TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  History of photography

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History of photography
 
 
 
Man Ray  1 - 2
 

Man Ray, original name Emmanuel Radnitzky (born August 27, 1890, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.—died November 18, 1976, Paris, France), photographer, painter, and filmmaker who was the only American to play a major role in both the Dada and Surrealist movements.

Man Ray: Landscape (Paysage Fauve) [Credit: Photograph by pohick2. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., gift of the Man Ray Trust, 1990.47]The son of Jewish immigrants—his father was a tailor and his mother a seamstress—Radnitzky grew up in New York City, where he studied architecture, engineering, and art, and became a painter. As early as 1911, he took up the pseudonym of Man Ray. As a young man, he was a regular visitor to Alfred Stieglitz’s “291” gallery, where he was exposed to current art trends and earned an early appreciation for photography. In 1915 Man Ray met the French artist Marcel Duchamp, and together they collaborated on many inventions and formed the New York group of Dada artists. Like Duchamp, Man Ray began to produce ready-mades, commercially manufactured objects that he designated as works of art. Among his best-known ready-mades is The Gift (1921), a flatiron with a row of tacks glued to the bottom.

In 1921 Man Ray moved to Paris and became associated with the Parisian Dada and Surrealist circles of artists and writers. Inspired by the liberation promoted by these groups, he experimented with many media. His experiments with photography included rediscovering how to make “cameraless” pictures, or photograms, which he called rayographs. He made them by placing objects directly on light-sensitive paper, which he exposed to light and developed. In 1922 a book of his collected rayographs, Les Champs délicieux (“The Delightful Fields”), was published, with an introduction by the influential Dada artist Tristan Tzara, who admired the enigmatic quality of Man Ray’s images. In 1929, with his lover, photographer and model Lee Miller, Man Ray also experimented with the technique called solarization, which renders part of a photographic image negative and part positive by exposing a print or negative to a flash of light during development. He and Miller were among the first artists to use the process, known since the 1840s, for aesthetic purposes.

Man Ray: Le Violon d’Ingres [Credit: Facundo Arrizabalaga—EPA/Alamy]Man Ray also pursued fashion and portrait photography and made a virtually complete photographic record of the celebrities of Parisian cultural life during the 1920s and ’30s. Many of his photographs were published in magazines such as Harper’s Bazaar, Vu, and Vogue. He continued his experiments with photography through the genre of portraiture; for example, he gave one sitter three pairs of eyes, and in Le Violon d’Ingres (1924) he photographically superimposed sound holes, or f holes, onto the photograph of the back of a female nude, making the woman’s body resemble that of a violin. He also continued to produce ready-mades. One, a metronome with a photograph of an eye fixed to the pendulum, was called Object to Be Destroyed (1923)—which it was by anti-Dada rioters in 1957.

Man Ray also made films. In one short film, Le Retour à la raison (1923; Return to Reason), he applied the rayograph technique to motion-picture film, making patterns with salt, pepper, tacks, and pins. His other films include Anémic cinéma (1926; in collaboration with Duchamp) and L’Étoile de mer (1928–29; “Star of the Sea”), which is considered a Surrealist classic.

In 1940 Man Ray escaped the German occupation of Paris by moving to Los Angeles. Returning to Paris in 1946, he continued to paint and experiment until his death. His autobiography, Self-Portrait, was published in 1963 (reprinted 1999).

 
 
 

Self-Portrait


Self-Portrait Assemblage
1916





Marcel Duchamp
1919


Woman Smoking a Cigarette
1920


Rrose Selavy


Cift
1921


Berenice Abbott


Self-Portrait with Chess Set


Man Ray with Pipe
1921


Jean Cocteau


The Marquise Casati
1922


Marcel Proust on His Deathbed


Filmstrips with Kiki


Untitled Rayograph: From the Portfolio "Les Champs Délicieux"


Untitled Rayograph: From the Portfolio "Les Champs Délicieux"


Untitled Rayograph: From the Portfolio "Les Champs Délicieux"
1922


Rayograph
1922


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927




Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Rayographs
1922-1927


Net and Shavings
1924


Gun with Alphabet Stencils

 
 
 


Gertrude Stein and Jo Davidson with Portrait Sculpture


Light Patterns
1927


Snakeskin


Scissors and Cut Paper


Rose Rolando
1928


Florence Meyer
1929





Tears
1930


Admiration of the Orchestrelle for the Cinematograph


Calla Lilies


Untitled


Cuisine (Kitchen): From the Portfolio Electricite
1931





Portrait of Salvador Dali


Salvador Dali


Palais


Profile and Hands
1932


Self-Portrait with Camera
1932






Still Life


Still Life for Book Cover



Mathematical Object
1934


Pablo Picasso
1934


The Marquise Casati

 
 
 


Joan Miró
1936


Juliet with Headdress
1940





Sculpture and Clothesline


Shipwreck on Malibu Beach


Pony Express Museum, Arcadia, CA


Monument to Niépce
1937

Dolores del Rio


Self-Portrait in Graham Hollywood Car
1941


Broken Chair with Stump and Ballet Shoes


Juliet with Vines
1942


Fly and Landscape


Le monde (The World): From the Portfolio "Electricité"


Breeze (Le Souffle) from Electricité
1931


Mathematical Object



Still life for Nusch
1939


La Ville: From the Portfolio Electricité


Eiffel Tower at Night


Dead Leaf



Ruth, Roses, and Revolvers

 
 
 


Georges Braque


Self-Portrait in Hollywood Studio
1944


Self-Portrait


Erotique voilee




Untitled Rayograph (Airplane)


Masks
1946


Hibiscus Blossom
1946


Self-Portrait with Beret
1946



Gift
1958


Indestructible Object


Indestructible Object (or Object to Be Destroyed)
1964


Butterflies



Barbette Applying Makeup
1926




Belle Haleine



Tsuguhara Foujita



Joseph Stella and Marcel Duchamp





Anxiety





Yves Tanguy



Augustabernard Gown
1936






Enough Rope
1944




Optical Exercise I

 
 
 

 
 
 
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