Art Timeline  
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
19th century (1800-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Eugene Fromentin

Jean-Leon Gerome

Gustave Boulanger
Following the British expansion in India during the first half of the 18th century, Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign in 1798, and the French conquest of Algeria in 1830, an idle curiosity about these distant lands grew into a specific interest that influenced European taste in general. An element of the exotic permeated trends in literature, music, and the visual arts throughout the 19th century.

In the early 18th century, the influence of the Orient in art was of a purely decorative nature. Viewed through Western eyes, the Orient evoked by Western artists was a fanciful and distinctly Europeanized place, exemplified by the works of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Francois Boucher, Nicolas Lancret, and Charles-Joseph Natoire. The increasing interest in the East was echoed in the realm of music, for example in the compositions of Rameau and Mozart, particularly Rameau's Les Indes gakmtes (1735), and Mozart's Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail(1782). By 1770. the vogue for chinoiserie - the imitation of Chinese style, primarily in decoration and furniture - that had been popular in the Rococo period was beginning to fade. However, there remained a number of notable enthusiasts of the Chinese style, not least in the field of architecture. In 1799. for example, Venanzio Marvuglia (1729-I8l4) created a "Chinese Palace" at Villa La Favorita in Sicily as a refuge for King Ferdinand IV. Soon after, at the beginning of the 19th century. Oriental style was extravagantly revived by John Nash (1752-1835) in his reconstruction of the Royal Pavilion in the English seaside resort of Brighton.


Jean-Etienne Liotard

Portrait of a Turkish grand vizier

Although Orientalism did not become a well-defined style until the 19th century, its roots can be traced to a general love of exotica in the 18th century.

Artistic treatment of Eastern subjects took the form of charming, picturesque recordings of artists' travels through Eastern countries, with scenes clearly refined to suit the tastes of a European audience.

Of particular note is the work of the Swiss pastel painter and engraver Jean-Etienne Liotard (1702-89) who painted women dressed in Turkish costume, paving careful attention to detail and displaying an unprecedented degree of sensitivity to the subject.

After spending four years in Constantinople from 1738, Liotard even chose to retain the Turkish dress and beard that he had adopted while abroad.

Another 18th-century artist to venture east was Luigi Mayer (c. 1755-1803), who travelled through the Ottoman Empire between 1776 and 1794, sketching and painting panoramic landscapes, ancient monuments, and the Nile and its surroundings.
Jean-Etienne Liotard
Jean-Étienne Liotard (22 December 1702 – 12 June 1789) was a Swiss-French painter, art connoisseur and dealer.

Jean-Etienne Liotard
Self-portrait, 1749


Liotard was born at Geneva. His father was a jeweller who fled to Switzerland after 1685. Jean-Étienne Liotard began his studies under Professors Gardelle and Petitot, whose enamels and miniatures he copied with considerable skill.

He went to Paris in 1725, studying under Jean-Baptiste Massé (fr) and François Lemoyne, on whose recommendation he was taken to Naples by the vicomte de Puysieux, Louis Philogène Brulart, Marquis de Puysieulx and Comte de Sillery. In 1735 he was in Rome, painting the portraits of Pope Clement XII and several cardinals. Three years later he accompanied Lord Duncannon to Constantinople.

Jean-Étienne Liotard visited Istanbul and painted numerous pastels of Turkish domestic scenes; he also continued to wear Turkish dress for much of the time when back in Europe. Using modern dress was considered unheroic and inelegant, in history painting by using Middle Eastern settings with Europeans wearing local costume, as travellers were advised to do.

Many travellers had themselves painted in exotic Eastern dress on their return, including Lord Byron, as did many who had never left Europe, including Madame de Pompadour. Byron's poetry was highly influential in introducing Europe to the heady cocktail of Romanticism in exotic Oriental settings which was later to dominate 19th century Oriental art.

His eccentric adoption of oriental costume secured him the nickname of the Turkish painter.

He went to Vienna in 1742 to paint the portraits of the Imperial family. In 1745 he sold La belle chocolatière to Francesco Algarotti.

Still under distinguished patronage[citation needed] he returned to Paris. In 1753 he visited England, where he painted Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the Princess of Wales. He went to Holland in 1756, where, in the following year, he married Marie Fargues. She also came from a Hugenot family, and wanted him to shave off his beard.

