TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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History of the World in Objects and Art
Timeline
 

20 000BC      
1200BC 800 1455 1820
700BC 1070 1500 1840
350BC 1205 1530 1868
200BC 1260 1600 1890
100BC 1290 1685 1910
30 1350 1755 1920
600 1400 1800 1950
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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History of the World in Objects and Art Timeline
 
 
 
1543

Europe and Japan Meet
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1568

The Eighty Years' War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cowards Don't Go to Heaven

The first Christian victory at sea against the Ottomans

Navpaktos is a charming little Greek town at the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. In the early morning, old men sit over glasses of Ouzo and cups of coffee on tottery blue chairs along the quay. Day after day they enjoy the spectacle of the peaks across the Gulf on the Peloponnesus emerging from the haze. This was where, on 7 October 1571, Christian navies battled Ottoman galleys bristling with canons to save, as the West saw it, the powers of Christendom from being subdued by Muslim forces. A bloodbath for both sides, the event went down in history as the "Battle of Lepanto", which is the Italian name for Naupactus, the name of the town in ancient times.

Renaissance Europe always feared not without reason the possibility of being invaded by Ottoman armies. Three centuries before the Battle of Lepanto, Crusaders laid waste entire regions of what is now Turkey at regular intervals. Now the tables had been turned. Whilst the West was imploring its Saints to intercede for its armies, the Ottoman forces were burning Belgrade. In 1526 they conquered Hungary and, by 1529, they had reached the gates of Vienna. This was the point at which the West retaliated. After morning mass on Sunday, 7 October 1571, the galleys of the "Holy League", an alliance of Venetians, Spaniards and Papal troops, were cautiously cruising the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth when suddenly a murmur went up from ship to ship: the Ottoman fleet had been sighted. Numbering 274 men-o'-wars, it was drawn up in a broad crescent formation ten nautical miles to the east in the Gulf. At that time, the rules of naval warfare did not permit flagships to engage in combat. This convention was, however, jettisoned at Lepanto. By the time the Ottoman Sultana rammed the foredeck of the Spanish Real, splintering it under the blow, the battle had already been decided. Fighting ceased at 2 p.m., when a Spaniard beheaded the Ottoman commander in the fray and brandished his horrible trophy for the Turkish forces to see. Overcome at the sight, the Ottoman navy was paralysed. The Sultana was seized and the battle won by the Christian forces. The Holy League suffered 7,000 casualties, while 40,000 Ottoman seamen had been killed. One of the most distinguished survivors was Miguel de Cervantes. The Spanish writer, whose left hand was permanently maimed from injuries sustained in the fighting, recorded his experience in Don Quixote.

Yet, the hero of the day was John of Austria. The commander of the victorious Western forces was the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles V and Barbara Blomberg, the daughter of a belt-maker from Regensburg, Germany. The man who had been scorned as a bastard won renown as the saviour of Europe, and was even paid homage by the Pope.



ANDREA DE MICHIELIS VICENTINO
(с. 1542c. 1617)
Battle of Lepanto
1603
Oil on canvas
Palazzo Ducale, Venice

 
 
 
 
1571

The Battle of Lepanto
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1571

The Battle of Lepanto
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1571

The Battle of Lepanto
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1585

The Last Phase of the Wars of Religion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1588

The Defeat of the Invincible Armada
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1600
 
The Rebellion of Jahangir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1600

European Expansion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1600

European Expansion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
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