TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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History of the World in Objects and Art
Timeline
 

20 000BC      
1200BC 800 1455 1820
700BC 1070 1500 1840
350BC 1205 1530 1868
200BC 1260 1600 1890
100BC 1290 1685 1910
30 1350 1755 1920
600 1400 1800 1950
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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History of the World in Objects and Art Timeline
 
 
 

58 ВС

The Conquest of Gaul

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

51 ВС

Cleopatra Ascends to the Throne of Egypt

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

27 ВС

The Establishment of the Principate

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

AD 70

The Destruction of Jerusalem

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

AD 70

The Destruction of Jerusalem

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TRAJAN'S COLUMN

The Roman Empire was at its largest under Emperor Trajan, who ruled from 98 to 117 ce. A great general, Trajan spent most of his career in the army. As emperor, he led two successful invasions of Dacia (modern Romania and Moldovia) in 101-02 and 105-06 ce. He used the vast wealth gained from the conquest of Dacia, an area rich in gold mines, to build a grand new forum in Rome. At the center, Trajan built a 125-ft- (38-m-) high structure decorated with scenes (originally painted) from the Dacian wars, with a gilded statue of the emperor on the top. This column would also be Trajan's tomb, for his ashes were later placed in the base. The
column served to commemorate Trajan's achievement in building the forum. The area, which had been previously hilly, was excavated and leveled to a depth equal to the column's height. An inscription at the column's base records that it was built "to demonstrate of what great height the hill was and the place that was removed for such great works."

A GRAND TRIBUTE

Trajan's column is a monument both to the emperor and to his soldiers, who are shown marching and fighting their way up the sides, in a continuous frieze. Before any major undertaking, such as crossing the Danube River, the army would sacrifice animals to win the favor of the gods—many such scenes of sacrifice are depicted in the carvings. As chief priest, Trajan is often shown overseeing the sacrifices. The carvings also show how Roman soldiers were armed, how they carried their equipment, and how they fought. Roman legionaries, in their plate armor, can be distinguished from the auxiliaries by their oval shields. Rome's Dacian enemies can also be seen—the sculptors knew what they looked like, since many Dacian prisoners had been brought to Rome, together with their arms and armor, for Trajan's triumphal procession.
 
 
 
 
106

The Roman Victory over Dacia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
127

The Reign of Kanishka
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
260

Shapur I's Victory over the Romans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
312

Constantine's Victory
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
312

Constantine's Victory
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
312

Constantine's Victory
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
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