Late Gothic & Early Renaissance

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Late Gothic & Early Renaissance

Nanni di Banco
Agostino Di Duccio
Bertoldo di Giovanni
Mino da Fiesole

Desiderio da Settignano
Andrea Bregno
Pietro Lombardo
Antonio Lombardo
Tullio Lombardo
Giovanni Antonio Amadeo
Francesco di Giorgio Martini
Benedetto da Maiano
Luca Della Robbia
Andrea della Robbia

Bernardo Rossellino
Antonio Rossellino
Antonio del Pollaiuolo
Niccolò dell’Arca
Andrea del Verrocchio

Andrea del Verrocchio, (born 1435, Florence [Italy]—died 1488, Venice), 15th-century Florentine sculptor and painter and the teacher of Leonardo da Vinci. His equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, erected in Venice in 1496, is particularly important.

Early life
Little accurate biographical information is known about Verrocchio. He was the son of Michele di Francesco Cioni, a maker of bricks and tiles who later became a tax collector. Financial security always seemed to be a family problem. Verrocchio had to support several of his brothers and sisters. Never marrying, he later provided for the education and dowries of the daughters of his younger brother Tommaso.

Initially he was trained as a goldsmith. His master has traditionally been recorded as a supposed goldsmith, Giuliano Verrocchi, whose last name Andrea apparently took as his own. Another questionable biographical tradition is that of his apprenticeship under Donatello, the greatest Italian sculptor of the early Renaissance. Since the stylistic affinity of Verrocchio’s early sculpture is with the work of Antonio Rossellino rather than Donatello, this liaison seems doubtful.

Verrocchio’s first studies in painting date possibly from the mid-1460s. He is said to have been a pupil of the Florentine artist Alesso Baldovinetti. But it is assumed that he and Sandro Botticelli worked together under the early Renaissance master Fra Filippo Lippi in Prato, a city near Florence, where Lippi had been commissioned to execute a series of murals for the cathedral.

Medici patronage
Verrocchio’s most important works were executed in the last two decades of his life. His rise to artistic prominence, which he owed chiefly to encouragement by Piero de’ Medici and his son Lorenzo, the leading art patrons of Florence, evidently began only after the death, in 1466, of Donatello, who had been the Medici favourite. Besides the paintings and sculptures Verrocchio produced for the Medici, he designed costumes and decorative armour for their festivals, tournaments, and solemn receptions. Made curator of the collection of antiquities in the Medici palace, he restored many pieces of ancient Roman sculpture, especially portrait busts.

It appears that Verrocchio produced few works for patrons outside of Florence. Though he is said to have worked in Rome for Pope Sixtus IV, among others, there is no documentary trace that he ever left the area around Florence until the early 1480s, when he moved to Venice, where he died within a few years. Even while he was in Venice his Florentine workshop was maintained and directed by his favourite student, Lorenzo di Credi. Di Credi was also the administrator and principal heir of Verrocchio’s estate.

Verrocchio’s reputation was widespread in the second half of the 15th century and many well-known artists of the Italian Renaissance studied painting and sculpture at his Florentine studio. The most important of his students were Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino, the latter Raphael’s teacher. The mural painter Domenico Ghirlandaio, Michelangelo’s master, was temporarily in close contact with Verrocchio. Sandro Botticelli, the major Florentine painter of the late 15th century, and Francesco di Giorgio, the important Sienese artist, clearly oriented themselves toward Verrocchio’s art in certain phases of their development, as did the prominent Florentine sculptors Benedetto da Maiano and Andrea Sansovino.

The paintings and sculptures
The only surviving painting that according to documentary proof should be by Verrocchio, an altarpiece of the Madonna and Child with Saints in the Donato de’ Medici Chapel of the cathedral at Pistoia, was not completed by the master himself. Largely executed by his pupil Lorenzo di Credi, its handling is inconsistent with that of the Baptism of Christ (c. 1470–75; Uffizi, Florence), which has been attributed to Verrocchio ever since it was first mentioned in 1550 by the Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasari (1511–74) in his Vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori italiani… (Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters, Sculptors, and Architects…). One of the two angels and part of the distant landscape in the Baptism, however, were certainly painted by his apprentice, the young Leonardo da Vinci. Other paintings ascribed to Verrocchio are the Madonna (Inv. No. 104a) in the Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz of Berlin, the Tobias and the Angel in the National Gallery in London, and the altarpiece in Argiano, with Christ on the Cross between St. Jerome and St. Anthony. After the mid-1470s Verrocchio dedicated himself principally to sculpture, in which he manifested strong personal convictions and an inventive ability.

