TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Art Timeline  
 
 
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
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19th century (1800-1899)
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
Nazarenes
 
 
Johann Friedrich Overbeck

Peter von Cornelius

Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld

Paul Delaroche

Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin


Franz Pforr

Philipp Veit

Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier


Johann Anton Ramboux

Josef Fuhrich
 

Carl Philipp Fohr 

Tommaso Minardi

Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow

Pietro Tenerani
 
 
Nazarenes

member of  Lucas Brotherhood , or Brotherhood of Saint Luke , German Nazarener , or Lukasbund one of anassociation formed by a number of young German painters in 1809 to return to the medieval spirit in art. Reacting particularly against 18th-century Neoclassicism, the brotherhood was the first effective anti academic movement in European painting. The Nazarenes believed that all art should serve a moral or religious purpose; they admired painters of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance and rejected most subsequent painting (promulgated by the European academies), believing that it abandoned religious ideals in favour of artistic virtuosity. They also thought that the mechanical routine of the academy system could be avoided by a return to the more intimate teaching situation of the medieval workshop. For this reason, they worked and lived together in a semimonastic existence.

The brotherhood's original members were six Vienna Academy students. Four of them, Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel, and Johann Konrad Hottinger, moved in 1810 to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of Sant'Isidoro. There they were joined by Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm von Schadow, and others who at various times were associated with the movement. They soon acquired the originally derisive nickname Nazarenes because of their affectation of biblical style of hair and dress. The major project of the Nazarenes was to revive the medieval art of fresco painting. They were fortunate in receiving two important commissions, the fresco decoration of the Casa Bartholdy (1816–17) and the Casino Massimo (1817–29) in Rome, which brought their work to international attention. By the time of the completion of the Casino Massimo frescoes, all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had dissolved.

The art of the Nazarenes, consisting largely of religious subjects executed in a conventional naturalistic style, was, for the most part, unimpressive, characterized by overcrowded compositions, over attention to detail, and lack of colouristic or formal vitality. Nevertheless, their aim of honest expression of deeply felt ideals had an important influence on subsequent movements, particularly the English Pre-Raphaelites of the mid-19th century. 

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
The Nazarenes

In 1809, the young German painters Franz Pforr (1788-1812) and Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) founded the Brotherhood of St Luke in Vienna. They settled in Rome a year later, where they lived and worked with new recruits in the convent of Sant'Isidoro del Pincio. Because of their flowing hair and monk-like appearance, they were called the Nazarenes. Within the confines of the Brotherhood, their daily life was based on fraternity and ascetic poverty. As artists, the members set out to revive the art of painting by following an ideal of simplicity and sincerity, in conflict with the academic principles of their time. Their reworking of ancient sacred an was based on a sobriety of
colour and line that had many sources of inspiration, including Fra Angelico, the early works of Raphael, and older northern masters from van Eyck to Durer.

For the Nazarenes, art was a divine mission, elevated to the level of true faith. The celestial origin of sacred art was celebrated by Philipp Veit (1793-1877) in his frescos in the Villa Massimo of Rome (1819), where he represented the three great Italian poets - Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso -alongside the saints and fathers of the church. Between 1826 and 1839, Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867) gave artists sacred status in the loggias of the Munich Pinakothek (1826-30) and the Stadel Institute of Frankfurt with his Triumph of Religion in the Arts(1829). In portraits, there was a mood of contemplation. In the intimate portrayal of friends, pictures reveal subtle nuances of character, in a style far removed from the canons of official portraiture. The original spirit, derived from the masters of the 15th century that had brought the Nazarenes together, lasted only for a short time. The fresco cycles that decorated the home of the German consul Bartholdy (1816-17) and the Villa Massimo already showed affinities with the style of the Renaissance of the early 16th century. 

