Jean-François Millet, (born
October 4, 1814, Gruchy, near Gréville, France—died January
20, 1875, Barbizon), French painter renowned for his peasant
Millet spent his youth
working on the land, but by the age of 19 he was studying
art in Cherbourg. In 1837 he arrived in Paris and eventually
enrolled in the studio of Paul Delaroche, where he seems to
have remained until 1839.
After the rejection of one
of his entries for the Salon of 1840, Millet returned to
Cherbourg, where he remained during most of 1841, painting
portraits. He achieved his first success in 1844 with The
Milkmaid and a large pastel, The Riding Lesson, that has a
sensual character typical of a large part of his production
during the 1840s.
The peasant subjects, which
from the early 1850s were to be Millet’s principal concern,
made their first important appearance at the Salon of 1848
with The Winnower, later destroyed by fire. In 1849, after a
period of great hardship, Millet left Paris to settle in
Barbizon, a small hamlet in the forest of Fontainebleau. He
continued to exhibit paintings of peasants, and, as a
result, periodically faced the charge of being a socialist.
Letters of the period defending Millet’s position underline
the fundamentally classical nature of his approach to
By the mid-1860s, Millet’s
work was beginning to be in demand; official recognition
came in 1868, after nine major paintings had been shown at
the exposition of 1867. Important collections of Millet’s
pictures are to be found in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,
and in the Louvre.