Impressionism Timeline  
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
Impressionism Timeline
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
Camille Pissarro
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
Max Liebermann
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
Charles Angrand
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
Soldiers and Exiles

Political events — the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, the proclamation of the Third Republic and the Siege of Paris - greatly affect the lives of the artists.
Manet, Degas and Renoir enlist; Bazille is killed in action, aged 29; and Monet and Pissarro flee to England, where they meet the Parisian dealer Paul Durand-Ruel.

Fantin-Latour paints A Studio in the Batignolles Quarter depicting most of the Batignolles group whose meetings at the Cafe Guerbois contributed to the birth of Impressionism. It was exhibited at the Salon in April.

Durand-Ruel establishes himself in an inferior gallery in the rue Lafayette. He later describes the move as 'the greatest mistake I ever made'.

A Studio in the Batignolles

The portraits in this work were painted during individual sittings in Manet's studio, and are of: (from the left) Scholderer, Manet, Renoir, Astruc (seated), Zola, Maitre, Bazille and Monet.
Monet and Renoir work, in shared poverty, at Bougival.

18th Manet exhibits The Philosopher and watercolours at the Cercle de l'Union Artistique in the Place Vendome.

23rd Manet has a duel with Edmond Duranty at the Cafe Guerbois over an insulting remark made by the critic.
Duranty is injured, but they make it up almost immediately.

Manet virtually repaints Morisot's portrait of her mother and sister, which she is planning to send to the Salon. She is furious, and very reluctant to exhibit the painting, but eventually relents.

Bazille paints a picture of his friends in his studio - to which Manet later adds a portrait of the artist.

The Artist's Studio

Bazille was sharing a studio with Renoir at 9 rue de la Condamine when he painted this work. Shown are: Edmond Maitre, at the piano; Manet, looking at the easel; Monet, behind him, smoking a pipe; Zola, on the stairs; and Renoir, sitting on a table. Manet later added the tall figure of Bazille.
20th A number of progressive artists put forward a list for the Salon jury as an alternative to the one drawn up by the conservative majority.
Manet and Millet are included in the alternative list of candidates, but are not selected for the jury.
Renoir and Bazille share rooms at 8 rue des Beaux-Arts.
Monet works in Trouville and Le Havre.

3rd Opening of the Salon.

Among the works hung are Bazille's Summer Scene; Degas' Madame Camus in Red; Manet's The Music Lesson and Portrait of Eva Gonzales; Morisot's The Mother and Sister of the Artist and Young Woman at a Window; Pissarro's Autumn, plus another landscape by him; Renoir's Bather with a Griffon and A Woman of Algeria; and two views of the Canal St-Martin by Sisley.

The Mother and Sister of the Artist

Painted lor the Salon of 1870 and retouched by Manet against Morisot's wishes, this portrait shows Mmc Morisot reading to her daughter, Edma. The latter had recently married Adolphe Pontillon, a naval officer, and had come home to have her first child. Edma's pregnancy is not highlighted, but her reflective air and accented resemblance to her mother suggest that Morisot regarded the work as an intimate family document.

A Woman of Algeria

Inspired by Delacroix, who visited Algiers and painted a large number of pictures with Algerian motifs, Renoir produced a few paintings in an 'Orientalist5 style, although not travelling to Algeria himself until 1881. When exhibited at the Salon of 1870, the work received favourable notice from the critics. The model was Lise Trehot, this being one of the last paintings in which she posed for Renoir.
12th Degas has a letter published in Paris-Journal calling for a better hanging of the Salon. He suggests there should be only two rows of pictures, with a space of about 30cm (12in) between each picture; oil paintings and drawings should not be separated; and each exhibitor should have the right to withdraw his work after a certain period.

18th Cezanne is a witness at Zola's wedding.


28th Monet marries Camille Doncieux in Paris.

Greiner, Camille Monet, 1871

Manet stays at St-Germain-en-Laye with his friend the Italian painter Giuseppe de Nittis.


10th Following France's declaration of war against Prussia, Renoir is called up and posted to Bordeaux with the 10th Cavalry Division. Bazille enlists in the 1st Zouave Regiment.

On the Beach, Trouville

Monet was working in Trouville when the Franco-Prussian war broke out. A number of the paintings from this period reveal the extent to which, both in subject matter and treatment, he was moving towards the ideals of Impressionsim. Notable in this sketch is the way he juxtaposes light and dark tones to emphasize the value of each. The figure on the left is that of his wife, Camille.

The siege of Paris begins. Degas enlists in the National Guard and is posted with the artillery, although he is 'virtually blind in one eye'.
Manet's sends his family to Oloron-Ste-Marie in the Pyrenees, shuts up his studio, and sends thirteen of his paintings to Duret.
Mary Cassatt returns to the USA.
Monet moves to London, staying first at 11 Arundel Street, Piccadilly, then at 1 Bath Place, Kensington.
Cezanne takes refuge from conscription in L'Estaque, where he is visited by Zola.
Durand-Ruel moves to London with an extensive collection of pictures, some committed to him for safe-keeping. He takes a house for his family in Brompton Crescent and rents the unfortunately named 'German Gallery' at 168 New Bond Street.
Pissarro and his family go to stay with his friend Ludovic Piette in Brittany.
Sisley, according to one account stays in Louveciennes, according to another in Bougival. He also spends some time in Paris - where his father dies, leaving him nothing.


