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  Michelangelo Buonarroti

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Michelangelo Buonarroti
 
 
 
 
V

As soon as the ceiling was finished, Michelangelo reverted to his preferred task, the tomb of Pope Julius. In about 1513–15 he carved the “Moses,” which may be regarded as the realization in sculpture of the approach to great figures used for the prophets on the Sistine ceiling. The control of cubic density in stone evokes great reserves of strength; there is richer surface detail and modeling than before, with bulging projections sharply cut. The surface textures also have more variety than the earlier sculptures, the artist by now having found how to enrich detail without sacrificing massiveness. Of about the same date are two sculptures of bound prisoners or slaves, also part of the tomb project but never used for it, since in a subsequent revised design they were of the wrong scale. Michelangelo kept them until old age, when he gave them to a family that had helped him during an illness; they are now in the Louvre. Here again he realized in stone types painted in many variants on the ceiling, such as the pairs of nudes that hold wreaths above the prophets' thrones. The complexity of their stances, expressive of strong feeling, was unprecedented in monumental marble sculpture of the Renaissance. The only earlier works of this nature were from the Hellenistic period of classical antiquity, well known to Michelangelo through the discovery of the Laocoon group in 1506. The old man and his two adolescent sons forming that group certainly stimulated the three statues by Michelangelo as well as the related figures on the ceiling. Yet the first of the ceiling figures in 1508 were not so affected; Michelangelo utilized the Hellenistic twists and complications only when he was ready for them, and he had been moving in this direction even before the Laocoon was found, as is evident in the case of the “St. Matthew” of 1505.

Julius II's death in 1513 cut off most of the funds for his tomb. Pope Leo X, his successor, a son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, had known Michelangelo since their boyhoods. He chiefly employed Michelangelo in Florence on projects linked to the glory of the Medici family rather than of the papacy. The city was under the rule of Leo's cousin Cardinal de' Medici, who was to be Pope Clement VII from 1523 to 1534, and Michelangelo worked with him closely in both reigns. The Cardinal took an active interest in Michelangelo's works. He made detailed suggestions, but he also gave the artist much room for decision. Michelangelo was moving into architectural design with a small remodeling project at the Medici mansion and a large one at their parish church, San Lorenzo. He approached such work with enthusiasm, caused no doubt by the large scale and the involvement with masses of stone to be manipulated expressively. The larger project never materialized, but Michelangelo and the Cardinal did better with a more modest related one, the new chapel attached to the same church for tombs of the Medici family.

 

Tomb of Pope Julius II



Tomb of Julius II
1545
Marble
S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome


 

Moses
1515
Marble, height 235 cm
S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome




Moses (detail)
1515
Marble
S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome




Rachel
1545
Marble
S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome




Leah
1545
Marble
S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome




Slave (dying)
c. 1513
Marble, height 229 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Slave (Atlas)
1519-36
Marble, height 208 cm
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence




Slave (bearded)
1519-36
Marble, height 248 cm
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence




Slave (awakening)
1519-36
Marble, height 267 cm
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence




Slave (young)
1519-36
Marble, height 235 cm
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence




Slave (rebelling)
c. 1513
Marble, height 229 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris

 
 
 
 
 
VI

The Medici Chapel

The immediate occasion for the chapel was the deaths of the two young family heirs, named Giuliano and Lorenzo after their forebears, in 1516 and 1519. Michelangelo gave his chief attention up to 1527 to the marble interior of this chapel, to both the very original wall design and the carved figures on the tombs; the latter are an extension in organic form of the dynamic shapes of the wall details. The result is the fullest existing presentation of Michelangelo's intentions. Windows, cornices, and the like have strange proportions and thicknesses, suggesting an irrational, willful revision of traditional classical forms in buildings.

Abutting these active surfaces, the two tombs on opposite walls of the room are also very original, starting with their curved tops. A male and a female figure sit on each of these curved bases; these are allegories symbolizing on one tomb day and night, according to the artist's own statement, and dawn and dusk on the other, according to early reports. Such personifications had never appeared on tombs before, and they refer, again according to Michelangelo, to the inevitable movement of time, which is circular and leads to death.

