TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Art Timeline  
 
 
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
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18th century (1700-1799)

Rococo
 
 
 
     
 
Baroque & Rococo
 
     
 
 
 
Baroque
 
PAINTING IN ITALY AND SPAIN
Michelangelo da Caravaggio
Jusepe de Ribera
Orazio Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
Agostino Carracci
Annibale Carracci
Giovanni Lanfranco
Domenichino

Guido Reni
Guercino

Pietro da Cortona

Luca Giordano
Sanchez Cotan
Salvator Rosa
Diego Velazquez
Francisco de Zurbaran
Bartolome Esteban Murillo

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Carlo Maderno
Gianlorenzo Bernini

Francesco Borromini
Guarino Guarini
Alessandro Algardi
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi
Filippo Juvarra
Niccolo Salvi

Baldassare Longhena
PAINTING IN FLANDERS AND
HOLLAND

Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Peter Paul Rubens

Anthony Van Dyck
Jacob Jordaens
Jan Brueghel the Elder
Frans Snyders
Adriaen Brouwer
Gerard Terborch
Pieter de Hooch
Terbrugghen
Frans Hals
Leyster
Rembrandt van Rijn
Jan van Goyen
Willem Kalf
David Teniers the Younger
Aelbert Cuyp
Jacob van Ruisdael
Saenredam

Heda

Jan Davids de Heem
Jan Steen
Jan Vermeer

Nicolaes Maes
Willem van de Velde the Younger
Jacob van Campen
Pieter Post

Meindert Hobbema
Gabriel Metsu
PAINTING IN FRANCE
De La Tour

Louis Le Nain
Jacques Callot
Nicolas Poussin
Philippe de Champaigne
Claude Lorrain
Simon Vouet

Peter Lely
Charles Le Brun

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Francois Mansart
Claude Perrault
Louis Le Vau
Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Antoine Coysevox
Pierre Puget
Francois Girardon
Inigo Jones
Christopher Wren
John Vanbrugh
Thomas Archer
Domenico Trezzini
Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Jacques Lemercier
Lucas von Hildebrandt

Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer
Georg Rafael Donner
James Gibbs
Nicholas Hawksmoor
 
 
 
Rococo
 
PAINTING
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Nicolas Lancret
Francois Boucher
Jean-Honore Fragonard
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin
Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun
William Hogarth
Allan Ramsay
Thomas Gainsborough
Joshua Reynolds
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Corrado Giaquinto
Canaletto
Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto)
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Pompeo Batoni
Francesco Guardi
Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain

Jean Baptiste Greuze
Allan Ramsay
George Stubbs
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Nicolas Pineau
Clodion (Claude Michel)
Jean-Baptiste Pigalle

Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Germain Boffrand
Jacques-Germain Soufflot
Etienne-Maurice Falconet
Louis Francois Roubiliac
John Wood the Elder
Johann Fischer von Erlach
Jakob Prandtauer
Balthasar Neumann
Dominikus Zimmermann
Johann Michael Fischer
Georg Rafael Donner
Franz Xavier Messerschmidt
Luigi Vanvitelli
Carlo Fontana
Giacomo Serpotta
Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Jean-Baptiste Oudry

William Kent
 
 
 

From Baroque to Rococo
 

The century of the Grand Tour was also the Age of Reason, an era during which artists throughout Europe adopted a cosmopolitan style, moulded by the influence of great capital cities such as Vienna, London, and Paris. A taste for all that was exquisite, vivacious, and charming found expression in a stylistic blend of elegance, parody, and tenderness.

Hithough the term ''the Enlightenment'' refers specifically to the philosophy of the 18th century, it has often been applied more generally to the culture of the age. Faith in the powers of reason and the importance of scientific research was implicit in all intellectual and cultural activities - including the various disciplines of art.

