at Monte-pulciano. Although trained in Florence, their nephew was mainly active in Rome, where he designed the Palazzo Farnese which was finished by Michelangelo.

 


Sangallo Family



Outstanding family of Florentine Renaissance architects. Its most prominent members were: Antonio da Sangallo the Elder; his older brother Giuliano da Sangallo; Antonio (Giamberti) da Sangallo the Younger, the nephew of Giuliano and Antonio Sangallo the Elder; and Francesco da Sangallo, the son of Giuliano.

Giuliano da Sangallo (1445?–1516) was an architect, sculptor, and military engineer whose masterpiece, a church of Greek-cross
plan, Sta. Maria delle Carceri in Prato (1485–91), was strongly influenced by Filippo Brunelleschi. It is the purest, most classic expression of that style of 15th-century architecture. Giuliano worked for the powerful Medici family in Florence and built their villa at Poggio a Caiano in 1485. As a military engineer he was effective in the defense of Florence against Naples in 1478. In Rome Giuliano worked on the design of St. Peter's, but he was overshadowed by Bramante. He designed influential facade projects for S. Lorenzo, Florence, in 1515–16.

Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (1455–1535), a military architect in his younger years, is best known for the major work of his life, the pilgrimage church of the Madonna di San Biago at Montepulciano, a tiny but important cultural centre of Tuscany. An ideal central-plan church (i.e., one symmetrical about a central point) of the High Renaissance, it also is a Greek-cross plan built of travertine and designed with three facades; the west tower was never completed, but the east tower stands, and, with the church placed on a peak overlooking the valley, it is a majestic sight.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1483–1546) was the most influential architect of his time. He arrived in Rome when he was about 20 and built a town
house for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in 1513, and when the Cardinal became Pope Paul III, he had Antonio the Younger enlarge it into the most imporant palace in Rome, the Palazzo Farnese (1534–46). A fortress-like, 16th-century Florentine palace, this structure was representative of a type of building on which a code of academic rules was based, exercising an immense influence well into the 19th century. The inner court of the palace is entered through an arch entrance, and the carriageway, lined with Roman Doric order antique granite columns, is a superior design. Antonio borrowed from the ancient Roman architectural motifs from the Colosseum and the Theatre Marcellus, but Michelangelo made changes in them.

Throughout his career, Antonio worked on St. Peter's, first as Bramante's assistant and in 1520 as chief architect. His wooden model of St. Peter's (1539–46), commissioned by Pope Paul III, still stands in the Vatican Museum.

Francesco da Sangallo, known as Il Margotta (1494–1576), the son of Giuliano, was primarily a sculptor whose style was characterized by minute detailing. He sculpted the tomb of Bishop Marzi-Medici (1546) in the church of SS. Annunziata, Florence, as well as the tomb of Bishop Bonofede (1550) in the Certosa di Val d'Ema, near Florence.


Encyclopaedia Britannica
 




GIULIANO DA SANGALLO.

It is no coincidence that Sta. Maria delle Carceri in Prato
, an early and distinguished example of this trend, was begun in 1485, the date of the first printed edition of Alberti's treatise. Its architect, Giuliano da Sangallo (c. 1443-1516), must have been an admirer of Brunelleschi. Many features of the interior and the plan recall the Pazzi Chapel. The basic shape of his structure, however, conforms closely to Alberti's ideal. Except for the dome, the entire church would fit neatly inside a cube, since its height (up to the drum) equals its length and width. By cutting into the corners of this cube, as it were, Giuliano has formed a Greek cross (a plan he preferred for its symbolic value). The arms are barrel-vaulted, and the dome rests on these vaults. Yet the dark ring of the drum does not quite touch the supporting arches, making the dome seem to hover weightlessly, like the pendentive domes of Byzantine architecture. There can be no doubt that Giuliano wanted his dome to accord with the age-old tradition of the Dome of Heaven. The single round opening in the center and the 12 on the perimeter clearly refer to Christ and the apostles. Brunelleschi had anticipated this feature in the Pazzi Chapel, but Giuliano's dome, crowning a perfectly symmetrical structure, conveys its symbolic value far more strikingly.
 


GIULIANO DA SANGALLO. Sta. Maria delle Carceri, Prato. Begun 1485.
Plan of Sta. Maria delle Carceri.
Interior, Sta. Maria delle Carceri



GIULIANO DA SANGALLO. Palazzo Gondi, Florence. Faзade. 1490


 


GIULIANO DA SANGALLO. Villa Medicea. 1480-85. Poggio a Caiano, Prato


 


GIULIANO DA SANGALLO. Villa Medicea. 1480-85. Poggio a Caiano, Prato


 


GIULIANO DA SANGALLO. Tomb of Francesco Sassetti (detail). 1485-90. Pietra serena. Santa Trinita, Florence
 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Elder
 

(b Florence, c. 1460; d Florence, 27 Dec 1534).

Architect, woodworker, sculptor and engineer, brother of Giuliano da Sangallo. The earlier part of his career was overshadowed by that of his brother, with whom he ran a workshop in Florence for nearly 40 years until the latter’s death. Their first known work of collaboration is the Crucifix (1481) for the high altar of SS Annunziata, Florence. This was followed by a model (1482) for the church and monastery of the Badia, Florence, the seating (1487–8) in the refectory of S Pietro, Perugia, and a model (1491) for S Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, Florence. Antonio was also active as a military engineer, occasionally representing his brother on the construction sites of fortifications. The first independent work attributed to him (c. 1490) is the Crucifix for the church of S Gallo (destr.), which is now kept in SS Annunziata, Florence.
 