Pforr died before the age of 25 and Cornelius was summoned, together with Heinrich von Olivier (1785-1841) and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), to Munich by Ludwig. The king encouraged a popular, educational style of painting and commissioned them to adorn the city's public buildings with patriotic, humanistic frescos. The art of the Nazarenes assumed an official role with Cornelius' paintings - which formed part of the Glyptothek (1819-30), the museum of ancient art designed in a Greek style by Leo von Klenze. Thanks, too, to Carolsfeld's cycle of theNibelungen (1827) for the Konigsbau (the royal residence in Munich open to visitors), an artistic interpretation of national mythology assumed an educational function.

Franz Pforr

Philipp Veit 

Leo von Klenze

Ludwig Vogel 

Johann Anton Ramboux

Josef Fuhrich 

Carl Philipp Fohr 


Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow

 
 
 
Franz Pforr

(b Frankfurt am Main, 5 April 1788; d Albano, nr Rome, 16 June 1812). German painter and draughtsman.

He received his earliest training from his father, the painter Johann Georg Pforr (1745–98), and his uncle, the art professor and first inspector of the painting gallery in Kassel, Johann Heinrich Tischbein the younger (1742–1808). In 1805 he became a student at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, which was dominated by the severe Neo-classicism of its director, Heinrich Füger; he was taught by Hubert Maurer (1738–1818), Franz Cauzig (1762–1828) and Johann Martin Fischer. During the war with France in 1805, Pforr volunteered as a guard in the Vienna militia. He suffered a nervous breakdown, brought on by the conflict between his passionate longing for a contemplative life and a desire to see military action. He probably turned to religion to help sustain his mental equilibrium.

In 1806 he resumed his academic studies and, believing himself destined to become a battle painter, made numerous drawings of historical battles, for example his still schoolish and baroquely composed Wallenstein in the Battle of Lützen (1806; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Kstinst. & Städt. Gal.).

However, it was not until 1807, with Drawing with Twelve Travel Sketches (Frankfurt am Main, Stadt- & Ubib.), that he first began to overcome his beginner’s style and to develop his own. This resulted in reduced detail, simplified continuous contours, a structuring by means of planar rather than illusionistic criteria, a new clarity of vision and a chastened balance between nature and artistic conception.

 
 
 

Franz Pforr
Self-Portrait
 
 

Franz Pforr
St George and the Dragon

1811
 
 

Franz Pforr
Shulamit and Maria

1810
 
 

Franz Pforr
Rudolf von Habsburg und der Priester
 
 
 
INGRES AND THE NAZARENES

Certain similarities tan be found between the puritanical spirit of Pforr and the style of Ingres, which was defined by David and his school during a particular period of the artist's activity as "Gothic" and "dry and clipped". InPforr's The Entrance of Rudolf of Hapshurg into Basle in 1273, the minute detail of faces and costumes of the animated crowd filling the narrow streets seems to be an informed interpretation of a scene from medieval life; in fact, the painting displays anachronisms that spring from the wish to revive a lost age. In his Entry into Peris of the Dauphin, the Future Charles,Ingres discarded the excessively-primitive nature of Gothic painting, as revived by Pforr, with its absence of atmosphere, depth, and pathos, preferring soft brushwork to the dry technique of the Nazarenes.

 
 

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Entry into Peris of the Dauphin, the Future Charles V
1821
 
 

Franz Pforr
The Entry of Emperor Rudolf of Habsburg into Basle

1809-10
Oil on canvas, 90 x 119 cm
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt
 
 
 

NORTH AND SOUTH

During this period, many great contemporary artists found an irreconcilable problem in the duality of classicism and medievalism, pagan mythology and Christian iconography. North and South, and German and Mediterranean culture. They felt that this caused them to oscillate between two mutually incompatible outlooks. The young Goethe, for example, was seduced by the impetus of the medieval revival, but, as an adult, under the influence of Winckelmann, he came to embrace the very reverse properties - simplicity, measure, and balance. The Nazarenes endeavoured to establish harmony between the two opposites, the ideal incarnated by Raphael and the spirit of German tradition. In Overbeck's Italy and Germany, the women representing the two extremes sit happily together.

