Impressionism Timeline  
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
Impressionism Timeline
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
Camille Pissarro
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
Max Liebermann
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
Charles Angrand
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
Degas Painting Shocks London

The Absinthe Drinker' causes a furore when exhibited at the Grafton Galleries in London and is derided for the 'ugly', 'depraved' and 'boozy' appearance of the figures depicted.

In France, the Impressionists were drifting apart — physically as well as temperamentally.
Sisley had forsworn Paris altogether; Renoir was spending more time in the south; Cezanne had settled permanently in Aix-en-Provence; and Monet's heart was in Giverny, although he visited Paris from time to time.

Durand-Ruel has an exhibition of Japanese prints.
Mary Cassatt arranges shipment of The Modem Woman, a mural specially commissioned for the World's Columbian Exhibition building in Chicago.

The Modern Woman

In April 1892 Cassatt was engaged to paint a large mural, showing modern women, for the World's Columbian Exhibition. The mural was destroyed after the exhibition, and the detail of the centre section (below left) is a typogravure published in 1893.

Ambroise Vollard opens a small gallery in the rue Lafitte, and for his first exhibition presents a selection of Manet pastels.


3rd Pissarro has a one-man exhibition at Durand-Ruel's gallery. Forty-one works are on show.

Women Weeding

Since 1886 Pissarro and his son Lucien had been working on a series of prints of aspects of country life — Travaux des champs. The six woodcuts were drawn by Camille and engraved and printed by Lucien. Women Weeding is one of two multicoloured prints in the series.

5th Degas' The Absinthe Drinker is exhibited at the Grafton Galleries in London. It is attacked for its 'immorality' and defended by George Moore.

7th Sisley has a one-man exhibition at Boussod & Valadon's gallery.

Renoir meets Jeanne Baudot (who subsequently becomes a pupil and lifelong friend).

Portrait de Jeanne Baudot de trois-quarts et de face (1896), par Pierre-Auguste Renoir

5th Death of Pere Tanguy.
An exhibition of the Societe des Peintres-Graveurs opens at Durand-Ruel's gallery.

A cartoon by Draner ridiculing the proliferation of exhibitions.
The caption reads: 'Oh, these painters ... they have become
more stupid than we musicians.'

Cassatt and Pissarro have a separate exhibition of coloured prints in two small adjoining rooms.

9th Degas, Monet and Morisot exhibit at the New English Art Club in London.


1st Pissarro contributes a drawing to a special issue of the magazine La Plume devoted to the anarchist movement, which he actively supports.

3rd Durand-Ruel puts on an exhibition of works by Zandomeneghi — largely because he is a friend of Degas.

23rd Degas and Puvis de Chavannes are witnesses at the marriage of Paul Durand-Ruel's daughter Marie-Therese.


15th Pissarro has another operation on his infected eye. (This time it is more successful.)

Sisley begins to paint views of the church at Moret-sur-Loing, where he is living, seen at different times of day and in different light.

The Church at Moret Rainy Morning

Sisley painted the church at his home town of Moret-sur-Loing a dozen times between 1893 and 1894, producing a series of paintings comparable with Monet's thirty views of Rouen Cathedral. Like Monet, Sisley attempted to show the changing appearance of the church throughout the day, in different seasons and through a succession of atmospheric changes.

Renoir visits Pont-Aven in Brittany for the second time, accompanied by his family. He stays two weeks.
Monet begins to create his water garden at Giverny.


4th Durand-Ruel holds an exhibition of Gauguin's Tahitian pictures at the instigation of Degas, who buys The Moon and the Earth.
Renoir expresses his dislike of the exhibition, which has a mixed reception.
Pissarro exhibits fans, engravings and prints at the Arts and Crafts exhibition held at the New Gallery in London.

Durand-Ruel relieves Pissarro from money troubles by buying a number of his paintings for a total of 23,600 francs. Mary Cassatt has an exhibition at Durand-Ruel's gallery.

The Absinthe Drinker

In terms of composition, this is one of Degas' most interesting works, using the 'cut-off technique derived in equal parts from Japanese prints and the influence of photography. The oblique viewpoint parallels the disorientation of the subjects.
Between 1875 and 1876 Degas painted a picture which he called Dans un cafe, now known as The Absinthe Drinker, showing his friend the actress Ellen Andree seated at a cafe table with a glass of absinthe in front of her. Beside her is the engraver Marcellin Desboutin smoking a pipe, with what looks like a glass of tea - or possibly beer - at his elbow, although he was in fact a teetotaller. Degas had intended the painting for the second Impressionist exhibition, held in April 1876, and included it in the catalogue. He was, however, unable to complete it in time for the exhibition and decided to send it to London, where it was bought by Henry Hill, a tailor who lived in Brighton and sometimes described himself as Captain Hill. In September, Hill lent the painting to Brighton Museum, where it was shown in the winter art exhibition under the title A Sketch in a French Cafe. The following year, Degas borrowed it for the third Impressionist exhibition II and, although it did not feature in the catalogue, it was hung as part of a group of paintings depicting cafe interiors. After the exhibition, Degas returned it to Hill and it remained in his collection until his death in 1889.