In such a climate, both the production of and interest in art flourished. As the emphasis on Baroque diminished and became fragmented, the role of art ceased to be seen as a tool of influence and persuasion. Increasingly, art was required to fulfil the purely aesthetic function of translating and communicating thought through beauty. For the Venetian Francesco Algarotti (1712-64) and other 18th-century artistic theorists and patrons, the word "beauty" had the precise meaning of graceful and pleasing forms. This was ideally expressed in elegant and beautifully rendered paintings, exemplified by the vivacious and charming allegorical portraits by Jean-Marc Nattier (1685-1766). Within a comparatively short period, the Baroque evolved into High Baroque, also known as Rococo, especially when applied
to architecture and the decorative arts. The term "Rococo", derived from the French rocaille, was originally applied to a type of decoration with asymmetrical, sinuous, and convoluted lines. Later, the name acquired a deliberately mocking connotation. Strictly speaking, rocaille denoted an agglomeration of stones, whether real or artificial, shells, and other materials that mimicked natural objects and structures. Stylistically, it was inspired by shapes and objects found in nature, usually complementary to Arcadian themes, and congruent with the tastes of the fashionable and elite circles. Through the contribution of Juste-Aurele Meissonnier (1695-1750), an aesthetic theorist and designer, the Rococo style became highly in vogue during the Regency of the Duke of Orleans (1715-23). It reached its peak, however, during the reign of Louis XV (1743-74). when it influenced every form of artistic activity and became synonymous with the Pompadour style, named after the king's famous and highly influential mistress Madame de Pompadour.

THE GRAND TOUR

Although travelling for pleasure and instruction was already enjoyed by the privileged classes, the 18th century saw a rise in the popularity of the Grand Tour. This was a tour of the chief cities and sights of Europe to complete a young persons education. The favourite destination was Italy, of their travels. They purchased original paintings or less expensive copies and commissioned new works. Venetian townscapes were highly sought after, especially those by Canaletto, as were views of famous cities, Rome and Naples in particular. Heroic-scenes and Arcadian landscapes were also very popular, as were views of contemporary festivals and street scenes, such as those by Joseph Heintz (1600-78), Philipp Hackert (1737-1807), and Giovan Paolo Pannini.



Joseph Heintz

(b Augsburg, c. 1600; d Venice, 24 Sept 1678).

Painter and etcher, son of Joseph Heintz. He served his apprenticeship (1617–21) as a painter with his stepfather, Matthäus Gundelach, in Augsburg. His artistic beginnings are traceable in drawings produced in Augsburg (e.g. the Painter at his Easel, 1621; Gdansk, N. Mus.), and Venice (e.g. Genius of Painting, 1625; Vienna, Albertina). His great panel painting Christ in Limbo (late 1620s or early 1630s; sold London, Sotheby’s, 6 July 1994, lot 4391) bears witness to his conversion to Catholicism, without which he could hardly have established himself in Venice. He probably spent long periods in Rome in the 1630s or 1640s, and before 1644 Urban VIII made him a Knight of the Golden Spur. Many of his paintings on religious themes, including works supporting the Counter-Reformation, were predominantly for churches in Venice and its dominions. However, his special importance for Venetian painting lies not in the field of religious art but in his depictions (mostly Venice, Bib. Correr) of the city’s festivities and state ceremonies, featuring large numbers of figures, in which he was a direct precursor of Luca Carlevaris and Canaletto, as revealed especially in his Piazza S Marco (after 1640; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili). Presumably he knew of the similar endeavours of his cousin Joseph Plepp (1595–1642) in Berne. He also produced genre paintings, such as the Fishmonger (1650s; Italy) votive pictures, including the Adoration of the Magi (?1669) and Sacra conversazione (1669; both Breguzzo, S Andrea); allegories, for example the Allegory of Venice (1674; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); pictures showing the activities of the months and mythological scenes of which there is so far only a literary record.




Joseph Heintz
Imaginary Scene with Venetian Buildings
Oil on canvas1670-1675
70 3/4 x 111 inches (180 x 282 cm)
Private collection



Joseph Heintz
The Bull Hunt in Campo San Polo
Oil on canvas, 1646
Museo Correr, Venice

 


Philipp Hackert

(b Prenzlau, 1737; dSan Pietro di Careggi, 1807).

