TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Impressionism Timeline  
     
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  
     
 

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Impressionism Timeline
 
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
 
 
Camille Pissarro
(1830-1903)
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
       
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin
(1841-1927)

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
(1846-84)
       
Max Liebermann
(1847-1935)
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
(1853-90)
       
Charles Angrand
(1854-1926)
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 
(1859-1935)

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
       
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
       
 
 
 
 
1894
 
 
The Caillebotte Bequest
 
 
The year is dominated by negotiations over the Caillebotte bequest -which, in retrospect, can be seen as the final acceptance of the status of Impressionism in France. That most of the main figures of the movement are now financially secure is a sign of the increased prestige the Impressionists are beginning to enjoy.
 
JANUARY

5th Degas buys Gauguin's Day of the Gods from Durand-Ruel.
Guillaumin has a one-man exhibition at Durand-Ruel's gallery.
Several works by Renoir are included in a mixed exhibition at the Grafton Galleries of Bond Street in London.




GAUGUIN
Day of the Gods
1894

In this canvas Gauguin drew from native and classical mythology as well as Egyptian tomb paintings to create an extraordinary vision of an imaginary' primitive paradise. The painting was purchased by Degas, who was one of the first to recognize Gauguin's genius, calling him 'the collarless wolf.




FEBRUARY

15th Morisot, Camille, Georges and Lucien Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley exhibit at the first show of La Libre Esthetique - a new organization headed by Octave Maus which had replaced Les Vingt in 1893.

21st Caillebotte dies at the age of 46.

MARCH

7th Pissarro has a one-man show consisting of ninety-eight works at Durand-Ruel's gallery.

11th Renoir writes to Henri Roujon, the Director of Fine Arts, informing him that Caillebotte has bequeathed his collection to the nation.

13th Morisot visits Brussels to see her paintings at La Libre Esthetique.

18th Sale at the Hotel Drouot of the collection belonging to the critic Theodore Duret. Monet's The White Turkeys attracts the highest bid, going for 12,000 francs.



MONET
The White Turkeys
1877

This work was painted for Ernest and Alice Hoschede, and is set in the park of their country estate near Montgeron. Hoschede lent the painting for the third Impressionist exhibition shortly before he was declared bankrupt in 1878 (ли p. 109). When Hoschede's collection was consigned for auction. Monet's paintings were fetching an average of 184 francs. The White Turkeys was purchased by Duret and was the top lot (selling for 12,000 francs) at the subsequent sale of his collection in March 1894.




19th Representatives of the Ministry of Fine Arts examine the Caillebotte bequest. The works are temporarily housed in Renoir's studio at 11 boulevard de Clichy, as Caillebotte has named Renoir as his executor .

APRIL

25th Degas buys El Greco's Saint Ildephonsus from Millet's collection.

MAY

4th The Director of Fine Arts, Henri Roujon, accepts Caillebotte's The Floor Strippers for the nation.

6th An exhibition of lithographs by Toulouse-Lautrec opens at Durand-Ruel's Paris gallery.

JUNE

2nd Sale of the collection belonging to Pere Tanguy - including six paintings by Cezanne, which fetch between 45 francs and 215 francs each.

3rd Pissarro visits Brussels.

6th A Caillebotte retrospective opens at Durand-Ruel's gallery.
Mary Cassatt buys and renovates the Chateau de Beaufresne at Mesnil-Theribus, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) northwest of Paris.

AUGUST

Gabrielle Renard a distant cousin of Renoir's wife, Aline comes to stay at their house. (She remains with them for twenty years, becoming one of Renoir's favourite models.)



Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Gabrielle Renard and Jean Renoir.



Berthe Morisot paints in Brittany; she invites Renoir to join her, but he is unable to do so.

SEPTEMBER

15th Birth of Renoir's second son, Jean (who would achieve fame as a film director during the 1930s). Durand-Ruel's son Georges agrees to be the godfather.

Cassatt, Cezanne, Rodin and the critic Gustave Geffroy visit Monet in Giverny and stay at the same inn.

NOVEMBER
Degas buys two fragments of one of Manet's paintings of the execution of the Emperor Maximilian, which had been cut up by Leon Leenhoff. (Degas hoped to reconstitute the work and mounted the fragments on a single piece of canvas the size of the painting, having already acquired the third piece.)

DECEMBER
Renoir meets the dealer Ambroise Vollard for the first time.
 
 
 
Gabrielle Renard
 
Gabrielle Renard (August 1, 1878 February 26, 1959) was a French woman who became an important member of the family of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, first becoming a nanny and subsequently, a frequent model for the artist. Upon her marriage in 1921 she became Gabrielle Renard-Slade.


Early life
Born in Essoyes in the Aube departement of France, she was a cousin of Aline Victorine Charigot Renoir, who had married the painter, Pierre-Auguste. The village was the birthplace of Aline also.

