TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Impressionism Timeline  
     
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  
     
 

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Impressionism Timeline
 
 
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
 
 
Camille Pissarro
(1830-1903)
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
       
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin
(1841-1927)

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
(1846-84)
       
Max Liebermann
(1847-1935)
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
(1853-90)
       
Charles Angrand
(1854-1926)
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 
(1859-1935)

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
       
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
       
 
 
 
1873
 
 
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
 
Despite thefaet that an increasing number of the future Impressionists are still working outside Paris, there is a growing sense of common purpose among the artists, which culminates in the formation of the Sociite Anonyme des Artistes, the primary aim of which is to mount group exhibitions free from selection by a jury.
 
JANUARY
Theodore Duret buys Renoir's Study in Summer for 400 francs from a dealer, and then Lise with a Parasol from the artist for 1200 francs.

FEBRUARY
Cezanne stays with Dr Gachet at his new house in Auvers-sur-Oise.

MARCH
Inspired by Gachet, who is an enthusiastic engraver, Pissarro decides to takes up etching again.
The sixth exhibition of Durand-Ruels Society of French Artists opens in London, including work by Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley.
 


Pissarro
Chrysanthemums In A Chinese Vase
1873


APRIL
Morisot paints at Fecamp in Normandy. Durand-Ruel buys several paintings from Monet and pays Degas 1000 francs for unspecified works.

MAY Opening of the Salon.

Renoir's Riding in the Bois de Boulogne is rejected.



RENOIR
Riding in the Bois de Boulogne
1873

Intended for the Salon of 1873, this painting was, to Renoir's chagrin, rejected by the jury. In size - it was the largest picture he had ever painted and in subject matter, it seemed suitable for that institution, and its rejection was one of the factors that inclined Renoir towards the idea of an independent exhibition.


Manet exhibits Repose: A Portrait of Berthe Morisot and Le Bon Bock, which is enthusiastically received. Other works hung include a pastel by Berthe Morisot and a painting by Mary Cassatt.

Monet, Pissarro and Sisley do not submit.



MANET
Repose: A Portrait of Berthe Morisot
1870

Exhibited at the Salon of 1873, this was the second portrait by Vianet of Berthe Morisot, painted when she was thirty. Its loose, sketchy style aroused considerable criticism, mixed with some praise for its 'modernity'. Morisot later told her daughter that she was in considerable discomfort while sitting for the portrait as her left leg was drawn up underneath her, and Manet would not let her alter its position.


15th The Exposition Artistique des Oeuvres Refuses (organized, like the Salon des Refuses of 1863, on the initiative of the artists themselves) opens in a disused drill hall. It arouses a great deal of interest, and Renoir's Riding in the Bois de Boulogne is well received.

JUNE

Monet is introduced to Gaillebotte. He builds a studio boat at Argenteuil, where Renoir visits him.
Courbet - who had been imprisoned for presiding over the demolition of the column to Napoleon in the Place Vendome  during the Commune is released from jail because of ill health. Shortly afterwards he flees to Switzerland.

14th Van Gogh joins the London branch of Goupil's gallery. Sisley paints in Louveciennes and Pontoise.

JULY
Manet and his family spend the summer in Etaples, a fishing village near Boulogne.

SEPTEMBER
Renoir rents a studio at 35 rue St-Georges, in Montmartre.

OCTOBER

14th Manet makes sketches of the trial of Marshal Bazaine, court-martialled for surrendering to the Prussians at Metz in 1870. Bazaine receives a twenty-year sentence.

28th Faure commissions The Dancing Examination  from Degas, reputedly for 5000 francs.



DEGAS
The Dancing Examination
1873-5

This, the first large-scale painting by Degas of a group of dancers, was one of six works commissioned by the singer Faure. It is noticeable that the dancers are paying little attention to the maitre de ballet, the renowned Jules Perrot, and it is now thought that his figure was added at a later date.


NOVEMBER

18th Manet sells five paintings to Faure at prices ranging from 2500 to 6000 francs.

DECEMBER
Cezanne meets Pere Tanguy, the dealer and supplier of artist's materials, who starts to sell his work and gives him valuable encouragement.

16th Degas buys Pissarro's Market Gardens at Osny from Durand-Ruel.

27th A group of artists, including all the future Impressionists, meets in Renoir's studio to ratify the constitution of the Societe Anonyme des Artistes - an association set up to promote sales through group exhibitions.