In 1892 the painting was auctioned, along with others from Hill's collection, at Christie's in London - where it was acquired by the Glasgow dealer Alexander Reid for £180, despite being hissed by the audience. A few weeks later he sold it for £200 to Arthur Kay, who had been a fellow-student of Roger Fry in Paris, and Kay lent it to the Grafton Galleries for their exhibition in March 1893. There it created a furore among the public and was castigated by the press for its 'immorality' and 'vulgarity'. To the Westminster Gazette it was 'a picture of two rather sodden people', and among the disparaging adjectives lavished on it by other periodicals were 'boozy', 'sottish', 'loathsome', 'revolting', 'ugly', 'depraved' and 'repulsive'. The following month Kay sold the picture to the Parisian dealers Martin & Camentron, from whom it was bought by the well-known collector Count Isaac de Camondo for 21,000 francs under the title L'Aperitif. On Camondo's death it was left as a bequest to the Louvre, where it was hung in 1911, subsequently being transferred to the Musee d'Orsay, where it now forms part of the museum's formidable collection of Impressionist paintings.
Ellen Andree
Ellen Andrée (1857–1925) was a French model for Edgar Degas and other impressionists in the 1870s living in the Rue de Rocher in Paris.

Andrée was born in 1857 in Paris.

She started her work as a model and she has become notable because she appeared in a number of important impressionist paintings.

She was an actress in the Naturalist style of theatre where the purpose was to give a near perfect view of real scenes and not to rely on the audience's imagination.

She appeared in plays and comedies like those by Sacha Guitry and Georges Courteline and she worked for several decades as an actress but it was the brief period in the 1870s when she was a model for a number of artists but importantly Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir that made her name notable.

She also appeared in a painting of Rolla by Henri Gervex in 1878 that was based on a poem by Alfred de Musset.
Nadar. Ellen Andrée
Model for Edouard Маnе

Model for Pierre-Auguste Renoir


Artist's Colourman and Dealer

Le Pere Tanguy
In 1873, after being imprisoned in Brest as a Communard and released through the intervention of Henri Rouart, Julien Tanguy (1825-93), the artist's colourman who was also a painter and a friend of several of the Impressionists, opened a small shop in the rue Clauzel in Montmartre. This rapidly became one of the most important centres of the Impressionist world, as Tanguy not only took paintings and drawings in exchange for materials but acted as a dealer and patron as well. In this respect he was especially-helpful to Cezanne (who in 1885 owed him 4015 francs for materials at a time when Tanguy was facing eviction for non-payment of rent) and to van Gogh, who painted two subsequently famous portraits of him. The prices he paid were necessarily low — at one time Cezanne received only 50 francs per picture from him - but as the painter and critic Emile Bernard recalled, 'People would go there [to
Tanguy's shop] as they might to a museum. It had become a Parisian legend, the talk of every studio.'

In an article published in Atlantic Monthly in April 1892, the American critic Charles Warren described the wonders of the shop, where he found 'violent or thrilling van Goghs, dusky or heavy Cezannes, daring early Sisleys, all lovingly preserved.' Nor was the owner less remarkable. 'Pere Tanguy', he wrote, 'is a short, thickset, elderly man, with a grizzled beard and large beaming dark-blue eyes. He had a curious way of first looking down at his pictures with all the fond love of a mother, and then looking up at you over his glasses, as if begging you to admire his beloved children. I could not help feeling, apart from any opinions of my own, that a movement in art which inspired such devotion must have a deeper final import than the ravings of a mere coterie.'

Van Gogh
Portrait of Pere Tanguy
On October 30th 14-year-old Julie Manet and her mother, Berthe Morisot, visited Monet at his house in Giverny and were shown the Rouen Cathedral series, on which he was currently working.

Julie Manet and Jeannie Gobillard Practising

A sketch of Morisot's daughter on \dolin with her cousin on piano.
The following is an account of their visit taken from Julie's diary:
We left early this morning for Giverny. It rained all day. M. Monet showed us his 'cathedrals'.

There are twenty-six of them; they're magnificent, some all violet, others white, yellow with a blue sky, pink with a greenish sky; then one in the fog, two or three with shadow at the bottom and lit with rays of sunshine on the towers. These cathedrals are admirably painted in broad areas, and yet one can see every detail. They're so confusing. It seems so hard to me not to draw all the details. These pictures by M. Monet are an admirable lesson in painting. The house has changed since we last went to Giverny. M. Monet has made himself a bedroom above the studio, with big windows, doors and a floor in pitch pine, decorated in white. In this room lots of paintings are hung, among them Isabelle combing her hair, Gabrielle at the basin, Cocotte with her hat on, a pastel of Maman's, a pastel by Uncle Edouard [Manet], a very attractive nude by M. Renoir, some Pissarros, etc.

A photograph of Monet (c. 1893)
taken by the American painter
Theodore Robinson.

Mme Monet's bedroom has blue panelling, those of Mlles Blanche and Germaine are mauve. We didn't see Mlle Marthe's bedroom. Mile Blanche showed us some of her own paintings, which have lovely colours; two of them, of trees reflected in the Epte, are very like M. Monet's paintings.

The drawing room is panelled in violet — lots of Japanese prints are hung there, as well as in the dining room, which is all yellow. We walked beneath the poplars to see the greenhouse, where there are magnificent chrysanthemums. Then on to the ornamental lake, across which there is a green bridge that looks rather Japanese. M. and Mme Butler came — their little boy is sweet; he kept on trying to pull my hair (he's six months old).

We came home before dinner, still in the pouring rain, on the new line from Mantes to Argenteml.