At age sixteen, Gabrielle Renard moved to Montmartre to live and work as a nanny in her cousin's household, where the second of the three Renoir sons was about to be born. Renard became the subject of a number of Renoir's portraits, many of her with the children.

The Renoir family
Gabrielle Renard developed a strong bond with the infant, Jean Renoir, that would last throughout their lives. She introduced him to the Guignol puppet shows that were held in the Montmartre.

Gabrielle was fascinated by the new motion picture invention and when Jean Renoir was only a few years old, Gabrielle took him to see his first film. He became a renowned film maker.

 
Gabrielle Renard
 
 
During the final years of Pierre-Auguste Renoir's life he suffered from severe rheumatoid arthritis, but continued to paint with her help. When the family moved to a farm at Cagnes-sur-Mer near the Mediterranean coast, seeking a better climate for Renoir's arthritis, Gabrielle moved with them. While he worked in the studio at "Les Collettes," Gabrielle would place the paint brush between his crippled fingers.
 
 

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
The Family of the Artist
1896.


Marriage
Devoted to her cousin's family, Gabrielle Renard did not marry until 1921, when the Renoir children were grown. Her husband, Conrad Hensler Slade (18711949), was an aspiring painter from a wealthy American family. They had a son that they named Jean Slade.



Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Gabrielle
1907.
 

The United States
Following the occupation of France by the Germans during World War II, Gabrielle and her family moved to the United States, her husband's native country. Jean Renoir also moved to the United States during the war. Being a successful film director, he settled in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. When Gabrielle's husband died in 1955, she moved to Beverly Hills to be near Jean Renoir.



Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Gabrielle
1910.

 

Death
Gabrielle Renard-Slade died at her home in Beverly Hills in 1959. In his memoirs, My Life and My Films, Jean Renoir begins and ends his book with discussion of Gabrielle Renard, and, throughout the autobiography, he recounts the profound influence Gabrielle had upon his life. He wrote, "She taught me to see the face behind the mask and the fraud behind the flourishes", and he concluded with the words he said he had often spoken as a child, "Wait for me, Gabrielle".



Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Gabrielle with Rose
1911.

 
 
 
CASSATT ON CEZANNE'S TABLE MANNERS
 
In the autumn of 1894 Man' Cassatt, Cezanne, Rodin and the journalist Gustave Geffroy visited Monet in Giverny. Cassatt, who was staying at the same inn as Cezanne, was fascinated by his personality and behaviour, which she described in a letter:
 


A photograph taken around 1894 of Cezanne
working in his studio.

 
When I first saw him, he looked like a cutthroat, with large red eyebrows standing out from his head in a most ferocious manner, a rather fierce-looking, pointed beard, quite grey, and an excited way of talking that positively makes the dishes rattle. I found later on that I had misjudged his appearance, for far from being fierce or a cutthroat, he has the gentlest nature possible - 'comme un enfant', as he would say. His manners at first rather startled me he scrapes his soup plate, he then lifts it and pours the remaining drops into his spoon; he even takes his chop in his fingers and pulls the remaining meat from the bone. He eats with his knife, and accompanies every gesture, every movement of his hand with that implement, which he grasps firmly when he commences his meal and never puts down till he leaves the table. Yet in spite of the total disregard of the dictionary of manners, he shows a politeness towards us that no other man here would have shown. He will not allow Louis to serve him before us in the usual order of succession at the table; he is even deferential to that stupid maid, and when he enters the room pulls off the old tam-o'-shanter that he wears to protect his bald head. I am gradually learning that appearances are not to be relied on here.

The conversation at lunch and dinner is mainly on art and cooking. Cezanne is one of the most liberal artists I have ever met. He prefaces every remark with pour moi' it is so and so, but he grants that everyone may be just as faithful to nature from their own convictions. He doesn't believe that everybody should see alike.
 
 

PISSARRO
The Red Roofs: Corner of the Village, Winter Effect
1877

Of the eighteen works that Caillebotte bought from Pissarro, seven including this one of farm buildings near Pontoise -were accepted by the State.
 
 
THE CAILLEBOTTE CONTROVERSY
 
Gaillebotte's generosity towards his fellow artists, as well as his innate artistic discrimination, were responsible for his accumulating a formidable collection of Impressionist works, which eventually consisted of nineteen Pissarros, fourteen Monets, ten Renoirs, nine Sisleys, seven Degas, five Cezannes and four Manets. By his will, originally drawn up in 1876, when he was twenty-eight, and subsequently modified and made more explicit, he left his collection to the French nation on condition that 'it should go neither to an attic, nor a provincial museum,
but straight to the Luxembourg [the museum devoted to the work of living artists] and later to the Louvre.' The terms of Gaillebotte's bequest showed shrewdness and foresight. 'It is necessary,' he stated, 'that a certain time goes by before this clause can be put into effect and until the public may, I don't say understand, but accept this painting.

