TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Impressionism Timeline  
     
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  
     
 

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Impressionism Timeline
 
 
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
 
 
Camille Pissarro
(1830-1903)
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
       
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin
(1841-1927)

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
(1846-84)
       
Max Liebermann
(1847-1935)
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
(1853-90)
       
Charles Angrand
(1854-1926)
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 
(1859-1935)

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
       
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
       
 
 
 
1878
 
 
Multiple Disappointments
 

Not only does Manet have to abandon his plans to stage a one-man show outside the Universal Exhibition, but also the Fame and Hoschedi Impressionist sales at the Hotel Drouot are spectacular failures, with the paintings either selling for derisory sums or having to be bought in.

 
JANUARY
Manet decides to hold a one-man exhibition of 100 works near the forthcoming Universal Exhibition (but nothing comes of his plans). Anxious to help Monet, who is in deep financial trouble, Manet sends him 1000 francs 'against merchandise'. This allows Monet to move from Argenteuil to Vetheuil — also on the Seine, but further away from Paris. He doesn't have enough money to pay the removal men.

Degas' Portraits in an Office is exhibited by The Societe des Amis des Arts de Pau, who later purchase the painting.

FEBRUARY
Mary Cassatt's friend Louisine Waldron-Elder - later married to the collector Henry Havemeyer - lends Degas' Ballet Rehearsal (1876-7) to the American Watercolour Society of New York for their annual exhibition.
This is the first time Degas' work has been exhibited in the USA.
 
 

DEGAS
Ballet Rehearsal
1876-7

Painted in pastel and gouache over monotype, this is one of a number of works by Degas which feature Jules Perrot, a leading choreographer of the nineteenth century. Perrot was maitre de ballet at Covent Garden from 1842 to 1848, then moved to the St Petersburg Opera, before taking the same post at the Paris Opera.
 
 
MARCH
Claude and Camille Monet's second son, Michel, is born.

4th Cezanne acknowledges receipt of artist's materials to the value of 2174 francs from Pere Tanguy. (Cezanne, who is facing financial disaster, fails to pay for these items, and Tanguy has to send him a reminder in August 1885.)

15th Caillebotte, Degas, Renoir and others meet at Caillebotte's studio to discuss plans for a fourth Impressionist exhibition. (Cezanne, Monet, Renoir and Zola also hold a meeting, at the Cafe Riche, at about the same time.) 19th The museum in Pau buys Degas' Portraits in an Office for 2000 francs - the first of his works to be hung in a public collection.
 
 

DEGAS
Singer with a Glove
1878

Between 1876 and 1878 Degas produced a series of monotypes of the cafe-concerts held at the Aleazar-d'Ete and the Cafe des Ambassadeurs, some of which he reworked in pastel. Singer with a Glove is a pastel and distemper depiction of one of the most popular singers of the period, Emma Valadon (known professionally as 'Theresa'), who also appears in Degas' The Song of the Dog (c. 1876-7) and The Singer in Green (c. 1884).
 
 
20th Cezanne's father discovers the existence of Paul - the artist's illegitimate son, now aged 6, who is living with his mother, Hortense Fiquet, in Marseilles - and halves Cezanne's allowance. To help them survive, Zola starts sending Hortense monthly payments of 60 francs.

APRIL
The Italian art critic and painter Diego Martelli arrives in Paris for a thirteen-month visit. He becomes friendly with several of the Impressionists - including Degas (who later paints his portrait) and Pissarro.

3rd Opening of the Salon. Exhibits include Renoir's The Cup of Chocolate.

29th Faure offers a group of Impressionist paintings from his collection for sale at the Hotel Drouot (p. 102), expecting to make a profit. The proceeds do not even cover his expenses, and he has to buy many of the paintings himself because the bidding is so low.

MAY
Theodore Duret's Les Peintres impressionnistes is published, explaining the significance of the movement and giving biographical details about its leading exponents. It is illustrated with a drawing by Renoir after Lise with a Parasol.



The cover of Duret's study of the lives and work
of Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Renoir and Morisot.



JUNE
Pissarro starts to paint fans. He rents a room in Montmartre where he can exhibit his paintings. An illustrated edition of Zola's L'Assommoir is published. It includes engravings after drawings by Butin, Castelli, Gill, Goeneutte and Renoir.



Renoir's illustration for a special edition of Zola's L'Assommoir.
The original brush drawing was too faint for reproduction, so Renoir traced it over in pen and ink.

 

5th Manet and his family move from 49 to 39 rue de St-Petersbourg. He takes a studio at No.4.

6th The department-store owner Ernest Hoschede is made bankrupt, and his entire collection of Impressionist art is auctioned at the Hotel Drouot.
The sale is a spectacular failure: three Renoirs go for a total of 157 francs; Sisley's paintings sell for an average price of 112 francs; Monet's for 150 francs; and Manet's for 583 francs (less than Durand-Ruel had paid for them originally).
Mary Cassatt buys a Monet and a Morisot at the auction.

