TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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History of the World in Objects and Art
Timeline
 

20 000BC      
1200BC 800 1455 1820
700BC 1070 1500 1840
350BC 1205 1530 1868
200BC 1260 1600 1890
100BC 1290 1685 1910
30 1350 1755 1920
600 1400 1800 1950
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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History of the World in Objects and Art Timeline
 
 
 
ENTERTAINING THE WORLD

Cinema, music, television, and publishing have all evolved to create a world of pleasure and leisure. The 20th century saw the rise of global entertainment, with mass-circulation newspapers, television, best-selling novels, and movies.
 
In the early 20th century, most people had to find their own entertainment. But as movie theaters began to appear, going to the movies became increasingly popular. By the 1930s, many people worldwide went at least once a week. Movies were in black and white until the 1930s, when the first color ones were made. At home, people could listen to the radio from the early 1920s but television only became widely available to the masses in the 1950s.
By the mid 60s, it had become the main source of entertainment, at the expense of movies.

Advances in technology allowed people to listen to music anywhere, at any time, on portable devices. Home movies came into the living room with the advent of videos in the early 1980s, and then DVDs replaced videos in the late 90s. By the early part of the 21st century, the e-reader began to transform book reading.
 
 
 
 
 
SOUND
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1929

The Great Depression
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1933

The Rise of Nazism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Man's Inhumanity to Man
 

Europe in turmoil

 

The scene of destruction: The Basque town of Guernica у Luno
after the bombing of 26 April 1937
 
 
Sergeant Yoldi was appalled: "There was nothing to be heard but the crackle and roar of flames. No one spoke and even the cattle trotting aimlessly through the streets made no noise. We were all dumb with horror. I had known Guernica before the war — there was nothing left of it. It had been a little town with red-roofed, white-walled houses. Now its streets were strewn with charred animal carcasses." On 26 April 1937, just twenty-four hours before Sergeant Yoldi arrived in Guernica, the town had been bombed by the German Condor Legion. This became the most famous of the Spanish Civil War atrocities, horrifying a world which had not yet grown used to air attacks on defenceless cities. The war began in July 1936, when General Francisco- Franco led a revolt against the Spanish Republic. The Spanish Left had won a parliamentary majority but was unable to restrain those among them who were deter-mined that their turn in power should be used to destroy the Right. Franco's revolt became a civil war, and Franco received the support of Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany, which went so far as to send troops — using the Spanish war to try out new weapons and tactics. The Republicans were supported by volunteers from all over the world, as well as by Stalin's Soviet Union. Horrifying and sadistic atrocities were committed by both sides — Pablo Picasso, who was a Spaniard, made Guernica the subject of one of his most famous paintings. After Franco's victory the German painter Max Ernst created his spectral L'ange du foyer (Fireside angel), an apocalyptic monster bursting with destructive energy, a King-Kong-like Angel of Death spreading fear and terror.

Ernst was born in 1891 at Bruhl near Cologne, and as a painter he was quite "degenerate": or this is how he was described by the propagandists of the Third Reich. In 1921 Ernst moved to Pans, where he threw himself into sculpture, print-making and film as well as painting. There he became a participant in the French Dada movement, a short-lived movement from 1916 to about 1922 which declared that all established values, morals and aesthetics had been rendered meaningless by the catastrophe of the World War I. Later, in 1924, Ernst became a member of the Surrealist movement which followed Dada and was considered one of its most innovative members. The Surrealists still touted the importance of chance in their work, as did the Dadaists, but added to it more control and theories borrowed from psychoanalysis, emphasising the subconscious and the importance of dream imagery.

In 1937, the year he painted L'ange du foyer, Ernst learned that the National Socialists had confiscated his early work, which he had left behind m Germany. It was soon destroyed in the National Socialist effort to "purify" German art. We may suppose, then, that when he painted this work, Spain was not the only thing worrying him. When World War II began, the French internedErnst at Aix-en-Provence as an "enemy alien", but friends interceded for him. He was released and ordered to leave France. He went to the United States of America with the help of the artconnoisseur and collector Peggy Guggenheim, who he later married.



Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L'ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
1937




Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L'ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
 
 
 
 
 
1937

The Bombing of Guernica
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1937

The Bombing of Guernica
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1938

The Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FIGHTING THE WORLD WARS

Two world wars changed the battlefield forever. Conflicts were no longer short and politically decisive but involved large territories, vast armies, and new, deadly weapons. Fighting was revolutionized by the sheer scale of modern war.
 
World War I saw horrendous casualties as a result of the industrialization of war. Machine guns, poison gas, and aircraft created a different field of combat from earlier wars. A soldier's life was dominated by mud, barbed wire, and gunfire, while new weaponry made possible mass slaughter.

In 1939, the world was plunged into a second war, which by 1941 had become truly global in scale because the Axis states—Germany, Italy, and Japan— used armed aggression to carve out territories in Europe, the Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. When the USSR and the US entered the war in 1941, the Axis was doomed to defeat.

Weapons were now even more destructive. Tanks and armored vehicles gave a new mobility, and huge bombers pulverized enemy cities. By the war's end, the age of jets, rockets, and atomic bombs had arrived. Civilians died in even larger numbers than soldiers in what became a true "total war".
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1939

The Second World War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1939

The Second World War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1939

The Second World War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1942
 

The Holocaust
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1942
 

The Holocaust
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1942
 

The Holocaust
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1945
 

The Atomic Bomb
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
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