TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Impressionism Timeline  
     
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  
     
 

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Impressionism Timeline
 
 
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
 
 
Camille Pissarro
(1830-1903)
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
       
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin
(1841-1927)

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
(1846-84)
       
Max Liebermann
(1847-1935)
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
(1853-90)
       
Charles Angrand
(1854-1926)
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 
(1859-1935)

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
       
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
       
 
 
 
1875
 

RENOIR
M. Fournaise
1875

Alphonse Fornaise was the proprietor of a restaurant on an island in the Seine at Chatou, which was to provide the background for Renoir's famous Luncheon of the Boating Party. This portrait bears a slight resemblance to Manet's Le Bon Bock (1873), though this may be due in part to the beer glasses on the table.
 
A woodcut by Daumier (1861) depicting a sale at the Hotel Drouot.
 
 
 
An Unfortunate Experiment
 

Renoir convinces Monet, Monsot and Sisley that the best way to raise money quickly is to hold an auction of works at the Hotel Drouot. This attracts far greater numbers than anticipated, but most turn out to taunt rather than to purchase.

 

JANUARY
Renoir is commissioned to paint a portrait of a lady with her two daughters, for which he is paid the sum of 1200 francs. He uses the money to rent a studio at 38 rue Cortot in Montmartre.
Pissarro visits Monfoucault, where he makes a will.

FEBRUARY
Pere Tanguy starts exhibiting and selling works by Cezanne at 50 francs each. During the course of the year he sells four including one to Victor Ghocquet, a senior official in the Customs Service who is a keen collector.
Pissarro returns to Pontoise from Brittany.

28th Degas goes to Italy for a three-month stay.

MARCH

24th At the suggestion of Renoir, the Impressionists hold an auction of their works at the Hotel Drouot, with Durand-Ruel acting as their adviser and Charles Pillet, his assistant, as auctioneer (the catalogue includes a preface by the critic Philippe Burty). Rowdy scenes occur during the proceedings, stirred up by a hostile audience, and the event is almost a total failure the most successful of the participants being Morisot, whose oil paintings fetch around 250 francs each. The 73 works offered for sale realize only 11,496 francs. Many of Renoir's works do not even reach 100 francs, and he is forced to buy-several himself to avoid them going too cheaply (including La Source, which Durand-Ruel would eventually sell in 1905 to Prince de Wagram for 70,000 francs). Sisley's paintings - including some done recently in England sell for an average of 122 francs, while Monet's fetch around 233 francs each. As a result of the exhibition, Chocquet commissions Renoir to paint portraits of himself and his wife.

APRIL

3rd Opening of the Salon. Renoir has had all his submissions rejected. Manet exhibits The Seine at Argenteuil (one of his first truly Impressionist pictures, painted in 1874 while in close contact with Monet). In contrast to Le Bon Bock (which was such a success in 1873), it is greeted with howls of derision Le Figaro dismissing it as 'marmalade from Argenteuil spread on an indigo river. The master returns as a twentieth-year student.'

MAY

23rd Van Gogh returns to Paris from London to work at Goupil's gallery, and immerses himself in a study of the Bible.
Mallarme's translation of Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven, illustrated by Manet, is published.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti describes it as 'a huge folio of lithographed sketches by a French idiot named Manet, who must be the greatest and most conceited ass who ever lived.'



The publication of Mallarme's prose translation of Edgar Allan Poe's Raven, illustrated by Manet, was not a success. Although Swinburne praised it for being 'perfectly translated twice over, thanks to the collaboration of two great artists', the majority of critics believed with Rossetti that 'A copy should be bought for every hypochon-driacal ward in lunatic asylums.' Above is a detail from the poster by Manet.


JUNE
Cezanne who is living near the Quai d'Anjou in Paris paints with Guillaumin, frequently choosing identical views.

28th In a letter to Manet from Argenteuil, Monet begs for 20 francs as he does not have 'a penny left since the day before yesterday'.