 

Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Italy and Germany
 
 
 
Philipp Veit 

(b Berlin, 13 Feb 1793; d Mainz, 18 Dec 1877). 

German painter. The stepson, from 1804, of Friedrich von Schlegel, he studied (1808–11) at the Akademie in Dresden under Friedrich Matthäi (1777–1845) and Caspar David Friedrich. He showed talent in drawing but, on moving to Vienna in 1811, had difficulties with painting in oil, and turned to watercolour. Through Schlegel, Veit came to know many of the leading Romantics in Vienna, such as the poet and novelist Joseph von Eichendorff. In 1813–14 Veit took part in the campaign against Napoleon and returned briefly to Berlin. In 1815 he completed a votive picture, the Virgin with Christ and St John, for the church of St James in Heiligenstadt, Vienna, inspired by the work of Pietro Perugino and Raphael. In 1815 Veit left for Italy where he stayed until 1830. In Rome he joined the circle around Friedrich Overbeck and Peter Cornelius, becoming a leading Nazarene. With these artists he took part in providing fresco decorations (1816–17) for the Casa Bartholdy (now the Bibliotheca Hertziana): Veit painted the scene of Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife and a decorative lunette allegory, the Seven Years of Plenty (both now Berlin, Staatl. Mussen, N.G.).

In 1818 Veit was commissioned to paint the fresco of the Triumph of Religion in the Museo Chiaramonti in the Vatican, one of a series of murals recording the services of Pope Pius VII to science and art. Veit also took part in the decoration of the Casino Massimo in Rome (1818–24), painting the ceiling of the Dante Room with the Heavens of the Blessed and the Empyrean. In these frescoes and in his Maria Immaculata in Trinità dei Monti (1829–30) Veit proved himself the finest colourist of the Nazarene artists. While in Rome, Veit also painted some excellent portraits, notably a Self-portrait (c. 1816; Mainz, Landesmus.). He also produced a fine series of pencil drawings of his fellow German artists in Rome (e.g. Mainz, Landesmus.).

 
 

Philipp Veit
St. Anne Teaching the Virgin to Read
1869



Philipp Veit
Italia




Philipp Veit
Germania




Philipp Veit
Germania





Philipp Veit
Ecce Homo
1819




Philipp Veit
Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife
1817




Philipp Veit
Religion
Figure from the fresco in the Museo Chiaramonti




Philipp Veit
The rest on the Flight
1840




Philipp Veit
Die sieben fetten Jahre
Lunette des Freskenzyklus der Casa Bartholdy, Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
 
 
 
Leo von Klenze
 

b. 1784 Schladen, Germany, d. 1864 Munich, Germany painter 

An architect, painter, and writer, Leo von Klenze is most noted for his work as court architect to Ludwig I, king of Bavaria. He designed streets, squares, and numerous monumental buildings that set the scale and tone of Munich, the Bavarian capital. His other European commissions ranged from Athens, where he was the first to take steps to preserve the Acropolis, to Saint Petersburg, Russia. In addition to building, Von Klenze studied public building finance, designed and arranged museum galleries of ancient art, and was an accomplished painter. His paintings exhibit a richness of detail and special attention to light and compositional space. He successfully combined his talent for sharp observation with an equal and complementary ability to improve upon nature. On his visits to Italy, he both drew and painted landscapes and examined the remains of Greek temples as sources for his archaeological Greek style.

 
 

Leo von Klenze
Glypothek
1816
Munich




Leo von Klenze
Ruhmeshalle in Munich





Leo von Klenze
Napoleon in Portoferraio 




Leo von Klenze
Idealized view of the Acropolis and the Areopagus in Ahens
1846
Oil on canvas, 103 x 148 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich




Leo von Klenze
Landscape with the Castle of Massa di Carrara




Leo von Klenze
The Camposanto in Pisa
1858

 
 
 
Ludwig Vogel

(b Zurich, 10 July 1788; d Zurich, 20 Aug 1879). 

