Art Timeline  
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
19th century (1800-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Neoclassicism and Romanticism

Robert Adam
Thomas Banks

Charles Barry
Reinhold Begas
Albert Bierstadt
William Blake
Karl Blechen
Richard Parkes Bonington
Gustave Boulanger
Ford Madox Brown
Edward Burne-Jones
Antonio Canova
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Asmus Jacob Carstens
Theodore Chasseriau
James Collinson
John Constable
John Singleton Copley
Peter von Cornelius
Jean Baptiste Camille Corot
Gustave Courbet
Charles Daubigny
Jacques-Louis David
Honore Daumier
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Eugene Delacroix
Paul Delaroche
Gustave Dore
Jules Dupre
Anselm Feuerbach
Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin
John Flaxman
Karl Philipp Fohr
Caspar David Friedrich
Eugene Fromentin
Henry Fuseli
Frangois Gerard
Theodore Gericault
Jean-Leon Gerome
James Gillray
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
Francisco de Goya
Anton Graff
Antoine-Jean Gros
Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
Henry Holland
John Hoppner
Jean-Antoine Houdon

Arthur Hughes
William Holman Hunt
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Jean Baptiste Isabey
Joseph Israels
Angelica Kauffmann
Leo von Klenze
Joseph Anton Koch
Sir Thomas Lawrence
John Leech
Frederic Leighton
John Martin
Anton Raphael Mengs
Adolf Menzel
John Everett Millais
Jean Francois Millet
George Morland
John Nash
William Orchardson
Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Augustin Pajou
Charles Willson Peale
Pierre-Paul Prud'hon
Henry Raeburn

Christian Daniel Rauch
Jean-Baptiste Regnault
George Romney
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Theodore Rousseau
Thomas Rowlandson
Philipp Otto Runge
Johann Gottfried Schadow
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Moritz von Schwind
Carl Spitzweg
Alfred Stevens
Gilbert Stuart
Bertel Thorvaldsen
J.M.W. Turner
Ferdinand Waldmuller
George Frederic Watts
Benjamin West
David Wilkie
Johann Zoffany

Neoclassical Sculpture

The Italian sculptor Antonio Canova created many works of classical mythological subjects, pursuing an ideal beauty based on reason, according to the aesthetic of the day. He was commissioned to sculpt the monument for Pope Clement XIV (1783-87) in Santi Apostoli, Rome. In accordance with Winckelmann's canon of "noble simplicity and calm grandeur", he dispensed with rich ornamentation and the use of superfluous marble for sumptuous drapery. Nevertheless, Canova remained essentially a follower of the Baroque style and tended to confuse classicism with sentimentality, sometimes veering towards artificiality. His Three Graces and his statue of Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus demanded a visually three-dimensional perspective. This contrasted strongly withBertel Thorvalsden's (1768-1844) Three Graces, Hebe (1816) or Ganymede with Jupiter as the Eagle (1817) which are essentially-static, fixed, and frontal. Denmark's most important Neoclassicist and one of the leaders of the movement, Thorvaldsen spent the majority of his working life in Rome, preferring to work from copies rather than live models. Such was the admiration for his statue of Jason (1802-03) that the sculptor was ensured a constantstream of commissions. Thorvaldsen was not a profound observer of character, and his work has been criticized by some modern critics for being rather cold and devoid of feeling. However, Thorvaldsen still deserves to be ranked alongside Canova and John Flaxman as one of the greatest Neoclassical sculptors.


Bertel Thorvaldsen
The Three Graces 
Bertel Thorvaldsen

(b Copenhagen, 13 Nov 1768 or 19 Nov 1770; d Copenhagen, 24 March 1844). 