Louveciennes: The Road to Versailles

Degas is posted to the fortifications of Paris, north of the Bois de Vincennes, where his commanding officer is Henri Rouart, a friend from school days who is an industrialist and amateur painter. (Rouart would later become an ardent patron of the Impressionists.)

Daubigny introduces Monet to Durand-Ruel in London.
Pissarro's daughter, born in October, dies.

11th Manet enlists as a lieutenant in the National Guard.

28th Bazille is killed, aged 29, in a minor skirmish at Beaune-la-Rolonde in Burgundy.

Pissarro and his family move to London, living at 2 Chatham Terrace, Palace Road, Norwood. He meets Durand-Ruel.
7th Manet is transferred to staff headquarters, where he is in company with Meissonier and other painters.

10th Zola leaves Paris for Marseilles. He then goes to Bordeaux, where the government is situated, and is employed as secretary to a politician. Durand-Ruel's gallery in New Bond Street holds the first exhibition of the Society of French Artists (devised by Durand-Ruel largely for public relations purposes), under the patronage of Corot, Courbet, Millet, Diaz de la Pefia, Daubigny and Dupre.

The 144 works on show are mostly by earlier Romantic painters and members of the Barbizon School, but there are also two views of Sydenham and Norwood by Pissarro (which Durand-Ruel buys) and Monet's Entrance to Trouville Harbour, which the artist had brought with him from France.


The Hotel des Roches-Noires

The Hotel des Roches-Noires so called because of the seaweed-covered rocks in the area -was the most sumptuous in Trouville, with 150 rooms, indoor bathing facilities and a concert hall. To emphasize its cosmopolitan flavour, Monet painted the American, French and British flags fluttering in front of it.
During the siege of Paris Manet wrote regularly to his wife, Suzanne, at Oloron-Ste-Marie, the letters being delivered by the famous balloon post that kept the capital in touch with the rest of the country.

September 30th
It's a long time since I heard fromyou. Some of my letters should have reached you by the balloons that left Paris. I think there's one having tomorrow or the day after. The Prussians seem to be regretting their decision to besiege Paris. They must have thought it easier than it is. It's true that we can't have milk with our coffee any more; the butchers are only open three days a week, people queue up outside from four in the morning, and there's nothing left for the latecomers. We eat meat only once a day, and I believe all sensible Parisians must be doing the same.
I've seen the Monsot ladies recently, who are probably going to leave Passy, which is likely to be bombarded. Paris nowadays is a huge camp.

From jive in the morning until evening, the Militia and the National Guards who are not on duty do drill, and are turning into real soldiers.
Otherwise life is very boring in the evenings - all the cafe-restaurants are closed after ten, and one just has to go to bed.

An etching by Manet (1870-71) of a queue outside
a butcher's shop.

October 23rd

The weather is terrible today, my dear Suzanne. It's impossible to set foot outside, particularly since my foot is only just getting better and I can only wear very light shoes. You must have seen from the papers that the Pans army made a concerted attack on the enemy positions on Friday. The fighting went on all day and I believe the Prussians sustained great losses... We're having enough of being boxed in here without any outside contacts. A smallpox outbreak is spreading, and at the moment we're down to 75 grams of meat per person, while milk is only available to the children and the sick.


The dispatch of the balloon which
carried post out of Paris to unoccupied France.
  November 23rd
Marie's big cat has been killed, and we suspect somebody in the house; it was for a meal, of course, and Marie was in tears!

She's taking very good care of us. One doesn't feel like seeing anyone, it's always the same conversations; the evenings go very slowly; the Cafe Guerbois is my only distraction, and that's become pretty monotonous.

I think of you all the time and have filled the bedroom with your portraits. Tell mother not to worry and to make the most of the good weather.

We're having torrential rain here and I'm revelling in your woollen socks, which come in very handy because we're up to our ankles in mud on the fortifications.

To Eva Gonzales:

November 19th
For the past two months I've had no news from my poor Suzanne, who must be very anxious, though I write to her frequently. We're all soldiers here. Degas and I are in the artillery as volunteer gunners. I'm looking forward to having you paint my portrait in my huge gunner's greatcoat when you're back. Tissot covered himself in glory in the action at La Gonchere. My brothers and Guillemet are in the National Guard battle units, and are waiting to go into action. My paintbox and easel are stuffed into my knapsack, so there's no excuse for wasting my time, and I am going to take advantage of the facilities available.

A lot of cowards have left here, including our friend Łola, Fantin, etc. I don't think they'll be very well received when they return. We're beginning to feel the pinch here; horse meat is a delicacy, donkey is exorbitantly expensive; there are butchers' shops for dogs, cats and rats. Pans is deathly sad. When will it all end?

A view of the fort of Montrouge during the siege of Paris.