TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Impressionism Timeline  
     
  Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism  
     
 

  1870 1880 1890
  1871 1881 1891
  1872 1882 1892
1863 1873 1883 1893
1864 1874 1884 1894
1865 1875 1885 1895
1866 1876 1886 1896
1867 1877 1887 1897
1868 1878 1888 1898
1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Impressionism Timeline
 
 
Impressionism * Neo-Impressionism * Post-Impressionism
 
Camille Pissarro
(1830-1903)
Edouard Manet (1832-83) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Alfred Sisley (1839-99)

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
       
Claude Monet (1840-1826) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)

Armand Guillaumin
(1841-1927)

Berthe Morisot (1841-95)

Federico Zandomeneghi (1841-1917)

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Giuseppe de Nittis
(1846-84)
       
Max Liebermann
(1847-1935)
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) Vincent van Gogh
(1853-90)
       
Charles Angrand
(1854-1926)
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Childe Hassam 
(1859-1935)

Georges Seurat (1859-91)
Louis Anquetin
(1861- 1932)
       
Theo van Rysselberghe (1862-1926) Paul Signac (1863-1935) Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
       
 
 
1864
 
 
A More Tolerant Salon
 
 

As a result of complaints about the Salon of 1863, the number of works rejected by the jury drops by 40 per cent. Manet, Morisot, Pissarro and Renoir exhibit; but Monet and Bazille make no submissions, though both are productive, working together in Honfleur.

 
JANUARY
1st
Renoir begins his military training incumbent on all French citizens unable to pay for a substitute.

7th Manet poses for Fantin-Latour's Homage to Delacroix (exhibited at the Salon in May).



FANTIN-LATOUR Homage to Delacroix
1864

When Delacroix died, on August 13th, 1863, Fantin-Latour invited a number of writers and artists to pose for this group portrait as a memorial to him. They are, from left to right: (back row) Louis Cordier, Alphonse Legros, Whistler, Manet, Bracque-mond and Albert de Balle-roy; (front row) Duranty, Fantin-Latour, Champ-fleury and Baudelaire.



FEBRUARY
4th
Louis Martinet's gallery hosts the first exhibition of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, an organization created by Martinet to boost the credibility of mixed exhibitions.

27th Manet asks for a ten-day extension for his submissions to the Salon.



Study for a portrait of Manet by Degas
(black chalk, с 1864).

Each witty and sharp-tongued, Manet and Degas
maintained a life-long love-hate relationship.


MARCH
6th
Degas visits Ingres' studio to see an exhibition of his drawings which are described in the publicity as 'done in the style of the Old Masters'.

7th Renoir finishes his military training.

12th Bazille goes to Honfieur with Monet and visits the latter's parents at the nearby village of Ste-Adresse. Bazille finds them 'charming', and they invite him to spend August with them. Pissarro paints on the banks of the Marne.



PISSARRO
Banks of the Marne
1864

Exhibited at the Salon of 1864, this view of the banks of the Marne in, winter shows the extent to which Pissarro, despite all his stylistic experiments, remained under the lingering influence of Corot, whom he still acknowledged as his master. The He de France had been Corot's favourite landscape subject, and Pissarro was preoccupied with the same efforts to depict the play of light on water.



APRIL
5th
Renoir, described as a pupil of Charles Gleyre, comes tenth out of 106 candidates in a sculpture and drawing examination at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

7th Cezanne obtains permission to copy Poussin's Shepherds in Arcadia at the Louvre.

12th Bazille fails his medical exams and decides to become a full-time artist.

22nd Rene Degas, the painter's youngest brother, writes from Paris to his cousins in America: 'Edgar does an enormous amount of work without seeming to do so. He has not only talents, but genius. Will he ever express it?'

 
  DEGAS
Portrait of the Artist with
Evariste de Valernes
с 1864 (unfinished)

This double portrait shows Degas with his friend Evariste de Valernes, an unsuccessful painter of noble origin who subsisted mainly by copying famous paintings.

Degas' last self-portrait, it was painted in his studio in the rue Laval.

The poses are reminiscent of those used by popular photographers of the time, and X-rays have revealed that originally Degas, like de Valernes, was wearing a top hat.


MAY
Charles Gleyre is overwhelmed by financial difficulties. Renoir, Monet, Bazille and Sisley leave his studio - shortly before it closes.

3rd Opening of the Salon.

This year the jury is much more tolerant, the proportion of rejections having dropped to 30 per cent from 70 per cent in 1863. Works exhibited include Dead Christ and Angels and Episode from a Bullfight by Manet; Banks of the Marne, and The Road to Cachalas by Pissarro, who describes himself as 'a pupil of Corot'; and A Souvenir of the Banks of the Oise and Old Roads at Auvers by Morisot. Renoir has only one work, La Esmeralda, accepted (which he subsequently destroys). Meissonier's Napoleon III at the Battle of Solferino is one of the big successes of the exhibition.

