Late Gothic & Early Renaissance

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Late Gothic & Early Renaissance

Nanni di Banco
Agostino Di Duccio
Bertoldo di Giovanni
Mino da Fiesole

Desiderio da Settignano
Andrea Bregno
Pietro Lombardo
Antonio Lombardo
Tullio Lombardo
Giovanni Antonio Amadeo
Francesco di Giorgio Martini
Benedetto da Maiano
Luca Della Robbia
Andrea della Robbia

Bernardo Rossellino
Antonio Rossellino
Antonio del Pollaiuolo
Niccolò dell’Arca
Andrea del Verrocchio
Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Francesco di Giorgio, in full Francesco Maurizio di Giorgio Martini, or di Martino, (baptized Sept. 23, 1439, Siena, republic of Siena [Italy]—d. 1502, Siena), early Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, and designer.

Remarkably versatile, a kind of Renaissance homo universale, Francesco combined the bold investigation of the humanist scholars with the conservative lyricism of the Sienese school. His early works were manuscript illuminations, furniture panels, and two monumental altarpieces: the “Coronation of the Virgin” (1471) and “The Nativity” (1475). “The Nativity” shows that Francesco was greatly influenced by Florentine artists of the period, especially Andrea del Verrocchio.

Francesco is remembered chiefly as an architect and an architectural theorist. He translated Vitruvius and wrote an original work on architecture, Trattato di architettura civile e militare, which discusses city planning and military architecture, anticipating some of the architectural theories of the high Renaissance. By 1477 he was in the service of Duke Federico da Montefeltro, in Urbino, where he may have participated in the design and decoration of parts of the palace of Urbino, and built 136 military fortresses. His architectural masterpiece is Santa Maria del Calcinaio, Cortona (commissioned 1484), which, however, is now greatly altered. As a sculptor he is best known for four bronze figures for the high altar of Siena Cathedral (1489–97) and for a series of bronze reliefs showing Verrocchio’s influence. (They have also been attributed to the young Leonardo da Vinci.) He also designed fortifications, battle machinery, and weapons and is thought to have originated the land mine.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. St John the Baptist. 1464. Polychromed wood, height 181 cm.
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena
Francesco di Giorgio Martini. St Christopher. c. 1494. Polychromed wood, height 163 cm.
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Deposition from the Cross
c. 1477
Bronze, 86 x 75 cm
Santa Maria del Carmine, Venice


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Allegory of Discord
Stucco relief, 50 x 67 cm
Victoria and Albert Museum, London


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. The Flagellation of Christ
c. 1480
Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria, Perugia


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Mythological Scene
c. 1480
Stucco, 50 x 70 cm
Chigi Saracini Collection, Siena


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. St Jerome in the Desert
c. 1485
Bronze, 55 x 37 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington


Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Angels
Bronze, height 124 cm
Duomo, Siena