In 1762 he painted portraits in Vienna; in 1770 in Paris. Another visit to England followed in 1772, and in the next two years his name figures among the Royal Academy exhibitors. He returned to his native town in 1776. In 1781 Liotard published his Traité des principes et des règles de la peinture. In his last days he painted still lifes and landscapes. He died at Geneva in 1789.


Jean Etienne Liotard

Jean-Etienne Liotard
A Lady Pouring Chocolate. National Gallery

Jean Etienne Liotard
The Chocolate Girl

Jean Etienne Liotard
Marie-Adalaide of France Dressed in Turkish Costume

Jean Etienne Liotard
Portrait of Franзois Tronchin

Jean Etienne Liotard
Woman with a Tamburine
Luigi Mayer

Luigi Mayer (1755–1803) was an Italian-German artist and one of the earliest and most important late 18th-century European painters of the Ottoman Empire. He was a close friend of Sir Robert Ainslie, 1st Baronet, a British ambassador to Turkey between 1776 and 1792, and the bulk of his paintings and drawings during this period were commissioned by Ainslie. He travelled extensively through the Ottoman Empire between 1776 and 1794, and became well known for his sketches and paintings of panoramic landscapes of ancient sites from the Balkans to the Greek Islands, Turkey and Egypt, particularly ancient monuments and the Nile. Many of the works were amassed in Ainslie's collection, which was later presented to the British Museum, providing a valuable insight into the Middle East of that period.


Luigi Mayer
Egyptian Antiquities in the Vestibule of a Country House at Bulac 

Luigi Mayer
Women of Caramania

Luigi Mayer
The Pool of Bethesda, Jerusalem
Luigi Mayer
The Tomb of Jeremiah

Luigi Mayer
A Sarcophagus from the Tombs of the Kings, Jerusalem

Luigi Mayer
The Fountain of Siloah, Jerusalem


Luigi Mayer
Jerusalem with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Luigi Mayer
The Tomb of Absalom, Jerusalem 
Luigi Mayer

Views in Egypt

The Egyptian Influence

During the late 18th century, the East was not only a rich source of inspiration for decorative themes and motifs, but also yielded great scientific discoveries. In order to meet the need to give a sound methodological basis to these new studies, in 1793 a special school was set up in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris for the teaching of Arabic. Turkish, and Persian. Egyptology, followed later by Assyriology, soon became the fashionable hobby of the educated classes. Much admired were the works by BaronAntoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835) and Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson (1767-1824), that documented Napoleon's Egyptian campaign; these were elevated to the rank of "great" paintings and accorded the status of official art. For the first time, the East was explored, reorganized, reassembled, and finally reborn in the monumentalDescription de I'Egypte. This study was published in 24 volumes (1809-28) by the Institut d'Egypte, founded by Napoleon for the purpose of studying Egyptian civilization.

In Rome, at the Palazzo Braschi, an Egyptian Room was established to display all the gifts brought by Napoleon to Pope Pius VI. His successor, Pius VII, acquired the collection of Andrea Gaddi, and along with statues from Thebes and other Egyptian articles, housed them at the Vatican. Here, in 1836, Gregory XVI opened the Egyptian Museum, its walls painted like those of the palaces on the banks of the Nile, and its ceilings adorned with golden stars sparkling against a cobalt-blue sky.


Antoine-Jean Gros
Bonaparte Visits the Plague Victims of Jaffa

Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
The Revolt of 21 October 1798 in Cairo

Following Napoleon's campaign of 1798, the Egyptian style became fashionable throughout Europe. It was favoured for the furnishings of grand town houses and was also adapted to less ostentations dwellings. Decorated furniture, fabrics, goldwork, jewellery, and porcelain all featured such details as sphinxes and caryatids.

The French ceramics manufacturer Sevres produced dinner services with sumptuous designs of hawks, sphinxes, and hieroglyphs. Many villas and palaces displayed the popular taste for the Egyptian style: Napoleon's residence at Elba, the Villa di San Martino. where he was exiled between 1814 and 1815, was a triumph of the interior decorator's art, complete with Egyptian room and gardens embellished with pillars and obelisks.

Tombs shaped like small pyramids and obelisks begin to till cemeteries, such as Montparnasse and Pere Lachaise in Paris and Kensal Green in London. These were derided by the English architect and propagandist of the Gothic Revival Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52) in his Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England (1843).