25th Manet departs for a holiday in Boulogne, where he sketches the Unionist corvette Kearsage, which is in port there.

JUNE
2nd
Bazille, Monet, Renoir and Sisley paint in the forest of Fontainebleau. Renoir meets Diaz de la Pena, whose influence encourages him to lighten his palette.

19th Manet paints the encounter off the French coast between the Kearsage and the Confederate warship Alabama.

20th Pissarro visits his friend the landscape painter Ludovic Piette at La Roche-Guyon.

27th Manet exhibits The Battle of the Kearsage' and the 'Alabama' at Cadart's gallery in the rue de Richelieu.



MANET
The Battle of the 'Kearsage'
and the 'Alabama '
1864

On June 19th, 1864, a corvette of the United States Navy, the Kearsage, attacked and sank confederate raider, the Alabama, off Cherbourg. Manet did not witness the ecounter, but he had sketched and painted the Kearsage while it was in port at Boulogne.
Anxious to produce a painting that would appeal to the Salon jury, he used his own sketches from Boulogne together with newspaper photographs and drawings in order to create what one contemporary critic termed 'a picture of war and aggression'.
Eventually exhibited at the Salon of 1872, it was sold by Durand-Ruel to the American collector John G. Johnson in 1888 for $1500.


JULY
9th
Monet departs for Honfleur.

13th Monet writes to Bazille urging him to come to Honfleur.

SEPTEMBER

Monet is joined by Bazille. The two artists work together, painting coast scenes in the Honfleur and Le Havre area. They also paint still lifes of flowers.
The Morisots move to 40 rue Villejust (now rue Paul-Valery), where M. Morisot builds a studio for his daughters in the garden.

NOVEMBER
5th Manet moves into an apartment at 34 boulevard des Batignolles, near his favourite cafe, the Cafe de Bade.

DECEMBER

Jules and Edmond de Goncourt visit Manet's studio in search of material for the character of Coriolis in their novel Manette Salomon.

 
 
 

MONET
Spring Flowers

c. 1864

In his letter of August 26th to Bazille, Monet enthused about the flowers in the Honfleur area. The influence of Boudin and Jongkind, who worked with him for a while in 1864, is evident in the rich impasto of this painting.
 
 

MONET'S LETTERS FROM HONFLEUR


Photograph of the harbour at Honfleur in the 1860s -
the time when Monet most frequently painted there.


There is something rather moving about the camaraderie of the young artists, later to be known as the Impressionists, who had studied under Charles Gleyre - and it was especially strong between Monet and Bazille. Monet's letters from Honfleur to his friend in Paris give an indication of the spirit that existed between them:

July 13th

What on earth can you be doing in Paris in such marvellous weather, for I suppose it must be just as fine down there? It's simply fantastic here, my friend, and each day I find something even more beautiful than the day before. It's enough to drive one crazy. Damn it man, come on the sixteenth. Get packing and come here for a fortnight. You'd be far better off; it can't be all that easy to work in Paris.

Today I have exactly a month left to work in Honfleur, and what is more my studies are almost done; I've even got some others back on the go. On the whole, I'm quite content with my stay here, although my sketches are far from being what I would like. It really is appallingly difficult to do something which is complete in every respect, and I think most people are content with just approximations.

Well, my dear friend, I intend to battle on, scrape off and start again, since one can do something if one can see and understand it, and when I look at nature, I feel as if I'll be able tq paint it all, note it all down - and then you can forget it once you're working.

All this proves you must think of nothing else. It's on the strength of observation and reflection that one finds a way.
So we must dig and delve unceasingly.




The popularity of Monet's The Lighthouse of Honfleur (hung at the Salon of 1865) is
indicated by the fact that this wood engraving of it appeared in the illustrated annual L'autographe аи Salon.



August 26th

I had just spent a day at Ste-Adresse when your letter arrived. It gave me great pleasure, please write nice long ones like that more often. I hope you're working hard, it is important that you devote yourself to it wholeheartedly and seriously now that your family is reconciled to your giving up medicine. I'm still at St-Simeon; it's such a pleasant place and I'm working hard, although what I'm doing is far from being what I should like. We are now quite a crowd here in Honfleur, several painters I did not know - and very bad ones at that - but we form a very pleasant little group of our own. Jongkind and Boudin are here, and we get on extremely well and stick together. Ribot is coming too; he's planning to paint a fishing boat with figures 'en plein air'. I'd be interested to see him do it. I'm sorry you're not here, since there's a good deal to be learnt from such company, and the landscape is growing more beautiful. It's turning yellow and becoming more varied, really lovely in fact, and I think I'm going to be in Honfleur for some time yet.

I must tell you that I'm sending my flower picture to the Rouen exhibition, there are some really lovely flowers about at this time. Why don't you do some yourself, since they're an excellent thing to paint?

 
 
 

 
 
 
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