Danish sculptor and collector, active in Italy. He spent most of his working life in Rome, where, after the death of Antonio Canova in 1822, he became the foremost Neo-classical sculptor. Although the heroic quality of his early Roman work was later modified by certain naturalistic features, he never abandoned his fundamental, classicizing ideals. His pan-European reputation led to commissions from public and private patrons in many countries, and in order to supply these he ran a large and well-organized studio. His collection of contemporary paintings was probably the finest in 19th-century Rome and, together with many of his sculptures, is now housed in the Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen (opened 1848). (Unless otherwise stated, the models and versions of the works mentioned in this entry are there.) In the decades after his death, the taste for Neo-classicism, and thus his reputation, declined, and it was not until the mid-20th century that his art was re-evaluated.


Bertel Thorvaldsen
The Three Graces 
Accademia di Brera, Milan 

The theme of the Three Graces was a popular subject in Neoclassical art, calling as it did for the portrayal of three female nudes, their arms entwined around one another, each figure depicted in a different pose.

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle

Marble, height 93,5 cm
Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen

The artist portrays the dialogue between the beautiful Trojan youth Ganymede, 
and Zeus in the guise of an eagle, with a restrained tenderness and delicacy.

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Marble, height 156 cm
Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen
Jason with the Golden Fleece

Marble, height 242 cm
Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Cupid with a Lyre

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen
Shepherd Boy with Dog

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Achilles and Briseis


Bertel Thorvaldsen
Priam Pleads with Achilles

Bertel Thorvaldsen


Bertel Thorvaldsen
Lion of Lucerne

Bertel Thorvaldsen
Lord Byron

The elaborate decorations, smooth curves, and gilded ornamentation of Rococo furniture was followed by the straight lines and austere geometric motifs of Neoclassicism. Robert Adam was the first to embrace the new colours and tones, embellishing his furniture with delicate Neoclassical motifs. Georges Jacob (1739-1814) became the emperor's highly acclaimed cabinet-maker; he substituted maple, oak. beech, cherry, and apple wood for the more fashionable mahogany, which was difficult to obtain because of the ban on importing goods from the British colonies. Palmettos, small rose windows, acanthus leaves, and sphinx heads were the most popular bronze decorations. Pompeiian tripods were used as bases for tables and small pieces of furniture: chairs were modelled on the curule chair (used by the highest civil officials of ancient Rome); and beds on the triclinium (dining couch). English and French Neoclassical furniture was adopted throughout Europe. In Russia, for example. Catherine II's Scottish architectCharles Cameron (1745-1812) designed fine pieces in Adam's style.


Georges Jacob

Louis XVI Style Armchair

Georges Jacob
Pair of Armchairs

Georges Jacob
Georges Jacob

(b Cheny, 6 July 1739; d Paris, 5 July 1814) 

arrived in Paris in 1755 and became a Maître Ebéniste on 4 September 1765. His first business was in the Rue de Cléry, Paris, from 1767 and the Rue Meslée from 1775. At the start of his career he produced curvilinear models often decorated with carved flowers and foliage (e.g. 1777; Paris, Louvre), characteristic of chairs at the end of the reign of Louis XV. His reputation rests on the production of numerous, sometimes innovative varieties of high-quality seats in the Louis XVI and Empire styles, for which his work was seminal. He was probably the first to use the common Louis XVI form of tapering, fluted legs headed by a rosette within a square (e.g. of 1780–90; Paris, Mus. Nissim de Camondo), and he introduced console-shaped legs that terminated in a volute below the seat rail (e.g. fauteuil de toilette, 1770; Paris, Louvre) and promoted the use of baluster-shaped arm supports (e.g. fauteuil à la reine; Paris, Mus. A. Déc.), also using them on the later Empire-style seats. 
He was one of the first, following the English, to use mahogany for seats. His production, which included beds, console tables and screens, and later cabinet work, strongly featured carved decoration, ranging from the standard Louis XVI motifs of twisted ribbons, foliate rinceaux, stylized acanthus leaves, guilloche, beading and fluting to the Turkish-style suite of furniture (Paris, Louvre) supplied in 1777 to Charles, Comte d’Artois (later King Charles X), and carved by Jean-Baptiste Rode (1735–99), which prefigured the Empire style . Much of the carving and gilding was executed by the Jacob workshops, but on certain occasions outside craftsmen were used.