He studied first with his father, Philipp Hackert, then from 1755 with Blaise Nicolas Le Sueur at the Berlin Akademie. There he encountered, and copied, the landscapes of Dutch artists and of Claude Lorrain. The latter influence shows in two works exhibited in 1761, views of the Lake of Venus in the Berlin Zoological Garden (versions of 1764 in Stockholm, Nmus.). These much admired paintings retain a rather rigid late Baroque style. Hackert’s main interest in these early works was to arrive at a special understanding of a place through alternate views, with reverse directions of observation. This systematic documentation bears witness to his interest in the study of nature.



Philipp Hackert
Italienische Landschaft



Philipp Hackert
Landschaft mit Tempelruinen auf Sizilien



Philipp Hackert
Kustenlandschaft



Philipp Hackert
Ansicht des Golfes von Baja


Philipp Hackert
Die groben Wasserfalle in Tivoli



Giovanni Paolo Panini

(b Piacenza, 17 June 1691; d Rome, 21 Oct 1765).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a highly prolific and versatile painter, best known for his numerous vedute of Rome, many of which focused on the remnants of the city’s Classical past. Ceremonies and festivals often feature in his vedute, which thus constitute a lively documentation of contemporary topography, lifestyle and customs. In contrast to Bernardo Bellotto and Gaspar van Wittel, his treatment is picturesque rather than rigorous; he liked to enliven and animate his views by adding numerous figures. He worked exclusively in Rome and by the end of his career was the head of a thriving workshop that included the Frenchman Hubert Robert (in Rome from 1754) and Panini’s son Francesco Panini (b 1738).




Giovan Paolo Pannini
Interior of the Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome
c. 1730
Oil on canvas, 78 x 90 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg



Giovan Paolo Pannini
Picture Gallery with Views of Modern Rome
1757
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston



Giovan Paolo Pannini
The Piazza and Church of Santa Maria Maggiore
1744
Oil on canvas
Palazzo Quirinale, Rome



Giovan Paolo Pannini
Musical Fete
1747
Oil on canvas, 207 x 247 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris




Giovan Paolo Pannini
Roma Antica
c. 1755
Oil on canvas, 186 x 227 cam

Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart




Giovan Paolo Pannini
Apostle Paul Preaching on the Ruins
1744
Oil on canvas, 64 x 83,5 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg




Giovan Paolo Pannini
Capriccio of Classical Ruins
1725-30
Oil on canvas, 123 x 132 cm
Private collection




Giovan Paolo Pannini
Ideal Landscape with the Titus Arch
Oil on canvas, 73 x 95 cm
Private collection

 
 
 
 
Rococo Architecture

Although Rococo architecture originated in France, it was far less pronounced there than it was to be later in Germany and Austria. Few buildings were extravagant in appearance, even among those intended to impress, such as the Petit Trianon, which was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-1782) for Louis XV and built in the park at Versailles. There was, however, a more fundamental shift in taste among the autocratic rulers and in the Catholic Church of central Europe. By the 1720s, several architects, including Johann Fischer von Erlach (1656-1723), Lucas von Hildebrandt (1668-1745), and Johann Michael Fischer (1692-1766), were already invoked in the construction of palaces and churches in the new style, notably in Austria, Germany, Bohemia, and Poland. These buildings had a new-lightness to them, and their structures were enhanced by decorative features with curved, elongated lines. The eye was no longer caught by a single, central focal point but by a rhythmic succession of spaces. Leading examples of this style are Vienna's Karlskirche and the Church of St John Nepomuk in Prague, with their very impressive and effective combinations of frescos and sculptural decorations. In Italy, architecture evoked into a High Baroque that came from the legacy of Francesco Borromini (1599-1667), whose style was influenced by Rome rather than by the French Rococo. The most prominent architect of this stylistic era was a Sicilian, Filippo Juvarra (1678-1736). A pupil of Carlo Fontana (1634-1714) in Rome, Juvarra made his name at a comparatively early age in the service of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy in Turin. His works included the King's Palace of Aranjuez, and his most entrancing building, the Basilica of Superga (1716—31) in Turin. Featuring lively verticality in the form of an elongated dome atop a traditional drum base, the design of the basilica rejected old-style features and extravagant shapes in favour of a freer spatial rhythm, giving a dynamic structure to the building. Juvarra's masterpiece is probably his hunting lodge, the Stupinigi Palace (1729-33), near Turin. Designed to be viewed from the end of a long, straight avenue, the building is enlivened by an airy cupola, and the ample light provided by its many windows. Perhaps the greatest exponent of Late Baroque in Italy was the architect, Luigi Vanvitelli (1700-73). who trained under his father and painted accomplished townscapes, which often achieved the effect of theatrical scenes. The combination of courtly elegance and a talent for designing on a monumental scale served him well when building the Palace at Caserta (1752-70) for the King of Naples. Inspired by Versailles, this enormous and imposing building, set in a vast park, combined solemnity with grace and variety. The gardens were embellished with statues, often exuberantly combined with fountains.