Swiss painter. He served an apprenticeship as a pastry-cook, simultaneously training as an artist under Samuel Scheurmann (1770–1844) and Johann Pfenninger (1765–1825) in Aarau (1802–3) and from 1804 with Henry Fuseli and Konrad Gessner in Zurich. In 1807 he set out on a study tour in Switzerland, visiting the Bernese Oberland, the Valais and Ticino: the subsequent exhibition was so successful that he was able to give up baking and devote himself entirely topainting. In 1808 he went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where he studied under Lorenz Schönberger (1768–1847). With his friends Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr he was a founder-member of the Lukasbund, a studentgroup whose formation was precipitated by the temporary closure of the Akademie early in 1809.

The group looked back to early German and Italian Renaissance painting in its search for artistic sincerity, and when in 1810 Vogel travelled to Rome with Overbeck and Pforr, he turned his back definitively on academicism. As well as his work within the Lukasbund circle, the main influences on him in Rome were Bertel Thorvaldsen, Joseph Anton Koch and Peter Cornelius. In 1813 he returned to Zurich for good after a second visit to Italy. Occasional painting trips took him to the Black Forest (1820), Paris (1822), Stuttgart (1824) and Munich, where he also took part in exhibitions (1830 and 1832). Most of his pictures treat historical subjects from Swiss history (Battle of Grandson 1476, 1836; Berne, Kstmus.); very popular in his lifetime, they were often reproduced and widely disseminated.

 
 

Ludwig Vogel
Die Eidgenossen bei der Leiche Winkelrieds
1841



Ludwig Vogel
Fisherfolk by the shore





Ludwig Vogel
Johann Friedrich Overbeck Studying a Print by Durer
1814
 
 
 
Johann Anton Ramboux

(b Trier, 5 Oct 1790; d Cologne, 2 Oct 1866). 

German painter, draughtsman and museum curator. He was taught drawing by Jean-Henri Gilson (1741–1809), before he went to Paris for further training in the studio of Jacques-Louis David. In 1812 he returned to Trier, painting portraits until 1815, when he spent a year at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. In 1816 he went to Rome, where he was part of the Nazarene circle without becoming a member of the Lukasbrüder.

Close association with these artists, notably Peter Cornelius, Carl Philipp Fohr and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, had a more lasting influence on Ramboux’s artistic development than his earlier studies with David, whose classical concepts he gradually abandoned.

 
 

Johann Ramboux
Double Portrait of the Brothers Konrad and Franz Eberhard, Painter and Sculptor in Munich



Johann Ramboux
Adam and Eve after Expulsion from Eden 
1818
 
 
 
Joseph von Fuhrich

(b Kratzau, N. Bohemia, 9 Feb 1800; d Vienna, 13 March 1876). 

Bohemian painter, printmaker and teacher. Until he was 18 he was trained by his father, Wenzel Führich, a painter and mason. In 1819, at the academy exhibition in Prague, he made his début with two history paintings. Their success enabled him to study in Prague. Dürer was the first powerful influence on his style; on a visit to Vienna in 1822, medieval and Renaissance art made a similar impression. His illustrations for Ludwig Tieck’s Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1824–5) attracted the interest of Prince Metternich, who helped him obtain a scholarship to study in Italy.

On his arrival in Rome in 1827, Führich made contact with Friedrich Overbeck and other German artists there. He met Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) and was commissioned to complete the Tasso room (1827–9) in the Casino Massimo. In Rome he was impressed by Italian Renaissance works, particularly Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican.