 


Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. Palazzo Contucci
1518
Montepulciano
 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Elder
Church of San Blagio, Montepulciano
1518-45.

 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. Fortezza Vecchia
1518-34
Livorno

 

 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. In-laid Ceiling
1490s
Wood and gold
Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome

This ceiling was designed by Leon Battista Alberti (1406-72)
and completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (c. 1455-1534)
Santa Maria Maggiore

 


Francesco da Sangallo

 

(b 1 March 1494; d 17 Feb 1576).

Sculptor and architect, son of Giuliano da Sangallo. In 1504 he accompanied his father to Rome, where he was present with his father and Michelangelo in 1506 at the discovery of the Laokoon (now Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino;). This experience had a significant impact on the formation of his style, which was uncharacteristic among Italian 16th-century sculptors because of its physiognomic and textural realism and emotional expressionism. In the 1520s Francesco worked as an assistant to Michelangelo in the New Sacristy, S Lorenzo, Florence, for which he carved the marble friezes of decorative masks on the walls behind the sarcophagi (in situ). His earliest independent and dated work is the marble group of the Virgin and Child with St Anne (1522–6) in Orsanmichele, Florence. His subsequent Florentine works include an undated marble bust of Giovanni de’ Medici (Florence, Bargello), the marble tomb of the Abbess Colomba Ghezzi (commissioned 1540; Florence, Mus. Bardini), the marble funerary monument to Angelo Marzi, Bishop of Assisi (1546; Florence, SS Annunziata) and the marble monument of Paolo Giovio (1560) in the cloister of S Lorenzo (now Florence, Bib. Medicea-Laurenziana). There is also a self-portrait relief (1542) in S Maria Primerana at Fiesole. Francesco also worked in Loreto and Naples, collaborating with Niccolo Tribolo and Domenico Aimo from 1531 to 1533 on a relief of the Death of the Virgin for the Santa Casa, Loreto Cathedral, and with Matteo da Quaranta on the decoration (1546) of the Sanseverini Chapel in SS Severno e Sosio, Naples. As an architect, he worked on the fortifications of Prato and Pistoia in 1528 and at Fucecchio in 1530; after 1529 he served as the Capomaestro Generale of the fortifications of Florence. Around 1542 he was working in St Peter’s, Rome, either as a sculptor or an architect, and in 1543 he succeeded Baccio d’Agnolo as the Capomaestro of Florence Cathedral. He designed a campanile for Santa Croce, Florence, in 1549, but only the first storey was constructed (destr. 1854), and in the 1560s he provided the designs for the monumental altar tabernacles that formed part of Vasari’s renovation of the same church. Around this time he was also one of the founder-members of the Accademia del Disegno in Florence. His last known work is the marble portrait relief of Francesco del Fede (1575; Fiesole, S Maria Primerana). 
 

 


Francesco da Sangallo
.
Shrine of the Holy House

 

 


Francesco da Sangallo
.
Tomb of Bishop Angelo Marzi-Medici
Santissima Annunziata, Florence, Tuscany, Italy
1546


 


Francesco da Sangallo.
Tomb of Giovanni de Castro
Santa Maria del Popolo,
Rome, Lazio, Italy


Francesco da Sangallo.
Tomb of Giovanni de Castro (detail)
Santa Maria del Popolo,
Rome, Lazio, Italy


Francesco da Sangallo.
Tomb of Giovanni de Castro (detail)
Santa Maria del Popolo,
Rome, Lazio, Italy





 


Antonio da Sangallo the Younger

 

(1483–1546)
 

Antonio da Sangallo (real name Antonio Cordiani), Italian architect, member of a family of architects (two brothers and their nephew: his uncles Antonio da Sangallo the Elder and Giuliano da Sangallo were architects). Trained by his uncles, he joined the family design, engineering and sculpture business. In 1503 he accompanied Giuliano to Rome where he remained and enjoyed the patronage of several popes.

He was the most influential architect of his time. He arrived in Rome when he was about 20 and built a town house for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in 1513, and when the Cardinal became Pope Paul III, he had Antonio the Younger enlarge it into the most important palace in Rome, the Palazzo Farnese (1534-46). Sangallo succeeded Raphael as master of works on St. Peter's Basilica in 1520, although his complex plan for its completion was not accepted. At the Vatican he designed the Sala Regia and the Pauline Chapel. The efficient infrastructure of the Sangallo business allowed him to take on commissions for a large number of clients while he continued to devote a large portion of his energies on St. Peter's.

Although Sangallo was often viewed as more of a builder and engineer than an artist, he resisted the "mannerism" with which so many of his contemporaries attempted to emulate Michelangelo. He developed a severe, logical, and weighty style.
 

 



The church of Santa Maria di Loreto near the Trajan's Market in Rome,
considered Sangallo's masterwork.

 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
.
The Sala delle Fatiche d'Ercole
(Hall of the abours of Hercules)  
 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
.
Sto. Spirito in Sassia
c. 1538
 

 


Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
.
Facade of the Farnese Palace
1548


Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French embassy and the Ecole Française de Rome (the French Historical Roman Institute).
First designed in 1517 for the Farnese family, the palace building expanded in size and conception when Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534, to designs by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, its building history involved some of the most prominent Italian architects of the 16th century, including Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Michelangelo, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta.

 
 

 
 
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