The Temple of Hermopolis, "Champollion"
Sevres vase
Jacques Swebach (1769-1823)
Mosque at Rosetta
Sevres plate from the Egyptian dinner service

With the advent of the 19th century, grand monuments to conquests of exotic lands appeared increasingly in the public squares and avenues of Europe. To commemorate his Egyptian campaign. Napoleon ordered the erection of a fountain adorned with exotic decorations, and he gave Parisian streets Egyptian names, including me Damiette and rue du Caire. Subsequently, the fashion for Egyptian ornamentation was widely embraced — disseminated through D-V Denon's illustratedVoyage dans la Haute et dans la Basse Egypte(1802) and the Institut d'Egypte's magisterialDescription de I'Egypte (1809-28) - and became particularly successful in the US.
In England, to commemorate Nelson's victory in the Battle of the Nile in 1798, several Egyptian-style buildings and interiors were created. Egyptian features were freely mixed with other styles, such as Neo-Gothic and Neoclassical.


Jean-Antoine Alavoine
Fontain sketch for Place de la Bastille

Between l750 and 1753, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted a series of frescos at the residence of the Prince Archbishop of Wurzburg. These included personifications of the four continents on the ceiling of the staircase in the Kaisersaal. Painted with triumphant, whimsical verve, the theme was widely imitated in simpler forms in private houses. Exotic countries and voyages to faraway lands provided the subject matter for spectacular papiers panora-miques— brilliantly coloured wallpapers that adorned drawing and dining room walls. The sources of such images of distant imaginary worlds were often found in literature, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau's story, La Belle Sauvage, Montesquieu's Lettres persanes, and the writings of Voltaire, Diderot, and Bougainville.


Jean-Gabriel Charvet
The Savages of the Pacific Ocean

Rococo asymmetry lent itself to the incorporation of chinoiserie, which readied the height of its popularity inthe 18th century. European craftsmen drew freely on the decorative motifs found on goods imported from China. The first major application of the Chinese style for an interior design was in Louis Le Vans Trianon de porcelaine at Versailles. built in 1670 and later destroyed. The style was adopted in court residences across Europe. Schonbrunn Palace (1695-1711), the summer residence of the Habsburgs just outside Vienna, had a Chinese room, as well as gardens - laid out in about 1705 by Jean-Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey - that included pagodas and tea houses. The second quarter of the 18th century saw a revolution in garden design, as irregular Chinese models replaced formal designs. In England, the Chinese example was combined with a romantic eclecticism to produce the Anglo-Chinese garden. In 1757, the English architect Sir William Chambers published his Designs of Chinese Buildings... and, in 1772, his Dissertation onOriental Gardening, condemned by Horace Walpole as disgraceful. Despite its detractors, the Chinese theme was taken up in garden and palace design throughout Europe. Most memorable are the pavilion at Sans Souci in Potsdam (1754—57) and Catherine the Great's Chinese palace at Oranienbaum in Germany (1762—68); the Chinese palace in the grounds of Villa La Favorita in Sicily; the Chinese pavilions in the gardens at Cibalka in Prague (1818-24); and at the Wilanov Palace in Poland (c.1805). During the 19th century, chinoiserie was superseded by other exotic-tastes, such as Turkish, Egyptian, Gothic, and Greek.

Sir William Chambers
Pagoda at Kew Gardens, London
Venanzio Marvuglia
Chinese palace in the grounds of Villa La Favorita
Palermo, Sicily
The Romantic Orient

Major historical events in the East contributed greatly to its increased topicality in the West: Egypt gained independence from the Ottoman sultans in 1805: the Greek War of Independence against the Turks took place between 1821 and 1830. during which Lord Byron died at Missolonghi (1824); and the French conquered Algeria in 1830. The Orient, as it was perceived by Europeans, included such countries as Greece and Algeria; although technically outside the geographical area of the Orient, they were nevertheless categorized with Egypt as exotic, Eastern lands. A single trip to the East was sufficient to provide many painters. 

Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863). Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (1803-60), and Theodore Chasseriau (1819-56) among them, with a new and inexhaustible-aesthetic vocabulary. Others undertook lengthy tours, familiarizing themselves with different aspects of the culture of the indigenous populations, which they faithfully reproduced in small-scale genre scenes. The Scotsman David Roberts (1796-1864) and the Frenchmen Eugene Flandin (1809-76) and Eugene Fromentin(1820-76) illustrated their travels in paintings and diaries. Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet (1789-1863) brought to his paintings his experience of travelling in Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Crimea. Primarily a military painter, Vernet is best-known for his imposing battle scenes, but he also painted animal subjects inspired by his travels. The Spanish artist Mariano Fortuny y Carbo (1838-74), who visited Morocco twice, was another notable producer of battle paintings.