This time could be twenty years or more; in the meantime my brother Martial, or failing him, another of my heirs, will keep them. I ask Renoir to be my executor and would like him to accept a picture that he may choose. My heirs will insist that he takes an important one.'

On March 1 lth, 1894, Renoir wrote to Henri Roujon, the Director of Fine Arts, informing him of the bequest - but problems arose immediately. There was vehement opposition from artists who were officials of the Salon the sculptor and painter Jean-Leon Gerome, for instance, objecting that if works by Manet and Pissarro were accepted by the State it would be a sign of 'moral turpitude' and would signify the end of the nation.

There was also opposition from the bureaucrats, including Roujon and the Director of the Luxembourg, partly on practical grounds. The museum, they argued, did not have space to hang the collection, and some artists (such as Monet and Pissarro) would be heavily over-represented.

On March 24th the bequest was considered by the Comite Gonsultatif des Musees Nationaux, which decided that it should be accepted in its entirety 'for the national museums with placement in the Luxembourg.' But what the representatives of the State clearly wanted was first of all to get hold of the collection and then decide what they would do with it. Reinforced by legal advice, Renoir and Martial Gaillebotte (the late artist's brother) insisted, however, that all the provisions of the will had to be carried out. By way of compromise, the Director of the Louvre, Leonee Benedite, suggested that he should hang as many works as he could and assign the rest to museums at Fontainebleau and Gompiegne. This was rejected by Renoir and Martial Caillebotte. Eventually, in January 1895 it was agreed that the Musee du Luxembourg should accept only those pictures which it could hang, the number finally agreed on being thirty-eight. In the autumn of 1895 the Gonseil d'Etat gave its stamp of approval, and the final decree accepting the bequest was signed in February 1896. The remaining twenty-nine pictures were left in the hands of Martial Caillebotte, who reoffered them to the government, again unsuccessfully, in 1904 and 1908. Ironically, when in 1928 the government at last expressed a desire to have them, Martial Caillebotte's widow repudiated the terms of the bequest. Meanwhile, the whole saga had become a cause celebre illustrative of the tribulations and vicissitudes of modern art.
 
 

A lithograph of The Long Gallery in the Louvre (1894)
by Whistler, reproduced in the magazine The Studio.
 
 
 
THE DURET SALE
 
On March 18th a large number of Impressionist paintings owned by the critic Theodore Duret were auctioned at the Hotel Drouot, fetching a record price of 160,000 francs. Author of Les Peintres impressionnistes and Critique de l'avant-garde, published in 1878 and 1885 respectively, Duret was a loyal supporter and patron of the Impressionists but faced with severe losses due to the failure of the 1893 grape harvest, he was forced to sell the greater part of his collection. On March 17th Julie Manet - the 15-year-old daughter of Berthe Morisot and Manet's brother Eugene -went to see the pictures and wrote the following account in her diary:
 
 

RENOIR
Berthe Morisot and her Daughter, Julie Manet
1894

A few weeks after the Duret sale Morisot and her daughter Julie posed for this double portrait. Renoir was an intimate friend of the family, and helped to look after Julie following her mother's death in 1895.
 
 
The collection includes one of Maman's paintings - of a woman in a low-cut white dress, on which is a garland of glorious white flowers; several of Uncle Edouard's large canvases; 'Repose', a portrait of Maman, dressed in white on a red sofa, with one foot stretched out; 'Le Pen Lathuille'; and a small portrait of Maman in three-quarter profile, dressed in black with a bouquet of violets and wearing a small hat. I adore this portrait - the brushwork is so good, and the blacks are quite magnificent, as are the whites in the other portrait. What wonderful brushwork Uncle Edouard had! There is also a very attractive picture by M. Monet in the collection, of some white turkeys on a great lawn and beyond them a castle made of brick, surrounded by pine trees. As for M. Renoir's paintings, they're really lovely - one landscape, and one picture of a nude combing her hair; the head, which is slightly foreshortened, is delightful, and the whole picture is painted in very attractive, pleasant colours.

The one painter whom I like very much, from what I have seen of his here, is Cezanne; above all it's his well-modelled apples that I like (I only know these three paintings by him). I almost forgot to mention that there's an unfinished painting of Albert Wolff by Uncle Edouard, a wonderful portrait such as only Manet could have painted, which must be an extremely good likeness. ' Looking at this portrait, one has to say 'what a marvellous thing' especially considering how stupid and ugly the sitter is! Also in the collection are some of M. Degas' racehorses, and some of the beautifully drawn dancers of this great master.
 

MORISOT
Young Woman in a Ball Gown
с. 1876

The significance of the large body of works donated to the State by Caillebotte was obvidous to Mallarme, who also realized that as Morisot was not represented in the collection, her key role in the movement might be overlooked. He therefore persuaded the Ministry of Fine Arts to buy this painting at the Duret sale.
 
 
 

 
 
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