TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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History of the World in Objects and Art
Timeline
 

20 000BC      
1200BC 800 1455 1820
700BC 1070 1500 1840
350BC 1205 1530 1868
200BC 1260 1600 1890
100BC 1290 1685 1910
30 1350 1755 1920
600 1400 1800 1950
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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History of the World in Objects and Art Timeline
 
 
 
333 ВС

The Conquests of Alexanderthe Great
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A Battle that Changed the World

An eyewitness to a cosmic event

 


The camp outside Issus, as Altdorfer imagined the scene


Alexander, whom posterity styles "the Great", was twenty-three years old when he and his Greek troops encountered an adversary old enough to be his father, King Darius III of Persia. Battlewas joined on the plain of Issus, an old Mediterranean port near what is now the Turkish-Syrian border, in 333 ВС. The brilliant Alexander, a pupil of the philosopher Aristotle, managed to break into the Persian left flank. He is said to have looked so piercingly into Darius s eyes that the Persianking fled. His troops panicked and the massacre that ensued lasted until late that night.
During the battle Darius's mother, wife and children were captured. Alexander treated them honourably, which earned him the respect of the Persians. As hostages, however, they did influence Darius's behaviour. Yet, when Darius showed readiness to compromise, Alexander refused his offer. His decision made world history. He wanted to conquer Persia, but much more he wanted to rule the world: "Should you desire to know what my aim is, you should know that the bounds of my new Empire will be those that God has set the earth." After defeating Darius a second time, he conquered Egypt, the kingdom of Babylon and eastern Persia, calling himself the "King of all Asia." He drove the borders of his vast empire far beyond what is now Pakistan, all the way east to India and the banks of the River Bias. His victories were not merely political. More importantly, he carried Hellenic culture with him everywhere he went. He also promoted religious tolerance, including of Judaism. Napoleon thought highly of him, admiring in particular Alexander's ability to win the hearts of the peoples he conquered.
Albrecht Altdorfer was the first great painter to take landscape as his exclusive subject matter. He represented the historic Battle of Issus as one of his contemporaries, the German physician and scholar Paracelsus, might have viewed it: an epic struggle of life and death fought out on a cosmic scale, whose drama is reflected in the swirling clouds above and the endless vista beyond.



Albrecht Altdorfer
(с 1480ó1538)
The Battle of Alexander
1529
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
 
 
 
 
333 ВС

The Conquests of Alexanderthe Great
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
333 ВС

The Conquests of Alexanderthe Great
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
238 ВС

The Battle of the Caicus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
221 ВС

The Founding of the Chinese Empire
 
 
 
 
 
 
TERRA-COTTA SOLDIER

In 210 ce, the First Emperor was buried in a vast tomb beneath a man-made mountain, which has still not been excavated. According to the Han historian Sima Qian, it took 70,000 workmen to build the tomb, which contained a great model of China, with flowing mercury representing rivers and the sea. Tests on the soil have shown that the center of the tomb does indeed contain high levels of mercury. The toxic metal was mistakenly believed to confer immortality. Ironically, the emperor's early death, at the age of 40, was probably hastened by taking immortality pills, made from poisonous mercury.

AFTERLIFE ARMY

In 1974, farmers digging wells to the east of the tomb discovered the first of four pits, which together held an army of 7,000 life-size terra-cotta warriors. The warriors were accompanied by 130 bronze chariots, 520 terra-cotta chariot horses, and 150 cavalry horses. One pit contained 40,000 bronze weapons, the blades of which were still razor sharp. Another was full of sets of armorómade from stone plates rather than the usual lacquered leather. Stone was thought to offer spiritual protection against ghosts. The army's role was to protect the emperor in the afterlife from demons
and the vengeful ghosts of all the men he had killed. The emperor intended to continue ruling for eternity from his tomb, so he was buried with terra-cotta civil servants. To keep him amused, he also had an army of entertainers. There were terra-cotta acrobats, musicians, and strongmen buried alongside bronze dancing waterbirds.
 
 
 
 
 
221 ВС

The Founding of the Chinese Empire
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
218 ВС

Hannibal and the Second Punic War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
218 ВС

Hannibal and the Second Punic War
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE ARTISTIC ETRUSCANS

From the 8th century все, the Etruscans created a major civilization in northwest and central Italy. They were skilled artists, sculpting in bronze and terra-cotta. They were also celebrated for their divination skills, which involved interpreting the will of the gods by reading lightning or examining the livers of sacrificed animals.
 
The Etruscan language was unrelated to any other in Europe. This led the Greek historian Herodotus to argue that the Etruscans had migrated to Italy from Anatolia. More recent investigations, however, reveal that the Etruscans were the original inhabitants of northwest Italy and their language developed from an ancient Italian one.

The Etruscan homeland lies in the modern-day region of Tuscany in central Italy. This area is rich in tin and copper, which were used to make bronze. The Etruscans grew wealthy through trading bronze and other goods with the Phoenicians and Greeks. They were strongly influenced by the Greeks, adopting their alphabet around 700 все, and embracing Greek art and clothing.


POWER AND INFLUENCE

There were 12 independent Etruscan city-states, each ruled by a king. In the 6th century все, with Etruscan power at its peak, these city-states formed a loose alliance. At the time, the civilization dominated Italy from the Po plain in the north, south to the Bay of Naples. The Etruscans influenced their Latin-speaking neighbors, including the Romans, who were originally ruled by Etruscan kings. In the 3rd century все, the Romans conquered and absorbed the Etruscan civilization into their growing empire. Nevertheless, the Romans continued to respect Etruscan expertise in religious matters. Whenever lightning struck any public building in Rome, the Etruscan haruspices, or diviners, would be summoned to interpret the significance of the event.
 
 

Greek style

Most of what is known about the Etruscans comes from their tombs. This painting, in a tomb in Tarquinia, Italy, shows Etruscan dancers and musicians playing an aulos (pipe) and lyre, both Greek inventions.
 
 
 
BATTLE AND CONFLICT
 
 
 
 
BELIEFS AND RITUALS
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
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