Gustave Dore

EDGAR POE "The Raven"



The History of the Crusades  - 1 - 2

DANTE ALIGHIERI "The Divine Comedy" - 1 - 2

MILTON "Paradise Lost" - 1 - 2

ARIOSTO "Orlando Furioso" - 1 - 2 - 3

RABELAIS "Gargantua and Pantagruel" - 1 - 2

CERVANTES "Don Quixote" - 1 - 2

TENNYSON "Idylls of the King"

Gustave Dore
The History of the Crusades

Defended by thousands of Crusaders, 
the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is worshipped by European pilgrims.

The Saracens are clearly defeated in the battle of Navas de Tolosa in 

50,000 French and German children launch their own crusade,
singing “Lord Jesus, 
restore to us your holy cross!”

The Crusaders and the infidels witness two horsemen sparring in a friendly duel.

A soldier and his family 
affirm their vow to defend Christ in the fierce battles of the Crusades.

On a mission from God, St Francis of 
Assisi tries to persuade 
Sultan Melik-al-Kamil to embrace the teachings of Christianity.

Successfully converting several infidels, the Christian missionaries 
cleanse the infidels in a baptism ceremony.

Thibault IV, King of Navarre, promotes the Crusades, intriguing the French nobility with his Christian songs.

The Crusaders prepare the war machine, a catapult, for hurling large stones against enemy walls.

A devout Crusader preaches to some infidels, hoping to convert them to the Christian religion.

The Crusaders are roused by the sight of the true cross.

Amid the melée, the Crusaders assemble for a moment of prayer.


Unable to combat a sandstorm, the Syrian 
army is dispersed.

After leaping courageously into the sea in the 
attack on Damietta, 
St Louis and his army pause to offer thanks to God.

Adopting a mosque as their church, the army leaders sing psalms praising God for their victory.

And epidemic of disease ravages the Crusaders as the dead contaminate the living.

In a garden, women and children are interrupted by a message from the East.

While a prisoner in Egypt, Louis IX maintains a calm demeanor and a courageous spirit. 

Spared by the sultan, the chained prisoners are marched to Cairo. 

An old Saracen questions the prisoners about the Christian beliefs. 

Almoadam, first slashed by Bendocdar’s sword, is struck down by nine Mamelukes in the Nile. 

The head of an emir is displayed to the inhabitants of the sultan’s harem. 

After being offered the hand of Sultana Chegger-Eddour, 
the Emir Saif-Eddin is horrified at finding the sultana’s dead husband lying at her feet. 

A celestial light illuminates the unburied bodies of the soldiers who died at Sefed. 

Bibars revels in describing this ruthless butchering of Christian knights at 

After the capture of Antioch, Bibars sells the women and children as slaves.

The Crusaders, led by King Charles of Anjou and St. Louis, set out to convert the Emir of Tunis.

After the death of St. Louis on August 25, 1270, the French soldiers mourn their dynamic leader.

Marching back from Tunis with the remains of St. Louis, the somber French warriors form a 
funeral procession.

Henry d’Allemagne is attacked and murdered by Simon and Guy de Montfort at the foot of the church altar.

Attacked in his bed, Edward III of England struggles to turn the weapon on 
his assailant and succeeds in killing the Muslim.

Concerned with gaining authority over the Mamelukes, 
Kalaun agrees to conclude a truce with the Franks of Ptolemais.


Kalaun’s son Khālil and his emirs 
gather in the chapel, invoking their prophet for help in fighting the Christians.

Sanuti presents maps of Egypt and the Holy Land to Pope John XXII 
and advises the pope to 
support another crusade.

A veteran recounts his 
tales of the Crusades to an attentive audience of women and children.

The garrison leaders of Constantinople listen to the emperor’s encouraging speech with a bleak premonition.

Sultan Muhammad II lunges into the sea on horseback after the Ottomans are weakened.

Forty days after advancing into Belgrade, the Ottoman Turks are defeated by the Christians on August 6, 1456.

Pope Sixtus IV supports a levy to raise money for 
the crusade and builds 24 new galleys.

On Mount Taurus, the Crusaders climb down the narrow path with 
difficulty after losing their horses down the steep ravine.

Beset by famine and a shortage of water, the Christians lack the strength to fight.

Don John of Austria leads the Christians to an overwhelming victory 
over the Ottomans in the naval battle of Lepanto (October 7, 1571)

The symbol of Christ on the cross comforts the families of the Crusaders as they depart for the Crusades.


The monastic orders of knighthood, the 
Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitalers, 
produced soldiers sworn to uphold the Christian ideal.

A returning horseman observes several women and children in prayer.

Vernturing through a narrow valley in the mountains of Judea, 
the Christian army battles exhaustion and stifling heat.

A dying soldier seeks forgiveness for his sins.

The Crusaders witness an extraordinary event on their sacred journey.

In Arsuf, Saladin organizes a raid against the Crusaders, and his army is suppressed within one day.

Heroic knights and chivalry are immortalized in song by troubadors.


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