Robert Adam, commode. 

Adam's furniture is famed for its intricacy of detail and 
overall balance of design and painted decoration.
Charles Cameron

Charles Cameron (1743-1812) was a Scottish architect who introduced the Adam style into Russian architecture. Little is known about his early life in Europe, except for the fact that he studied in Italy and France. Having read his book about Roman thermae, Catherine the Great summoned him to Russia to reconstruct her summer residence in Tsarskoe Selo. In that village, he designed the so-called Cameron Gallery with the Agate Rooms, the Hanging Gardens, and the Cold Baths. In these structures, Cameron skilfully reproduced the colorful decoration of Roman public baths. Sophia Cathedral was the only notable church designed by him. For the future Emperor Paul he built an extensive residence, the Pavlovsk Palace, somewhat plain in exterior appearance but dazzlingly luxurious inside. In 1799-1803 he rebuilt the Razumovsky palace in Baturyn, Ukraine.

Cameron Gallery in Tsarskoe Selo

Cameron Gallery in Tsarskoe Selo

Cameron Gallery in Tsarskoe Selo

Cameron Gallery in Tsarskoe Selo

Many leading artists made a significant contribution to the decorative and applied arts during the Neoclassical period. The Empire style was developed by two French architects,Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre-Frangois-Leonard Fontaine (1762-1853), who produced designs for fabrics, metalwork, furniture, and other crafts. Compatriot Pierre-Paul Prud'hon applied his skills to the design of the cradle for Napoleon's son, the infant King of Rome. In England, Josiah Wedgwood (1730-95) had a considerable influence on the growing demand for china in the Neoclassical style. In 1775, he invented a dense hard stoneware known as jasperware, which he used as a background for applied decoration.John Flaxman created designs for Wedgwood, while the Adam brothers designed for Matthew Bolton, famous for his Sheffield steel plating and his objects in gold and silver plate. Classically inspired wallpaper also became very popular during this period, not in the usual dark colours but with specially created lighter-toned designs and patterns.

Simeon Chiflar, plate from the Guriev service 
showing a cossack from the Black Sea, c. 1817. 
Imperial China Factory, St Petersburg.

Contemporary copy of the carpet in the throne room at the Tuileries Palace, 1807-09. 
Musee National du Chateau de Malmaison, Rueil.
English Masters

English painting at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century maintained a certain independence regarding the strict canons of Neoclassicism, displaying a characteristic gracefulness and a strong feeling for nature. Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92). the first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, painted his Parody of the School of Athens in 1751, in which he affirmed that imitation was "a perpetual exercise of the spirit, a continual invention," This was the age of the great English portraitists: Reynolds, Gainsborough (1727-88), and SirThomas Lawrence (1769-1830) combined the fascination with nature, light, and life itself with the luminous elegance of the human face. In the early 1790s, the painter and sculptor John Flaxman (1755-1826) published his engraved illustrations for Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey, which immediately became famous throughout Europe. Using his knowledge of Greek vase painting. Flaxman dispensed with the illusion of space and reduced volumes to unshaded outlines, giving his figures a sense of unreality and ghostliness that made them resemble imaginary creatures. At this time, England was undergoing the upheavals of the Industrial Revolution, and many new technical advances were reflected in art. In his Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, of 1768, Joseph Wright (1734-97), painted a young girl weeping over a bird killed in a scientific experiment. One of the most versatile British artists inthe 18th century, Derby-based Wright depicted the scientific and technological advances of the time - often painting his work by candlelight.


Joseph Wright
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump
National Ganery, London. 