 

Baroque and Rococo Architecture

During the Baroque period (c. 1600–1750), architecture, painting, and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Architecture and sculpture became pictorial, and painting became illusionistic. Baroque art was essentially concerned with the dramatic and the illusory, with vivid colours, hidden light sources, luxurious materials, and elaborate, contrasting surface textures, used to heighten immediacy and sensual delight. Ceilings of Baroque churches, dissolved in painted scenes, presented vivid views of the infinite to the worshiper and directed him through his senses toward heavenly concerns. Seventeenth-century Baroque architects made architecture a means of propagating faith in the church and in the state. Baroque palaces expanded to command the infinite and to display the power and order of the state. Baroque space, with directionality, movement, and positive molding, contrasted markedly with the static, stable, and defined space of the High Renaissance and with the frustrating conflict of unbalanced spaces of the preceding Mannerist period. Baroque space invited participation and provided multiple changing views. Renaissance space was passive and invited contemplation of its precise symmetry. While a Renaissance statue was meant to be seen in the round, a Baroque statue either had a principal view with a preferred angle or was definitely enclosed by a niche or frame. A Renaissance building was to be seen equally from all sides, while a Baroque building had a main axis or viewpoint as well as subsidiary viewpoints. Attention was focused on the entrance axis or on the central pavilion, and its symmetry was emphasized by the central culmination. A Baroque building expanded in its effect to include the square facing it, and often the ensemble included all the buildings on the square as well as the approaching streets and the surrounding landscape. Baroque buildings dominated their environment; Renaissance buildings separated themselves from it.

The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the strongly Roman Catholic countries (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders, Bohemia, southern Germany, Austria, and Poland) tended toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands, and the remainder of northern Europe) architecture was more restrained and developed a sober, quiet monumentality impressive in its refinement. In the Protestant countries and France, which sought the spirit through the mind, architecture was more geometric, formal, and precise—an appeal to the intellect. In the Roman Catholic south, buildings were more complex, freer, and donewith greater artistic license—an appeal to the spirit made through the senses.

Treatises on the orders and on civil and military architecture provided a theoretical basis for Baroque architects. While many 16th-century architects published treatises on architecture or prepared them for publication, major 17th-century architects published very little. Two fragmentary volumes by Francesco Borromini appeared years after his death, and Guarino Guarini's major contribution (though he brought out two volumes on architecture before he died) did not appear until well into the 18th century. Other Italian publications tended to be repetitions of earlier ideas with the exception of a tardily published manuscript of Teofilo Gallaccini, whose treatise on the errors of Mannerist and early Baroque architects became a point of departure for later theoreticians.

In France, François Blondel and Augustin d'Aviler published notes for lectures given at the Academy of Architecture, but the most important publications were those of Fréart de Chambray and Claude Perrault. Perrault attacked established Italian theory. Other notable French works included writings by René Ouvard, André Félibien, Pierre Le Muet, and Julien Mauclerc. In England, Sir Henry Wotton's book was an adaptation of Vitruvius, and Balthazar Gerbier's was a compendium of advice for builders. Among the notable17th-century German publications were books by Georg Boeckler, Josef Furttenbach, and Joachim von Sandrart.

During the period of the Enlightenment (about 1700 to 1780),various currents of post-Baroque art and architecture evolved. A principal current, generally known as Rococo, refined the robust architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th-century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse light flooded the building volume; andviolent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal. Interior and exterior space retained none of the bravado and dominance of the Baroque but entertained and captured the imagination by intricacy and subtlety.

