Impressionism Timeline  
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
Impressionism Timeline
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
Camille Pissarro
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
Max Liebermann
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
Charles Angrand
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
A Defender Appears

Emile Zola a childhood friend of Cezanne - becomes increasingly identified with the future Impressionists, recognizing in their preference for scenes of contemporary life 'Realist' tendencies complementary to his own literary aims. By publicly lending the artists his support, however, he incurs ridicule and hostility from his readers.

Anxious to escape from the idyllic forest and riverside landscapes favoured by most of his contemporaries, Pissarro moves to Pontoise, a small village near Auvers-sur-Oise, which Berthe Morisot may have recommended to him. (In the seventeen years he was to live there, Pissarro produced at least three hundred oil paintings of the area as well as countless drawings, watercolours and gouaches.)

3rd Renoir shows three works at an exhibition of the Societe des Amis des Beaux-Arts in Pau.

Renoir, Sisley and Jules Le Goeur, a rich architect and amateur painter, walk through the Forest of Fontainebleau to Marlotte and stay at Mere Antony's inn, where Renoir paints them. Pissarro has a disagreement with Corot, who disapproves of new tendencies in his work attributable to the influence of Manet and Courbet. As a result, Pissarro stops describing himself as 'a pupil of Corot' in his Salon submissions.


Cabaret of Mere Antony

Mere Antony's inn became known through Scenes de la vie de Boheme by Henri Murger. Included here are Le Coeur, Sisley and Mere Antony (at the back, with a headscarf).

Renoir stays with Sisley at Marlotte, where his friend Jules Le Coeur has taken a house.

Guillemet takes Zola to Manet's studio to see paintings rejected by the Salon jury. Zola persuades the editor of the left-wing paper L'Evenement to let him write a series of articles, signed 'Claude', reviewing the Salon and the state of French art.

L'Evenement starts to publish Zola's articles, but his attacks on the jury and his defence of the future Impressionists, especially Manet, provoke such hostile protests from readers that the series is curtailed.

1st Manet exhibits Reading (a portrait of his wife, Suzanne, listening to their son Leon reading to her) at the exhibition of the Societe des Amis des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux.

3rd Opening of the Salon.

Manet's submissions, The Fifer  and The Artist, are rejected as are all of Cezanne's, despite the protests of Daubigny, who is on the jury. Works accepted include Morisot's La Bermondiere and A Norman Hearth; Sisley's Women Going to the Woods and Village Street in Marlotte; and Bazille's Still Life with Fish. Monet's Camille: Woman in the Green Dress, is not only accepted but is highly praised, and the writer Arsene Houssaye buys it for 800 francs. Renoir submits three works, of which one a mere sketch - is accepted, whereupon he withdraws it as being too insignificant. Both Renoir and Cezanne demand another Salon des Refuses. Pissarro's Banks of the Marne is hung, as is Degas' A Steeplechase. Courbet sells works to the value of more than 150,000 francs.

6th Manet meets Cezanne and compliments him on his still lifes.


MANET The Fifer

The boy-soldier who modelled for this painting was a fife player in the light infantry troop of the Imperial Guard; he was brought to pose for Manet by Bazille's uncle, Commandant Lejosne. The style shows the influence of Velazquez, and also of Japanese prints in its simplicity and the intensity of the black. No doubt it was these qualities, together with the 'flatness' of the picture, that influenced the Salon jury to reject it, although Zola praised it highly in L'Evenement.

Camille: Woman in the
Green Dress

Painted in four days, expressly for the Salon of 1866, this portrait of Camille Doncieux, Monet's mistress (whom he was to marry four years later, in 1870), is intentionally traditionalist in its approach and handling.

Village Street in Marlotte

This is one of two views Sisley painted of the village of Marlotte when working there with Renoir, Bazille and Le Coeur. The bold brushwork suggests the influence of Pissarro on Sisley at this time, while the presence of the man chopping wood provides a touch of Realism reminiscent of Courbet.
9th Manet writes to Zola suggesting a meeting 'I am at the Cafe de Bade even,' day from 5.30 till 7.00.'