As the 18th century progressed, contemporary science, 
with its instructive language and moral teaching, became a suitable subject for art.
Thomas Rowlandson

born July 1756, Old Jewry, London, Eng. died April 22, 1827, London 

English painter and caricaturist who illustrated the life of 18th-century England and created comic images of familiar social types of his day, such as the antiquarian, the old maid, the blowsy barmaid, and the Grub Street hack. His characters ranged from the ridiculously pretentious, with their elaborate coiffures, widely frogged uniforms, and enormous bosoms and bottoms, to the merely pathetic, whose trailing handkerchiefs expressed their dejected attitudes.
The son of a tradesman, Rowlandson became a student in the Royal Academy. At age 16 he went to study in Paris. After establishing a studio as a portrait painter, he began to draw caricatures to supplement his income, and this soon became his major interest.
His series of drawings “The Schoolmaster's Tour,” accompanied by verses of William Combe, was published in the new Poetical Magazine (1809–11) launched by the art publisher Rudolph Ackermann, who was Rowlandson's chief employer. The same collaboration of designer, author, and publisher resulted in the popular Dr. Syntax series—Tourof Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque (1812), The Second Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of Consolation (1820), and The Third Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of a Wife (1821). They also produced The English Dance of Death(1815–16) and The Dance of Life (1816–17). Rowlandson illustrated editions of novels by Tobias Smollett, Oliver Goldsmith, and Laurence Sterne.
Rowlandson's designs were usually executed in outline with a reed pen and delicately washed with colour. They were then etched by the artist on copper and afterward aquatinted—usually by a professional engraver, the impressions being finally coloured by hand. Rowlandson compromised his reputation in his later years by producing a mass of inferior drawings. The works of his prime, however, are outstanding in the vitality of their outline and the gusto of their comment on human weaknesses.


Thomas Rowlandson
John Flaxman

(b York, 6 July 1755; d London, 9 Dec 1826). 

English sculptor, designer and teacher. He was the most famous English Neo-classical sculptor of the late 18th century and the early 19th. He produced comparatively few statues and portrait busts but devoted himself to monumental sculpture and became noted for the piety and humanity of his church monuments. He also had an international reputation based on his outline illustrations to the works of Homer, Aeschylus and Dante, which led him to be described by Goethe as ‘the idol of all dilettanti’. More recently attention has focused on his models for pottery and silver, and he has emerged as an important pioneer in the development of industrial design.


John Flaxman
The Doncaster Cup
John Flaxman

John Flaxman
The Fury of Athamas

Ickworth, Suffolk

John Flaxman
Bust of Henry Philip Hope

John Flaxman
Monument to Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson

St. Paul's Cathedral, London

John Flaxman
Monument to Admiral Earl Howe

John Flaxman
Bust of John Hunter
John Flaxman
Bust of Alexander Monro

John Flaxman
Monument to Abraham Balme 

John Flaxman
Portrait of William Blake

John Flaxman
The Apotheosis of Homer 
North America

In America, the Neoclassical style enjoyed a particularly long life and a rich variety of expressions. Following the Declaration of Independence in 1776, a distinct style, influenced by European models, evolved and became the pride of a young nation. The Virginia State Capitol (1785-96) was designed by Thomas Jefferson and was inspired by the small Maison Carree at Nimes. The model's Corinthian style was replaced by plainer, Ionian ornamentation. The Englishman Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820), the first fully professional architect to work in the US, decorated his capitals with tobacco leaves, and those of the Capitol in Washington with ears of corn. The American painter Benjamin West (1738-1820) ennobled historical events in his work, with paintings such as Death of General Wolf (1770), which broke with Neoclassical conventions by depicting the figures in contemporary dress, and William Penn's Treaty with the Indians (1771-72). By looking at the development of the Neoclassical style in various countries, it is clear how the premises originally codified by Winckelmann culminated in a sensibility that foreshadowed Romanticism. The reaction to the artificiality of the Rococo movement in favour of a severity of line, colour, and form began to reveal a human complexity that had lain hidden beneath the frivolity of earlier 18th-century high art.