In Rococo architecture, decorative sculpture and paintingare inseparable from the structure. Simple dramatic spatial sequences or the complex interweaving of spaces of 17th-century churches gave way to a new spatial concept. Byprogressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque horizontal separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects obtained unified spaces, emphasized structural elements, created continuous decorative schemes, and reduced column sizes to a minimum. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to unify the space from wall to wall (Church of the Carmine, Turin, Italy, 1732, by Filippo Juvarra; Pilgrimage Church, Steinhausen, near Biberach, Ger., 1728, by Dominikus Zimmermann; Saint-Jacques, Luneville, Fr., 1730, by GermainBoffrand). To obtain a vertical unification of structure and space, the vertical line of a supporting column might be carried up from the floor to the dome (e.g., church of San Luis, Seville, Spain, begun 1699, by Leonardo de Figueroa). The entire building was often lighted by numerous windows placed to give dramatic effect (Schloss Brühl, near Cologne, Balthasar Neumann, 1740) or to flood the space with a cool diffuse light (Pilgrimage Church, Wies, Ger., Zimmermann, 1745).

Origins and development in Rome

The work of Carlo Maderno in Rome represented the first pure statement of the principles that became the basis of most of the architecture of the Western world in the 17th century. A northern Italian, Maderno worked most of his life in Rome where, about 1597, he designed the revolutionary facade of the church of Santa Susanna (). Roman church facades in the late 16th century tended to be either precise, elegant, and papery thin or disjointed, equivocal, and awkwardly massive. Maderno's Santa Susanna facade is an integrated design in which each element contributes to the central culminating feature. Precision and elegance were relinquished to gain vitality and movement. Disjointed and ambiguous features were suppressed to achieve unity and harmony. A towering massiveness obtained by an increased surface relief and quickened rhythm of architectural members toward the centre replaced the papery-thin walls and hesitant massiveness of the 16th century. Vertical unification was achieved by breaking the entablature at similar places on both stories and by repeating pilasters and columns at both levels. Maderno also conceived the facade as part of an integrated unit, including the two-story church and one-story associated areas to either side, and thereby gave form to the Baroque desire to associate buildings, street facades, and squares in a continuous whole.

The basic premises of the early Baroque as reaffirmed by Maderno in the facade and nave of St. Peter's, Rome (1607), were: (1) subordination of the parts to the whole to achieve unity and directionality; (2) progressive alteration of pilasterrhythm and wall relief to emphasize massiveness, movement, axiality, and activity; and (3) directional emphasis in interiors through diagonal views and culminating light and spatial sequences.

The three great masters of the Baroque in Rome were Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini, and Pietro da Cortona. Bernini, also a brilliant sculptor, designed both the baldachin(an ornamental canopy-like structure) with bronze spiral columns over the grave of St. Peter (1624–33) and the vast enclosing colonnade (begun 1656) that forms the piazza of St Peter's. He was responsible also for the facade of the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), a model for later urban palaces, and the exquisite oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658–70), the epitome of richly coloured marble-encrusted church interiors.

In contrast to Bernini, Borromini preferred monochromatic interiors. The buildings of Borromini, who came from northern Italy, are characterized by their inventive transformations of the established vocabulary of space, light, and architectural elements in order to increase the content of their work. Borromini's works, composed of fluid and active concave and convex masses and surfaces (San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1634–41), contain spaces that areintricate, geometrically derived irregular ovals, octagons, or hexagons (Sant'Ivo della Sapienza, 1642–60). His late palacefacade for the College of the Propagation of the Faith (1646–67) was a bold and vigorous essay that became a major source for Rococo architects in the early years of the 18th century.

Pietro da Cortona's early design for the Villa del Pigneto, near Rome (before 1630), was derived from the ancient Roman temple complex at Palestrina, Italy, and decisively altered villa design; his San Luca e Santa Martina, Rome (1635), was the first church to exhibit fully developed high Baroque characteristics in which the movement toward plasticity, continuity, and dramatic emphasis, begun by Maderno, achieved fruition. Pietro's reworking of a small square in Rome to include his facade of Santa Maria della Pace (1656–59) as an almost theatrical element is a cogent example of the Baroque insistence on the participation of a work in its environment.