20th Zola publishes a pamphlet entitled Mon Salon containing his articles on the Salon and the state of French art that were to have appeared in L'Evenement.


Berthe Morisot holidays in Pont-Aven, in Brittany.

14th Zola goes to stay with Cezanne at Bennecourt. near Rouen. During his stay he writes a short story, Une Farce, ou Boheme en villegiature, based on the experience.

Bazille works on The Artist's Family on a Terrace near Montpellier in his studio, having already made preliminary studies for the painting at his family home.
Monet paints in Ville d'Avray (the village near St-Cloud where Corot spent much of his life).

Renoir and Sisley stay with the Le Coeur family at Berck on the Channel coast.

Manet and his family go to live with Manet's mother at 49 rue de St-Petersbourg.

Mary Cassatt arrives in Paris and studies with the academic painter Charles Chaplin.

4th Guillemet moves to Aix-cn-Provcncc and works with Cezanne.

23rd Cezanne writes to Pissarro: 'I am in the bosom of my family; the most rotten creatures in the world, its members boring beyond measure.'

On April 19th Emile Zola helped Cezanne to compose a letter to Comte de Nieuwerkerkc, the Superintendent of Fine Arts, complaining that he had received no response to his protest at being rejected by the Salon jury and requesting another Salon des Refuses. Nieuwerkerke's negative reply is scrawled diagonally across Cezanne's letter.

The radical paper L'Evenement printed only six of Zola's projected sixteen or eighteen articles on the Salon and the state of French art. As a result, Zola published the series in pamphlet form under his own name, prefaced with a moving letter to his school friend Cezanne:

It gives me profound pleasure, my friend, to write to you directly. You can't imagine how much I have suffered during this quarrel I have had with the faceless crowd. I have felt myself so misunderstood, so surrounded by hatred, that the pen often fell from my fingers in discouragement. Today, however, I can allow myself the warm pleasure of one of those intimate chats we have been holding between ourselves for ten years now.

For ten years we have been talking together about the arts and literature. We have lived together - do you remember? - and often dawn would find us still arguing, exploring the past, questioning the present, trying to discern the truth and discover for ourselves an infallible, complete religion. We have ploughed through so many hopeless masses of ideas, we have examined and rejected every system, and after such arduous labour we arrived at the conclusion that apart from one's own strong and individual life there was nothing but lies and foolishness.

Happy are those who have such memories!... You are my entire youth; you are part of all my joys, all my suffering. In their ftaternal closeness, our minds have developed side by side. Today, as we are setting out in life, we have faith in ourselves, because we have come to know our own hearts and our own flesh.
We were living in our own shadow. Cut off, not very sociable; we were content with our thoughts. We felt ourselves marooned in the midst of a frivolous and complacent crowd...

Do you realize that we were unwitting revolutionaries? I have just managed to say out loud what I have been whispering for ten years. No doubt the sound of the dispute has reached your ears, and you will have seen the reception our cherished thoughts were given. Ah, the poor boys who lived so wholesomely in Provence, under the generous sun, in whom apparently such malevolence and madness were raging...
So, the battle is over and I have been beaten as far as the public is concerned. There is applause and gloating on all sides.

I was loath to deprive the crowd of its amusement, and so I am publishing 'Mon Salon'. In two weeks the clamour will have died down, the most partisan will be left with only a vague memory of my articles. The articles will no longer be before the eyes of the mockers; the fleeting pages of 'L'Evenement' will have gone with the wind, and things I did not say will be imputed to me; arrant stupidities I never wrote will be imputed to me. I don't want that to happen, and it is for that reason that I am collecting the articles I submitted to 'L'Evenement' under the pen-name Claude. I want 'Mon Salon' to remain intact, I want it to be what the public itself expected...

It gives me pleasure to express my ideas for a second time. I know that in a few years the whole world will come to believe that I was right. I have no fear that they will later be thrown back in my face.

EMILE ZOLA, Mon Salon, May 20th, 1866