Josephine Bonaparte acquired the Chateau de Malmaison on the outskirts of Paris in 1799. After Napoleon was installed as Consul, the Chateau was enlarged and decorated by Percier and Fontaine. It subsequently became the most sophisticated example of interior decoration, a model of style for the famous visitors who attended the receptions and political meetings held there. Warm mahogany interiors housed stucco panels with Pompeiian-style dancers, extravagant drapery, and ornamental army trophies, while the song of exotic birds imported from America. Africa, and Brazil filled the air. The French style could also be seen to luxurious effect in the interiors of the Winter Palace at St Petersburg, those of the Casita at the Escorial in Madrid, and in the private residence at Rosendal of King Charles XIV of Sweden.


The Lantern Room at Rosendal, private residence of Charles XIV. 
This palace is recognized as one of the most spectacular examples 
of the Empire style in Sweden. 
Its sumptuous furnishings were all made by local artists.

The Baroque concept of the city had favoured the lavish embellishment of individual buildings and features in the urban centres, but held little regard for the city as a whole. In contrast, the Neoclassical approach was more ambitious and idealistic, with architects envisaging the city as a harmonious, visually balanced environment. At the Adelphi in London, James and Robert Adamcreated a single complex of buildings, a group of austere houses that were almost devoid of decoration. This project was challenged eight years later by the Adams' great rival William Chambers (l723-96), who embarked on the construction of his great public work, Somerset House, with its massive columns and an imposing archway running parallel to the River Thames. John Nash(1752-183S) undertook the remodelling of Regent Street and Regents Park in London, combining freedom and formality to produce a brilliant, harmonious marriage between street and garden. In Paris, Percier and Fontaine, Napoleon's chief architects, celebrated the emperor's victories with the beautiful Arc du Carrousel (1806-08). In Milan, Giovanni Antonio Antolini (1756-1841) designed the Bonaparte Forum (1801), a vast circular piazza with the Sforza castle at its centre, surrounded by mansions with Doric porticos. In Germany, Karl Friedrich Schinkel transformed the appearance of central Berlin and Leo von Klenze (1784—1864) reshaped the centre of Munich. Even Warsaw took on Neoclassical features, thanks to Domenico Merlini (1730-97), as did Copenhagen through the work of Christian Frederick Hansen (1756-1845). From the time of Catherine the Great to that of Alexander I. St Petersburg rose from a small wooden town to an impressive stone city. Giacomo Quarenghi(1744-1817), Karl Rossi (1775-1849), Luigi Rusca (1758-1822), Kazakov (1733-1812), Ivan Starov (1745-1808), Zacharov (1761-1811), and Thomas de Thomon (1754—1813) abandoned traditional Russo-Byzantine forms to transform the city into a grand Neoclassical vision. In the US, Washington, DC, was another capital city that was rebuilt to the new specifications. It was laid out by Pierre-Charles L'Enfant (1754-1825) according to a V-plan based loosely on Versailles, with broad avenues converging on the Capitol and the White House.

William Chambers

(b. Gothenburg, Sweden, 1723; d. London, 1796)

Born the son of a Scottish merchant in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1723, William Chambers studied in England. He returned to Sweden at the age of sixteen to join the Swedish East India Company. His subsequent travels through Bengal and China gave him an Oriental perspective on art and design. By 1749 he had saved enough money from his travels to make architecture his only profession.
Chambers studied in Paris and Italy, absorbing ideas current at the French Academy in Rome. Upon his return to England, Chambers became the architectural tutor to the Prince of Wales. This led to a long and fruitful patronage by the royal family. In 1761 Chambers was appointed as one of the Joint Architects of the King's Work and by 1769 he was so indispensable that he was appointed Comptroller of the King's Works. When the office was reorganized in 1782 he became the Surveyor General and the Comptroller.
William Chambers was a confidant of George III and the first Treasurer of the Royal Academy of the Arts, which became public in 1768. He wrote a Treatise on Civil Architecture, and was a patron of John Soane while Soane was a student at the Academy.
Chamber's architecture blended the symmetrical, well-ordered facades of Palladianism with early forms of Neoclassicism. He died in London in 1796.