JULY
Renoir visits Pere Fournaise, the owner of a popular restaurant on the He de Chatou on the Seine, and paints portraits of the restaurateur (opposite) and his daughter Alphonsine.

AUGUST
In association with the entrepreneur and painter Alfred Meyer, Pissarro starts L'Union a new organization intended to replace the Societe Anonyme des Artistes (which had been dissolved in December 1874). Berthe Morisot visits England, where she paints views of London and the Isle of Wight.
 
 
 
GUILLAUMIN
The Seine at Bercy
1873-5

Guillaumin's view of this industrialized part of the banks of the Seine (below left) was virtually copied by Cezanne some three years later. In 1875 Guillaumin and Cezanne were living next door to each other by the Quai d'Anjou, near to the site of this painting.
 
CEZANNE
The Seine at Bercy
1876-8

This copy after Guillaumin was painted while Cezanne was experimenting with a square brushstroke. In Studies in Impressionism (1985) Rewald comments that it is almost as if Cezanne was seeing what would be the likely effect of this technique on a typical Impressionist painting.
 
 
SEPTEMBER
The eighth exhibition of Durand-Ruel's Society of French Artists opens in London, including work by Degas, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley.

OCTOBER

3rd Manet and his wife Suzanne depart for a holiday in Venice, together with Tissot. (Although Manet is reported to have made numerous sketches, only two paintings both of the Grand Canal - appear to have survived.)

DECEMBER
Durand-Ruel closes his London gallery.
 
 
 

MANET
The Grand Canal, Venice
1875

Charles Toche referred to this work in his account of the artist in Venice: 'Through the row of gigantic twisted posts, one saw the domes of the incomparable Salute, dear to Guardi. "I shall put in a gondola," cried Manet.'
 
 
MANET IN VENICE
 
Seated in Florian's one evening during his stay in Venice, Manet met a young French painter, Charles Toche, whom he allegedly greeted with the words 'I can see you're a Frenchman. God, how boring it is here.' Toche later recalled their painting excursions together in great - and possibly partly fictitious - detail to Ambroise Vollard, who recorded them in his Recollections of a Picture Dealer (1936). The following is Toche's account of Manet's response to a regatta at Mestre:

When faced with such a distractingly complicated scene, I must first of all choose a typical incident and define my picture as if I could already see it framed. In this case the most striking features are the masts with their fluttering multi-coloured banners, the red-white-and-green Italian flag, the dark swaying line of boats crowded with spectators, and the gondolas like black-and-white arrows shooting away from the horizon; then at the top of the picture, the watery horizon, the marked target and the islands in the distant haze.

I would try first to work out logically the different values, in their nearer or more distant relationships, according to spatial and aerial perspective.
The lagoon mirrors the sky, and at the same time acts as a great stage for the boats and their passengers, the masts, the banners etc. It has its own particular colour, the nuances it borrows from the sky, the clouds, from crowds, from objects reflected in the water. Tliere can be no sharp definition, no linear structure in something that is all movement; only tonal values, which, if correctly observed will constitute its true volume, its essential underlying design.

The gondolas, and other boats, with their generally dark colours and reflections, provide a base on which to set my watery stage. The figures, seated or in action, dressed in dark colours, or brilliantly vivid materials, with their parasols, handkerchiefs, and hats, appear as crenellated forms of differing tonal values, providing the necessary 'repoussoir' [contrast in the foreground] and defining the specific character of the areas of water and gondolas that I can see through them.

Crowds, rowers, flags and masts must be sketched in with a mosaic of coloured tones, in an attempt to convey the fleeting quality of gestures, the fluttering flags, the swaying masts.
On the horizon, right at the top, are the islands. There should be no more than a suggestion of the most distant places, veiled in the subtlest, most accurately observed tints.
Finally the sky should cover and envelop the whole scene, like an immense, shining canopy, whose light plays over all the figures and objects.
 
 
 

 
 
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