The sculptural works either recorded to be by Verrocchio or actually extant are few in number. According to his brother Tommaso, Verrocchio was responsible for an inlaid slab (1467) in the Florentine church of San Lorenzo recording the burial place of Cosimo de’ Medici, who died in 1464. In 1468 Verrocchio is known to have executed a bronze candlestick (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam) for the Palazzo della Signoria in Florence. This work was followed by his first major commission, the tomb of Piero and Giovanni de’ Medici in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo. Completed in 1472, this sarcophagus, set in an archway, is impressive for its originality of composition and its inspired use of coloured marble and porphyry in conjunction with rich bronze ornamentation.

Verrocchio’s earliest surviving example of figurative sculpture is a small bronze statue of David (Bargello Museum, Florence), which is generally dated before 1476. A second bronze figure, the Putto with Dolphin, is important in the development of freestanding Renaissance sculpture for its spiral design, which represents a successful effort to evolve a pose in which all views are of equal significance. It was originally commissioned for a fountain in the Medici villa in Careggi, near Florence. The putto, sometimes called a cupid, is precisely balanced in the projection of its limbs and probably was placed initially on a fountain so that it could be turned by the pressure of streams or jets of water. In the mid-16th century it was reinstalled on top of a fountain designed for the courtyard of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (the original is now kept in the Palazzo Vecchio museum; the present fountain figure is a copy).

Verrocchio’s reputation as one of the great relief sculptors of the 15th century was clearly established with his cenotaph, or memorial, in the cathedral at Pistoia, to a Tuscan ecclesiastical dignitary, Niccolò Cardinal Forteguerri. Ordered in 1476, the cenotaph was still unfinished when Verrocchio died, and its completion was entrusted first to Lorenzo di Credi, then to Lorenzetti, and finally to a minor Italian Baroque sculptor. Though its effect has been altered by changes and additions foreign to Verrocchio’s original design, the Forteguerri cenotaph contains some of the artist’s most important relief sculpture. Its scenographic arrangement of the figures into a dramatically unified composition anticipates the theatrical effect of the dynamically composed wall reliefs executed by Baroque sculptors of the 17th century. Another relief dates from 1478/79, when it was decided to extend the silver altar in the baptistery of the cathedral of Florence, and one of the four supplementary scenes was allotted to Verrocchio. Depicting the Beheading of St. John the Baptist (Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence), this work was delivered in 1480. (In 2009 one Leonardo da Vinci scholar suggested that two figures on the altar—the leftmost figure of the youth and the turbaned guard [seen from behind] about to draw his weapon—may have been fashioned by Leonardo.) Dating from about 1477/78 is a terra-cotta relief of the Madonna (Bargello Museum, Florence) coming from the Florentine hospital of Santa Maria Nuova.

In the late 1470s Verrocchio produced two portrait sculptures. A penetrating realism distinguishes his terra-cotta bust of Giuliano de’ Medici (in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.) from the idealization of the individual that characterizes his marble bust known as Lady with Primroses (Bargello Museum, Florence). The latter work created a new type of Renaissance bust, in which the arms of the sitter are included in the manner of ancient Roman models. This compositional device allows the hands, as well as the face, to express the character and mood of the sitter.

Perhaps the most important work Verrocchio executed in Florence was a bronze group of Christ and St. Thomas commissioned for a niche in the east exterior wall of the Or San Michele in Florence. Executed between 1467 and 1483, the work is remarkable for its technical perfection, highly intellectual sense of compositional design, and understanding of the subtle emotional nature of the subject. In 1483 Verrocchio was commissioned by the Venetian government to undertake a second major work in bronze, a commemorative statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, a condottiere, or professional soldier, who had been employed by the Venetian republic. At Verrocchio’s death the model was not yet cast, and the work of casting and chasing, or polishing, was entrusted to the Venetian sculptor Alessandro Leopardi. It was erected in 1496 in the Campo di Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. The movement of the horse and commanding forward gaze of Colleoni gives the impression that the warrior is riding into battle at the head of his troops, who press behind. This innovative scenographic conception was influential in the development of the equestrian figures executed from the Baroque period of the 17th century to those produced in the 19th century by sculptors of the Romantic style. Besides Donatello’s monument to the condottiere Gattamelata (c. 1447–53) at Padua, Verrocchio’s Colleoni monument is aesthetically the most important equestrian statue of the Renaissance. Contrived with great technical assurance and modeled with power and sensitivity, it forms a fitting climax to Verrocchio’s sculptural career.