The figures are among the artist's most famous and accomplished creations. The immensely massive figures of “Day” and “Dusk” are relatively tranquil in their mountainous grandeur, though “Day” perhaps implies inner fires. Both female figures have the tall, slim proportions and small feet considered beautiful at the time, but otherwise they form a contrast: “Dawn,” a virginal figure, strains upward along her curve as if trying to emerge into life; “Night” is asleep, but in a posture suggesting stressful dreams.

These four figures are naturally noticed more immediately than the effigies of the two Medici buried there, placed higher and farther back in wall niches. These effigies, more usual in execution, also form a contrast; they are traditionally described as active and thoughtful, respectively. Rendered as standard types of young soldiers, they were at once perceived not as portraits but as idealized superior beings, both because of their high rank and because they are souls beyond the grave. Both turn to the same side of the room. It has naturally been thought that they focus on the “Madonna,” which Michelangelo carved and which is at the centre of this side wall, between two saints. The heads of the two effigies, however, are turned in differing degrees, and their common focus is at a corner of the chapel, at the entrance door from the church. On this third wall with the “Madonna” the architectural treatment was never executed.

During the same years Michelangelo designed another annex to the same church, the Laurentian Library, required toreceive the books bequeathed by Pope Leo; it was traditionalin Florence and elsewhere that libraries were housed in convents. The design for this one was constrained by the existing buildings, and it was built on top of older structures. A small available area on the second floor was used as an entrance lobby and contains a staircase leading up to the larger library room on a new third floor. The stair hall, known as the ricetto, contains Michelangelo's most famous and original wall designs. The bold and free rearrangement of traditional building components goes still further, for instance, to place columns recessed behind a wall plane rather than in front of it as is usual. This has led to the work's being cited frequently as the first and a chief instance of Mannerism as an architectural style, when it is defined as a work that intentionally contradicts the classical and the harmonious, favouring expressiveness and originality, or as one that emphasizes the factors of style for their own sake. By contrast the long library room is far more restrained, with traditional rows of desks neatly related to the rhythm of the windows and small decorative detail in the floor and ceiling. It recalls that Michelangelo was not invariably heavy and bold but modified his approach in relation to the particular case, here to a gentler, quiet effect. For that very reason it has often been less noticed in the study of his work. At the opposite end of the long room, across from the stairway, another door led to a space intended to hold the library's rarest treasures. It was to be a triangular room, a climax of the long corridor-like approach, but this part was never executed on the artist's plan.

The sack of Rome in 1527 saw Pope Clement ignominiously in flight, and Florence revolted against the Medici, restoring the traditional republic. It was soon besieged and defeated, and Medici rule permanently reinstalled, in 1530. During the siege Michelangelo was the designer of fortifications. He showed understanding of modern defensive structures built quickly of simple materials in complex profiles that offered minimum vulnerability to attackers and maximum resistance to cannon and other artillery. This new weapon, which had come into use in the middle of the 14th century, had given greater power to the offense in war. Thus, instead of the tall castles that had served well for defensive purposes in the Middle Ages, lower and thicker masses were more practical. The projecting points, which also assisted counterattack, were often of irregular sizes in adaptation to specific hilly sites. Michelangelo's drawings with rapid lively execution reflecting this flexible new pattern have been much admired, often in terms of pure form.

When the Medici returned in 1530, Michelangelo returned to work on their family tombs. His political commitment probably was more to his city as such than to any specific governmental form. Two separate projects of statues of this date are the “Apollo” or “David” (its identity is problematic), used as a gift to a newly powerful political figure, and the “Victory,” a figure trampling on a defeated enemy, an old man. It was probably meant for the never forgotten tomb of Pope Julius because the motif had been present in the plans for the Julius tomb. Victor and loser both have intensely complicated poses; the loser seems packed in a block, the victor—like the “Apollo”—forms a lithe spiral. The “Victory” group became a favourite model for younger sculptors of the Mannerist group, who applied the formula to many allegorical subjects.