The English painter John Frederick Lewis (1805-76) recorded his ten-year sojourn in Egypt on canvases notable for their meticulous precision and attention to detail. For many of the Romantic artists, the "journey to the Orient" was essentially a voyage to a place beyond reality, a haven for the soul and a refuge from everyday life. These exotic lands served as a kind of multicoloured, alluring mask of the more mysterious side of the human psyche.

Many artists who succumbed to this allure never actually set foot in the East, including Ingres (1780-1867), John Martin (1789-1854), and Francesco Hayez (1791-1882). In some cases, literary sources proved as inspirational as first-hand experience. Lord Byron's series of Oriental poems. Victor Hugo's Les Orientates, the Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem by Chateaubriand, and works by Heinrich Heine, Dumas Pere, Alphonse de Lamartine and Theophile Gautier were among the sources widely enjoyed. For the Romantics, the exotic was often explicitly linked with the erotic, founded on the myth that the Levant (modern-day Lebanon, Syria, and Israel) enjoyed a laxity of morals quite unthinkable in Europe. Eroticism became an area free from moral conventions; bodily sensations were no longer idealized, but seen in all their carnal and sensual reality.

The link between eroticism and the female nude was developed further in the second half of the 19th century, when the so-called pompiers (the humorous name given to artists seen as having little talent) in France and the Victorian painters in England created images more overtly erotic than had ever been seen before in the history of painting.

David Roberts

(b Stockbridge, nr Edinburgh, 24 Oct 1796; d London, 25 Nov 1864). 

Scottish painter.

The son of a shoemaker, he was apprenticed to a house-painter.

From 1816 until 1830 he was employed in the theatre to design and paint stage scenery, first in Edinburgh and Glasgow and after 1822 in London.

While in Scotland he met and worked with Clarkson Stanfield and later collaborated with him in London on dioramas and panoramas.

Among Roberts’s commissions from Covent Garden were the sets for the first London performance of Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail in 1827.


David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"

David Roberts set out from Cairo for the Holy Land on 7 February 1839, with a, small caravan including servants in Arabian and Turkish dress, an armed escort of Bedouins and twenty-one camels which transported provisions and baggage as well as tents for overnight encampments. With Roberts travelled two Englishmen, John Pell and John G. Kinnear, who two years later dedicated his own book of memoirs, Cairo, Petra and Damascus, to Roberts...


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps

(b Paris, 3 May 1803; d Fontainebleau, 23 Aug 1860). 

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With his brother Maurice-Alexandre (1804–52), the art critic and essayist, he spent some years of his youth at Orsay, in Picardy, ‘in order to learn to rise early and know the hard life of the fields’. The artwork of the peasants stimulated an interest in drawing. He entered the atelier of Etienne Bouhot (1780–1862) in 1816. Towards the end of 1818 he left Bouhot to study under Alexandre-Denis Abel de Pujol, quitting his studio in 1819–20 in order to embark upon a career as an independent professional artist. He had been an inattentive student, who thought that ‘the formula of instruction of the academic doctrine reduced the least examination almost to the proportions of silliness’. Memories of Orsay remained his point of departure throughout his working life, and in this sense he was a self-trained artist. Nevertheless, he admired, and learnt from, the art of such diverse artists as Raphael, Titian, Giovanni da Bologna, Poussin, Rembrandt, Géricault and Léopold Robert.


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Turkish Children Playing with a Tortoise

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The End of a Turkish Schol Day

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The Turkish Patrol 

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Turkish Bodyguards on the Road from Magnesia to Meander

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The Defeat of the Cymbrians

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Before a Mosque (Cairo) 

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Woman in Oriental Dress

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Young Oriental woman in an interior

Eugene Flandin

Jean-Baptiste Eugène Napoléon Flandin (b. Naples, 15 August 1809; d. Tours, 29 September 1889), French orientalist, painter, archaeologist, and politician. Flandin’s archeological drawings and some of his military paintings are valued more highly by museum authorities than his purely artistic paintings. He is most renowned for his famous drawings and paintings of Persian monuments, landscapes, and social life made during his travels with the architect Pascal Coste during the years 1839-41. Flandin’s observations on the state of Persia and international politics in the mid-19th century also continue to provide important documentary information.


