Impressionism Timeline  
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
Impressionism Timeline
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
Camille Pissarro
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
Max Liebermann
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
Charles Angrand
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
The 'Terror'of the Commune
The Franco-Prussian War is followed by the proclamation of the Commune in Paris. Courbefs first action as President of the Art Commission is to organize the demolition of the Napoleonic column in Place Vendome, but after seventy-two days the Commune is suppressed and Courbet imprisoned. In London, Durand-Ruel exhibits the works of Monet and Pissarro, and forges a lasting and significant link with the future Impressionist artists.

The Barricade

Manet had intended to paint a large work in protest against the suppression of the Commune, but he only produced a drawing and two lithographs.

4th Renoir is posted to Libourne, where he contracts dysentery. He convalesces with his uncle in Bordeaux.

21st In a letter to Pissarro, Durand-Ruel apologizes for not meeting him when he came to his London gallery and adds:
'Your friend Monet has asked me for your address. He did not know that you were in England.'

A Paris National Guard is formed in protest at the armistice between France and Prussia. Anti-government demonstrations take place across the capital.

12th Manet joins his family at Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Pyrenees. Nine days later they travel to
Bordeaux, where they meet Zola.
The Communard, Gustave Lemaire, was among those who received an invitation to watch the destruction of the column in Place Vendome. Courbet, who ordered the demolition, was the subject of many caricatures, including this one of him using the Napoleonic column as a walking stick .
Renoir is stationed at Vic-en-Bigorre, near Tarbes for two months, where he spends much of his time riding and
teaching a young girl to paint.

Monet paints views of Hyde Park, the Pool of London and the Thames at Westminster.

The Royal Academy rejects works by Pissarro and Monet.
Sisley moves to Louveciennes.

Degas visits his friends the Valpincons at Menil-Hubert.

The Thames and Westminster

The subject of this painting was one to which Monet would revert frequently over the next twenty years. This early version is unusual, however, as its viewpoint is at ground level on the Embankment - most of the other versions were painted from a room in the Savoy Hotel .

18th The second exhibition of Durand-Ruel's Society of French Artists opens at his gallery in London. A total of 139 paintings are shown, including two each by Monet and Pissarro.

28th Proclamation of the Commune in Paris. Courbet is made President of the Art Commission. Under his leadership, the French Academy in Rome, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the awarding of prizes at the Salon are abolished.

The Commune sets up a federation of artists, consisting of fifteen painters (including Manet) and ten sculptors.
Durand-Ruel opens a gallery in the Place des Martyrs in Brussels.
Manet goes to stay at Le Pouliguen in Brittany for a month.
Berthe Morisot and her parents move to St-Germain-en-Laye.
Renoir returns to Paris and rents a room in the rue du Dragon. He secures a pass from Raoul Rigaud, the Commune's Prefect of Police, enabling him to go sketching outside the walls.

23rd Gauguin is demobilized from the navy. Through the good offices of his guardian, Gustave Arosa - whose daughter teaches him to paint he obtains a job with Bertin, a firm of stockbrokers in the rue Lafitte.


12th Through the intervention of Durand-Ruel, Monet's Repose and Camille: Woman in the Green Dress as well as Pissarro's Lower Norwood, London: Snow Effect and Penge Station, Upper Norwood
are exhibited at the International Exhibition of Fine Art in Kensington.
They are ignored by the critics.

Lower Norwood, London: Snow Effect

Pissarro and his family arrived in London in 1870 and settled in the pleasant suburb of Upper Norwood at 2 Chatham Terrace, Palace Road (now 65 Palace Road). This work, one of the earliest Pissarro painted of the neighbourhood, is probably the same as that entitled Snow Effect, which was exhibited at Durand-Ruel's gallery in London during December 1870 and the International Exhibition of Fine Art, Kensington, in May of the following year.

16th Courbet presides over the demolition of the column to Napoleon in Place Vendome.

28th The Communards are suppressed by the government.


14th Pissarro marries Julie Vellay, his mother's servant (with whom he has been living since I860), at the Registry' Office in Groydon.

20th Durand-Ruel buys two paintings from Pissarro for 200 francs each. The painter returns to France to find his home despoiled by the Prussians, and most of his work either stolen or destroyed.


Manet goes to Versailles, where the government is now located, to try to persuade Leon Gambetta to sit for him - but his journey is in vain.

Manet holidays in Boulogne. Renoir visits Bougival and Marlotte. Berthe Morisot visits Cherbourg.

Renoir rents a room at 34 rue Notre-Dame-des-Ghamps.
Monet goes to Holland - probably with Daubigny, who buys a picture from him. He paints mainly at Zaandam, near Amsterdam.

Degas visits London, where he stays at the Hotel Gonte in Golden Square. He goes to see the third exhibition of the Society of French Artists at Durand-Ruel's gallery in New Bond Street. Monet and his family settle at Argenteuil.


22nd Pissarro's third son, Georges, is born in Louveciennes.


Pissarro's initial disillusionment with life in England, especially the London art world, is evident from a letter to the art critic Theodore Duret (who was, in fact, an enthusiastic Anglophile):

I am here for only a short time. I count on returning to France as soon as possible. Yes, my dear Duret, I shan't stay here, and it is only abroad that one feels how beautiful, great and hospitable France is. What a difference here! One attracts only contempt, indifference, even rudeness; amongst colleagues there is the most egotistical jealousy and resentment. Here there is no art; everything is a question of business. As far as my private affairs are concerned, I've done nothing, except with Durand-Ruel who has bought two small paintings from me. My painting doesn't catch on at all, a fate that pursues me more or less everywhere.


Nevertheless, both he and Monet enjoyed the change of landscape and familiarized themselves with British art:
Monet and I were very enthusiastic about the London landscapes. Monet worked in the parks, while I, living in Lower Norwood, at that time a charming suburb, studied the effect of fog, snow and springtime. We worked from nature. We also visited the museums. The watercolours and painting of Turner and Constable, the canvases of Old Crome, have certainly had an influence on us. We admired Gainsborough, Reynolds, Lawrence etc., but we were mostly struck by the landscape painters, who shared more in our aim with regard to plein-air' painting, light and fugitive effects. Watts, Rossetti strongly interested us among the modern men. Turner and Constable, while they taught us something, showed in their works that they had no understanding of the analysis of shadow, which in Turner's case is, in effect, a mere absence of light. As far as tone division is concerned, Turner proved the value of this as a method... although he did not apply it correctly and naturally.