On the return journey to Vienna, he admired Fra Angelico’s paintings and the frescoes in the Camposanto in Pisa. After a period in Prague, Führich obtained a teaching post in Vienna in 1834, becoming professor of historical composition at the Kunstschule in 1840. Such works as Jacob and Rachel at the Well (1836; Vienna, Belvedere) and the Legend of St Isidore (1839; Mannheim, Städt. Ksthalle) made him the leading representative of Nazarene-style painting in Austria. In 1844–6 he produced a monumental cycle of the Stations of the Cross for the church of Johann-Nepomuk and in 1850 completed the cartoons for the frescoes in the Altlerchen Church, Vienna. His late work consists largely of prints and drawings with a religious content, which brought him great popularity.
 
 

Joseph von Fuhrich
The Passage of Mary through the Mountains 
1841
 
 

Joseph von Fuhrich
Jacob Encountering Rachel with her Father's Herds
1836
 
 
 
Carl Philipp Fohr

(b Heidelberg, 26 Nov 1775; d Rome, 29 June 1818). 

German painter and draughtsman. His first drawing lessons, from the age of 13, were from Friedrich Rottmann (1768–1816), the father of the painter Carl Rottmann. In 1810 the Darmstadt Court Councillor, Georg Wilhelm Issel, discovered Fohr sketching at Stift Neuberg near Heidelberg and, the following year, invited him to Darmstadt and provided encouragement and financial support. From 1813 Fohr carried out commissions for Grand Duchess Wilhelmina of Hesse, for whom he produced a Sketchbook of the Neckar Region, a collection of views and historical subjects (30 watercolours; 1813–14) and also a Baden Sketchbook (30 watercolours, 1814–15; both Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.).

These far surpassed the usual level attained in this genre in their sharpness of detail, delicacy of colour and pictorial inventiveness. The Crown Princess granted him an annual pension of 500 guilders. From July 1815 to May 1816, Fohr was a student of landscapepainting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, and it was here that his breakthrough into an independent and ingenious drawing style came about.

 
 

Carl Philipp Fohr
Knights at the Charcoal Burner's Hut
1816



Carl Philipp Fohr
Ideal Landscape near Rocca Canterana
1818



Carl Philipp Fohr
Das Heidelberger Schlof
 
 
 
Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow 

(b Berlin, 6 Sept 1788; d Düsseldorf, 19 March 1862). 

Painter, teacher and writer, son of Johann Gottfried Schadow. He studied at the Berlin Akademie from 1805 and in 1806 showed paintings at the annual Akademie exhibition. Under his teacher, Friedrich Georg Weitsch, he quickly became a skilled portrait painter, and by 1810 he was commissioned to paint portraits of members of the Prussian royal family and of the Empress of Austria. Influenced by the English artist John Flaxman, Schadow developed an emphasis on outline. In 1810 Schadow went with his brother Ridolfo Schadow to Rome, where in 1813 he became a member of the Lukasbrüder and, in 1814, a Catholic. In 1815–17 he took part, with Peter von Cornelius, Friedrich Overbeck and Philipp Veit, in the commission for frescoes of the Story of Joseph for a room in the Casa Bartholdy (now Berlin, Alte N.G.).

In his continuing interest in portraits, Schadow differed from his colleagues. Following the example of Gottlieb Schick and similarly inspired by Raphael, Schadow developed a poetic style of portraiture. In 1819 he returned to Berlin in order to help Karl Friedrich Schinkel with the decoration of the Schauspielhaus. He took over the running of a studio and won a high degree of respect as a painter and teacher. Schadow’s decorative painting was often combined with an idealistic and intellectual element, as in Poetry(1825; Potsdam, Neues Pal.), a winged figure standing on clouds over a coastal landscape writing the names of poets on a tablet while gazing upwards.

 
 

Wilhelm von Schadow
Josephs Traumdeutung im Gefangnis



Wilhelm von Schadow
Die Klage Jakobs um Joseph



Wilhelm von Schadow
Angelina Magatti
1818



Wilhelm von Schadow
Die Heilige Familie unter dem Portikus
1818



Wilhelm von Schadow
Pietas and Vanitas
1841



Wilhelm von Schadow
Saint Barbara
1844
 
 
 

 
 
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