Günter Passavant

Encyclopædia Britannica


Although Pollaiuolo did two monumental bronze tombs for St. Peter's in Rome during the late years of his career, he never had an opportunity to execute a large-scale free-standing statue. For such works we must turn to his slightly younger contemporary Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), the greatest sculptor of his day and the only one to share some of Donatello s range and ambition. A modeler as well as a carverwe have works of his in marble, terracotta, silver, and bronzehe combined elements from Antonio Rossellino and Antonio del Pollaiuolo into a unique synthesis. He was also a respected painter and the teacher of Leonardo da Vinci, which is unfortunate, as he has been overshadowed ever since.

Putto with Dolphin (fig. 621) owes its popularity to its enduring charm. It was designed as the center of a fountain for one of the Medici villas near Florence: the dolphin is spouting a jet of water, as if responding to the hug it has to endure. The term "putto" (plural, "putti") designates one of the nude, often winged male children who accompany more weighty subjects in ancient art. They personify spirits (such as the spirit of love, in which case we call them cupids), usually in a light-hearted way. They were reintroduced during the Early Renaissance, both in their original identity and as child angels. The dolphin associates Verrocchio's putto with the classical kind. Artistically, however, he is closer to Pollaiuolo's Hercules and Antaeus than to ancient art. despite his larger size and greater sense of volume. Again the forms fly out in every direction from a central axis, but here the movement is graceful and continuous rather than jagged and broken. The stretched-out leg, the dolphin, and the arms and wings fit into an upward spiral, making the figure seem to revolve before our eyes.

Andrea del Verrocchio. Putto with Dolphin. c.
1470. Bronze, height 27" (68.8 cm). Palazzo Vecchio, Florence

By a strange coincidence, the crowning achievement of Verrocchio's career, as of Donatello's, was a bronze equestrian statue: the monument of a Venetian army commander, Bartolommeo Colleoni. In his will, Colleoni had requested such a statue and, by way of encouragement, had left a sizable fortune to the Republic of Venice. He obviously knew the Gattamelata monument and wanted to ensure the same honor for himself. Verrocchio, too, must have regarded Donatello's work as the prototype of his own statue, yet he did not simply imitate his illustrious model. He reinterpreted the theme less subtly perhaps, but no less impressively. The horse, graceful and spirited rather than robust and placid, is modeled with the same sense of anatomy-in-action that we saw in the nudes of Pollaiuolo. Its thin hide reveals every vein, muscle, and sinew, in strong contrast with the rigid surfaces of the armored figure bestriding it. Since the horse is also smaller in relation to the rider than Gattamelata's, Colleoni looms in the saddle like the very embodiment of forceful dominance. Legs rigidly straight, one shoulder thrust forward, he surveys the scene before him with the utter concentration of Donatello's St. George, but his lip is now contemptuously curled.

Neither Gattamelata nor Colleoni is a portrait in the specific sense of the term. Both project an idealization of the personality that each artist associated with successful leadership in war. If Gattamelata conveys steadfast purpose and nobility of character, Colleoni radiates an almost frightening sense of power. As an image of awesome self-assurance, it recalls the Can Grande rather than the Gattamelata monument. Perhaps Verrocchio visited the tomb of the Can Grande (who was well remembered in Florence as the patron of Dante) and decided to translate the wonderful arrogance of the statue into the style of his own day. In any case, Colleoni got a great deal more than he had bargained for in his will.

Andrea del Verrocchio. Equestrian Monument of Colleoni.
с. 1483-88. Bronze, height 13' (3.9 m).
Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice


Andrea del Verrocchio. Christ and Doubting Thomas
Bronze, height: 230 cm
Orsanmichele, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Giuliano de' Medici
Terra cotta, height 61 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Lorenzo de Medici
Painted terracotta
National Gallery of Art, Washington

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Piero de' Medici
Terracotta, height 56 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Portrait of a Woman
Marble, height: 61 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Young Warrior
c. 1470
Terracotta, height 52 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
The Young David
Bronze, height 125 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
The Young David (details)
Bronze, height 125 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Ideal Portrait of Alexander the Great
Marble, 43 x 33 cm
Private collection

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Beheading of St John the Baptist (detail of the altar)
Baptistry, Florence

Andrea del Verrocchio.
Resurrection of Christ
c. 1463
Painted terracotta
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence


Tobias and the Angel
Egg tempera on poplar
National Gallery, London

Madonna and child

Madonna and child

Saint Monica
S. Spirito, Florence

The Baptism of Christ
Oil on wood, 177 x 151 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus
Wood, 189 x 191 cm
Duomo, Pistoia