William Chambers
Somerset House
1776 to 1786
London, England

William Chambers
Dundas Mansion
John Nash


The architect of the Regent's Park terraces. John Nash was nearly lost to English architecture, as after training as an architect under Charles Taylor, he was able to retire on being left a large fortune. Fortunately (for us in retrospect), he lost his money through unwise investments in 1792, and was forced to take up architecture again, commencing his own architectural practice in 1793. He found a great patron in George IV (then the Prince of Wales), who awarded him the design of the long terraces around Regent's Park.
The views from Regent's Park of the Nash terraces, in the sunlight, is a real treat. Cumberland Terrace (1827) is one of the most impressive, with its many columns and pediment filled with sculpture. It was the last in the sequence, which includes Cornwall Terrace (Decimus Burton, under Nash's supervision), Hanover Terrace (more sculpture), Chester Terrace and York Terrace. Behind, not viewable from the Park, are further streets, and beautiful crescents.
He built himself a mansion, East Cowes Castle, on the Isle of Wight, where he died in 1835.

John Nash
Cumberland Terrace
Regent's Park, London, 1825-27
Giovanni Antonio Antolini

(1756-1841), Italy

Italian Neo-Classical architect, he came from Faenza, and settled in Milan in 1800 after a long stay in Rome. He was much influenced by French Neo-Classicists, as his monumental scheme for the Foro Buonaparte, Milan (1801), shows, but his realized projects are few.


Giovanni Antonio Antolini
Le Forum Bonaparte a 
Milan dans un projet


Giovanni Antonio Antolini

Le Forum Bonaparte a Milan, dessin de la facade

Carlo Rossi

Carlo Rossi was born in Naples and in his childhood he was brought into Russia when his mother, a well-known ballerina, was invited into Russia. From the youth he was connected with the world of arts.
He built a theater on the Arbat Square (destroyed by fire of 1812). He was rewarded with the Order of St. Vladimir of IV degree.Rossi died at St. Petersburg in 1849.


Karl Rossi
Arch of the General Staff Building in Palace Square
Karl Rossi
The Military Gallery of the Winter Palace

painted by Grigory Chernetsov, 1827

Karl Rossi
The Mikhailovsky Palace, Russian_Museum

Karl Rossi
The Senate and the Synod buildings
St Petersburg

The two most daring and imaginative architects of the Neoclassical era were Etienne-Louis Boullee(1728-99) and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736— 1806). Both believed in the simplicity of geometric forms — spheres, cubes, cylinders, and pyramids — which, according to Platonic ideals, "live in nature". Although Boullees great treatise on architecture was not published until 1953. his prolific teaching meant that he was possibly more influential than Ledoux. He regarded his work as "the architecture of shadows", but his projects became increasingly fantastic and eccentric - and were often unrealized. His design for a library (1783-85) was a Utopian monument to learning, romantic and dreamlike, while that for a monument to Newton (1784) was a 150-metre (500-feet) high sphere - a cosmic globe that was to "sparkle with light and banish all shadows."

Ledoux took up Boullee's ideas and designed other very imaginative works. Again, many of his projects did not progress beyond the drawing board, such as his plan for the "ideal" cemetery including a giant sphere that would act as a central chapel. From his designs for the "ideal" city,Ledoux planned and partly constructed the industrial centre of Chaux at Arc-et-Senans (1774-79); its saltworks remain one of the most celebrated monuments of industrial architecture.
Cenotaph to Newton, designed by Etienne-Louis Boullee, 1784

Boullee's project was never realized, but the design shows how Neoclassical architecture aspired to a 
monumental grandeur that would have far surpassed that of ancient Rome. 

Here, the enormous globe - which symbolizes Newton's discoveries - is combined with a Roman mausoleum, 
surrounded by cypress trees.

Two house projects by Claude-Nicolas Ledoux for the ideal city of Chaux