 
 
 
DURAND-RUEL'S CATALOGUE

In 1873 Durand-Ruel brought out a lavish catalogue in the form of a three-volume album of engravings reproducing 300 works of art that he currently had in stock. In his preface the critic Armand Silvestre attempted to analyse the appeal of the Impressionists:

At first sight one is hard put to distinguish between the works of Monet, those of Sisley, and the style of the last of them, Pissarro. After a little study, however, one comes to realize that M. Monet is the most skilful and the most daring, M. Sisley the most harmonious, and the most timid, M. Pissarro the most direct and the most naive. These nuances are not, however, our only concern. What is certain is that the painting of these three landscapists bears no relation at all to that of the other [non-Impressionist] masters whose works we have been considering, and that we can trace its ancestry to a point which is distant and indirect, except for a closer temporal relation to the works ofM. Manet. It is a form of painting that states its premises with conviction and with a power that imposes on us the duty of recognizing and defining what one may call its indeterminate direction.

What immediately strikes one when looking at a painting of this kind is the immediate caress which the eye receives; above all else it is harmonious, and what really distinguishes it is the simplicity of the means whereby it achieves this harmony. In fact one very quickly discovers that its secret is based on a fine and exact observation of the relation of one tone to another. In reality it is the scale of tones, reconstructed after the great colourists of the century, a sort of analytical process, which does not change the palette into a kind of banal percussion instrument, as one might first be tempted to believe. The meaning of these relationships in their precise accuracy, is a very special gift, and one which constitutes the real genius of a painter. The art of landscape runs no risk of vulgarity from this sort of study...
It is M. Monet who, by the choice of the subjects themselves, betrays his preoccupations most clearly. He loves to juxtapose on the lightly ruffled surface of the water the multicoloured reflections of the setting sun, of brightly coloured boats, of changing clouds. Metallic tones given off by the smoothness of the waves which splash over small even surfaces are recorded in his works, and the image of the shore is mutable - the houses are broken up as they are in a jigsaw puzzle. This effect, which is absolutely true to experience, and may have been borrowed from the Japanese school, strongly attracts the young painters, who surrender to it absolutely.

The rustic interiors of M. Pissarro are considerably more complex than one might have expected. Do the painters cancel each other out? Certainly not, since nobody knows who will insert, in its proper place, that stone which each of them contributes to the great edifice of art. This uncertainty gives to art its real unity. Each one has his part to play.

What could help to secure the eventual success of these young painters is the fact that their pictures are done in a singularly bright tonal range. A blond light pervades them, and everything is gaiety, clarity, spring festivals, golden evenings, or apple trees in blossom once again an inspiration from Japan. Their canvases, uncluttered, medium in size, are open in the surface they decorate; they are windows opening on the joyous countryside, on rivers full of pleasure-boats stretching into the distance, on a sky which shines with light mists, on the outdoor life, panoramic and charming.
 
 
 

MANET
Faure in the Role of Hamlet
1876
 
 
JEAN-BAPTISTE FAURE
 
Collector and singer
 

Photograph of Faure in the role of Hamlet.
  Faure (1830-1914) was one of the most popular baritones of his day. A friend of Durand-Ruel, they spent 1870 to 1871 together in London, where Faure"s singing was very well received, and lived in Brompton Road. An admirer of the Impressionists, in 1873 he bought a group of Manets at prices ranging from 2500 to 6000 francs; he also became friendly with Degas and purchased eleven paintings from him.

A year later the singer bought back six paintings, with which Degas was dissatisfied, from Durand-Ruel for 8000 francs. Faure handed them over to the artist, together with 1500 francs, on the understanding that Degas would give him four paintings on which he was currently working.

The artist finished two of these in 1876, but did not deliver the other two until 1887 - and then only as a consequence of legal action. The dispute soured their friendship. Faure stopped buying the artist's work, and three years later sold all the pictures by Degas that he had collected.

On his retirement from the stage in 1880, Faure commissioned Manet to paint a portrait of him as Hamlet in Ambroise Thomas's opera of that name. During one period his collection included sixty-eight works by Manet, twenty-three by Monet, thirty' by Sisley, and a smaller number of Renoirs and Pissarros. In April 1878 he sent forty-two of his pictures for sale at the Hotel Drouot, but withdrew most of them when they failed to reach their reserve prices.
 
 
 

 
 
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