In 1534 Michelangelo left Florence for the last time, though the always hoped to return to finish the projects he had left incomplete. He passed the rest of his life in Rome, working on projects in some cases equally grand but in most cases of quite new kinds. From this time on a large number of his letters to his family in Florence were preserved; many of them concentrated on plans for his nephew's marriage, essential to preserve the family name. Michelangelo's father had died in 1531 and his favourite brother at about the same time; he himself showed increasing anxiety about his age and death. It was just at this time that the nearly 60-year-old artist wrote letters expressing strong feelings of attachment to young men, chiefly to the talented aristocrat Tommaso Cavalieri, later active in Roman civic affairs. These have naturally been interpreted as indications that Michelangelo was a homosexual, but such a reaction according to the artist's own statement would be that of the ignorant. The idea seems even less likely when one considers that no similar indications had emerged when the artist was younger. The correlation of these letters with other new events seems consistent instead with the view that he was seeking a surrogate son, choosing for the purpose a younger man who was admirable in every way and would welcome the role.

Michelangelo's poetry is also preserved in quantity from this time. He apparently began writing short poems in a way common among nonprofessionals in the period, as an elegant kind of letter, but developed in a more original and expressive way. Among some 300 preserved poems, not including fragments of a line or two, there are about 75 finished sonnets and about 95 finished madrigals, poems of about the same length as sonnets but of a looser formal structure. In English-speaking countries people tend to speak of “Michelangelo's sonnets,” as though all of his poems were written in that form, partly because the sonnets were widely circulated in English translations from the Victorian period, partly because the madrigal is unfamiliar in English poetry. (It is not the type of song well known in Elizabethan music, but a poem with irregular rhyme scheme, line length, and number of lines.) Yet the fact that Michelangelo left a large number of sonnets but only very few madrigals unfinished suggests that he preferred the latter form. Those written up to about 1545 have themes based on the tradition of Petrarch's love poems and a philosophy based on the Neoplatonism that Michelangelo had absorbed as a boy at Lorenzo the Magnificent's court. They give expression to the theme that love helps human beings in their difficult effort to ascend to the divine.

In 1534 Michelangelo returned after a quarter century to fresco painting, executing for the new pope, Paul III, the huge “Last Judgment” for the end wall of the Sistine Chapel. This theme had been a favoured one for large end walls of churches in Italy in the Middle Ages and up to about 1500, but thereafter it had gone out of fashion. It is often suggested that this renewal of a devout tradition came from the same impulses that were then leading to the Counter-Reformationunder the aegis of Paul III. The work is in a painting style noticeably different from that of 25 years earlier. The pervasive colour harmony is a simple one of brown bodies against dark blue sky. The figures have less energy and their forms are less articulate, the torsos tending to be single fleshy masses without waistlines. At the top centre Christ as judge lifts an arm to save those on his right and drops the other arm to damn those on his left, suggesting in the idiom of the period a scale to weigh men in the balance. The saved souls rise slowly through the heavy air, as the damned ones sink. At the bottom of the wall skeletons rise from tombs, a motif taken directly from medieval precedents. To the right Charon ferries souls across the River Styx, a pagan motif which Dante had made acceptable to Christians in his Divine Comedy and which had been introduced into painting about 1500 by the Umbrian artist Signorelli. Michelangelo admired this artist for his skill in expressing dramatic feeling through anatomical exactitude.

Tomb of the Medicis


View of the Medici Chapel
1526-33
Marble
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence



Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici
1526-33
Marble, 630 x 420 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence



Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail)
1526-33
Marble
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence




Night
1526-33
Marble, length: 194 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence




Day
1526-33
Marble, length: 185 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence





Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici
1524-31
Marble, 630 x 420 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence



Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail)
1524-31
Marble
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence



Twilight
1524-31
Marble, length: 195 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence



Dawn
1524-31
Marble, length: 203 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence

 
 
 
 
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