Eugene Flandin

Eugene Flandin

Eugene Flandin
Caravanserail de Kachan Perse
Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet

(b Paris, 30 June 1789; d Paris, 17 Jan 1863). 

Painter, son of Carle Vernet. He was born in his father’s lodgings at the Palais du Louvre, where his grandfather Joseph Vernet also lived; his maternal grandfather was Jean-Michel Moreau. To these antecedents and influences are ascribed the supreme ease of his public career, his almost incredible facility and his fecundity. His early training in his father’s studio was supplemented by formal academic training with François-André Vincent until 1810, when he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1812. In 1814 Vernet received the Légion d’honneur for the part he played in the defence of Paris, which he commemorated in the Clichy Gate: The Defence of Paris, 30 March 1814 (1820; Paris, Louvre;), a spirited painting that represented a manifesto of Liberal opposition to Restoration oppression.


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
Judas und Tamar 

Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
The Duke of Chartres Saves the Engineer Siret from Drowning in August of 1791 in Vendome


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
At the Tomb of Colonel Mouginot
, 1817 

Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
Leonilla Furstin

Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet

Study of Olympe Pelissier as Judith


In a kind of reverse form of Orientalism, Western influences often combined with indigenous styles to create hybrid strains of decoration and design in the East. In China, the Western style arrived during the Manchu period. During the reign of Emperor Ch'ien-lung (1736-95), the Jesuit missionary Giuseppe Castiglioni (1698-1768) became a court favourite through his paintings, which combined Chinese brushwork with traditional European perspective. In 1747, he also planned Neo-Baroque-style buildings on the site of the ancient Ming palace. In Turkey, in the middle of the 18th century a new movement from the West led to the development of Turkish Rococo. The decoration and furnishings of the royal palace in Dolmabahce (1843-56) in Istanbul reflected a combination of styles: huge crystal chandeliers from Bohemia or Baccarat and murals by Russian and Italian artists.
In the 19th century, the royal palace at Bangkok, the P'ra T'inang Chakkri, incorporated a room built by English architects inspired by the Italian Renaissance. Sculptors from Southeast Asian Buddhist countries copied the clothes and physical features of the Dutch and Portuguese to give the dvarapala, the divine guardians of the temple doors, a sterner aspect. Finally, in Japan, with the opening up of markets in the Meiji period (1868-1911), the upper classes began to favour Western dress, and their furniture also displayed Western influences.

The End of the Dream

With the development of steamships and the railways, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. and the increasingly widespread use of photography, the East became more accessible and familiar. Likewise, the influence of Western customs and costumes spread to the East, even leading some local ladies in Turkey to discard their traditional garments in favour of crinolines from the House of Worth in Paris. Gradually, the Orient was stripped of its mythological aura. In 1826, in Istanbul, Mahmud II suppressed the janissaries, and Western reforms were introduced to the capital by various organizations, including those devoted to law. education, and the economy. Some artists now began to represent a harsher vision of the Orient - blind beggars, cripples, filthy streets, and peeling plaster - that was at variance with earlier, idealized images. The French poet Gerard de Nerval was to tell Theophile Gautier that he regretted having formed his own idea of Egypt in his imagination. The real Egypt having been "bitterly impressed on my memory", de Nerval had lost an imaginary, wonderful place in which he could take refuge with his dreams. Large numbers of Europeans now beat a path to exotic locations. Merchant adventurers, missionaries, and. above all, soldiers, all brought back objects from the Old World. These became a source of inspiration for the production and wide availability of a range of goods: furniture, clothing, trinkets, and even games displayed the Oriental stamp, while interior and garden design were both strongly influenced by the styles of the East. At the end of the century, the mythical Orient enjoyed a final season of splendour, corresponding with the demise of the odalisque. Artists from vastly differing schools were united by the liveliness of treatment that they brought to Oriental themes: they included the French sculptor and painter Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Gustave Boulanger (1824-88), Georges Clairin(1843-1919), Mariano Fortuny y Carbo, and Hans Makart (1840-84). In 1873, Jules-Antoine Castagnary wrote: "Orientalism is dead", yet twenty years later, the Societe des Peintres Orientalistes was founded, with Gerome as the honorary president of the society.


Eugene Delacroix
The Women of Algiers