JULY
Madame Hoschede and her children join the Monets at Vetheuil. Monet's wife, Camille, is ill.

15th Durand-Ruel holds a prestige exhibition of 360 painters of the Barbizon school. Victor Hugo is Honorary President of the exhibition.

SEPTEMBER
The politician Antonin Proust asks Manet to paint his portrait, which he eventually does, two years later.

14th Pissarro's second son, Rodo, is born.
Seurat gains admission to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

OCTOBER
Mme Charpentier, wife of the publisher, commissions Renoir to paint a portrait of herself and her two children, Georgette and Paul, in the 'Japanese salon' of their house in the Place St-Germain-L'Auxerrois.

NOVEMBER
14th A daughter, Julie, is born to Berthe Morisot and her husband, Manet's brother Eugene.

DECEMBER

4th Degas, in common with other artists, is intrigued by an illustrated article in La Nature, giving an account of Eadweard Muybridge's investigation of animal movement, carried out by taking photographic sequences of horses in motion.
 
 

RENOIR
Mme Charpentier and her Children
1878

This family portrait was painted at the sitters' home. According to the artist's brother Edmond, 'None of the furniture was moved from its usual place and nothing was prearranged to emphasize one part of the painting rather than another.' The result bears little resemblance to the majority of society portraits of the period.
 
 
 
CEZANNE'S FAMILY PROBLEMS
 
 
From the start, Cezanne didn't want his parents to find out about his liaison with Hortense Fiquet - an artist's model he met in Paris in 1869 - and it was only in March 1878 that his father learned of the existence of their illegitimate son, Paul, then 6 years old. The banker, who was seen as a pillar of the community in Aix-en-Provence, immediately halved Cezanne's allowance, leaving him without means to support his mistress and child. In despair, Cezanne
confided in Zola, who responded by sending money to Hortense.
 
 

A pencil sketch (c.1878-81) by Cezanne of Hortense Fiquet, whom he met in 1869 and married in April 1886.
 
CEZANNE
Madame Cézanne in a Garden, 1879-1880, Musée de l'Orangerie
 
 
These extracts from Cezanne's letters to Zola show his financial predicament:
 
March 23rd

I am on the verge of having to provide entirely for myself, if indeed I am capable, of it. The situation between my father and myself is becoming extremely tense, and I risk losing my entire allowance. A letter M. Chocquet wrote to me in which he mentioned 'Madame Cezanne and baby Paul' completely revealed my situation to my father, who for that matter was already on the alert and full of suspicions, and had nothing better to do than to unseal and read the letter addressed to me.


March 28th

It's more than probable that I shall only get 100 fanes from my father, even though he promised me 200 when I was in Paris. So I will have to rely on your kindness, especially as the child has been ill for two weeks with a mucous infection. Pm doing everything I can to prevent my father obtaining definite proof. You will pardon me making the following remark - but the paper you use for writing and your envelopes must be very thick; I had to pay 25 centimes at the Post Office because there weren't
enough stamps on it, and all your letter contained was a double sheet. When you write to me, could you please use only one sheet folded in half?



A pencil sketch by Cezanne of his father (c. 1877-80).



April 4th

Please send 60 francs to Hortense at the following address: Madame Cezanne, 183 rue de Rome, Marseilles. I slipped away Tuesday a week ago to see the child. He's better, but I had to return to Aix on foot, since the train marked on my timetable was an error, and I had to show up in lime for dinner - I was an hour late.



CEZANNE
The Artist's Son Paul
1877-9

For the first six years of his life, Paul and his mother Hortense Fiquet travelled surreptitiously around France, following Cezanne. As the boy reached school age, around 1878, this became more difficult. Hortense settled in Marseilles with Paul, where Cezanne's father learned of their existence.


May

Since you have offered to come to my assistance once again, 1 ask that you send 60 francs to Hortense at the same address.


June 1st

Here is my monthly solicitation again. I hope it doesn't bother you too much and that it doesn't seem too importunate. Pm asking you to be so kind as to send 60 francs to Hortense.


September 14th

Here is the latest blow to befall me. Hortense's father wrote to his daughter addressing his letter to Madame Cezanne. My landlord immediately forwarded the letter to the Jas de Bouffan. My father opened it and read it; you can imagine the results. I made violent denials, and since, very fortunately, Hortense's name didn't occur in the letter, I swore it was addressed to some other woman. Nota bene. Papa gave me 300 francs this month. Unheard of! I think he's been flirting with a charming young maid we have in Aix. Mama and I are still in L'Estaque.


November 4th

The reason for my letter is as follows. Hortense is in Paris on urgent business; I beg you to send her 100 francs, if you can advance me that much. Pm in a real mess, but I expect to get out of it.
 
 
 

 
 
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