In the early years of the 18th century in Rome, parallel to the development of Rococo in France, renewed interest in the work of Borromini was shown by Alessandro Specchi in his Ripetta Gate (1704), and by Filippo Juvarra, a gifted, if unorthodox, pupil of Carlo Fontana, in his early architectural projects and scene designs. Italian Rococo developed out ofthis new interest in Borromini. In Rome the Rococo developed further with the so-called Spanish Steps (1723) byFrancesco de Sanctis; the facade of Santa Maria della Quercia (begun 1727) and Piazza Sant'Ignazio (1727) by Filippo Raguzzini; and, in Piedmont, Santa Caterina, Casale Monferrato (1718) by Giovanni Battista Scapitta.
National and regional variations

Italy

Architects in northern Italy, notably Guarino Guarini, Filippo Juvarra, and Bernardo Vittone, developed a Baroque style of great structural audacity. Guarini's San Lorenzo (1668–80) and Palazzo Carignano (1679), both in Turin, have swelling curvilinear forms, terra-cotta construction, exposed structural members, and intricate spatial compositions that show his relation to Borromini and also represent significant developments in the relationship between structure and light. Juvarra's Palazzo Madama, Turin (1718–21), has one of the most spectacular of all Baroque staircases, but the true heir to Guarini was Vittone. To increase the vertical effect and the unification of space in churches such as Santa Chiara, Brà (1742), Vittone raised the main arches, eliminated the drum, and designed a double dome in which one could look through spherical openings puncturing the inner dome and see the outer shell painted with images of saints and angels: a glimpse of heaven.
 

Spain

Spanish Baroque was similar to Italian Baroque but with a greater emphasis on surface decorations. Alonso Cano, in hisfacade of the Granada cathedral (1667), and Eufrasio Lopez de Rojas, with the facade of the cathedral of Jaén (1667), show Spain's absorption of the concepts of the Baroque at the same time that it maintained a local tradition. The greatest of the Spanish masters was José Benito Churriguera, whose work shows most fully the Spanish Baroque interest in surface texture and decorative detail. His lush ornamentation attracted many followers, and Spanish architecture of the late 17th century and early 18th century has been labeled Churrigueresque. Narciso and Diego Tomé, in the University of Valladolid (1715), and Pedrode Ribera, in the facade of the San Fernando Hospital (now the Municipal Museum) in Madrid (1722), proved themselves to be the chief inheritors of Churriguera.

The outstanding figure of 18th-century Spanish architecture was Ventura Rodríguez, who, in his designs for the Chapel of Our Lady of Pilar in the cathedral of Saragossa (1750), showed himself to be a master of the developed Rococo in its altered Spanish form; but it was a Fleming, Jaime Borty Miliá, who brought Rococo to Spain when he built the west front of the cathedral of Murcia in 1733.

Flanders

Roman Catholicism, political opposition to Spain, and the painter Peter Paul Rubens were all responsible for the astonishing full-bodied character of Flemish Baroque. Rubens' friends Jacques Francart and Pieter Huyssens created an influential northern centre for vigorous expansive Baroque architecture to which France, England, and Germany turned. Francart's Béguinage Church (1629) at Mechelen (Malines) and Huyssens' St. Charles Borromeo (1615) at Antwerp set the stage for the more fully developed Baroque at St. Michel (1650) at Louvain, by Willem Hesius, aswell as at the Abbey of Averbode (1664), by Jan van den Eynde.

Holland

Seventeenth-century architecture in Holland, in contrast, is marked by sobriety and restraint. Pieter Post, noted for the Huis ten Bosch (1645) at The Hague and the Town Hall of Maastricht (c. 1658), and Jacob van Campen, who built the Amsterdam Old Town Hall (1648; now the Royal Palace), were the principal Dutch architects of the 17th century. After the middle of the century, Dutch architecture exerted influence on architecture in France and England. Dutch colonial architecture was especially evident in the 17th and 18th centuries in the Hudson River Valley of North America and the Dutch West Indies (notably Willemstad on the island of Curaçao).

 

France

Salomon de Brosse's Luxembourg Palace (1615) in Paris and Château de Blérancourt (1614), northeast of Paris between Coucy and Noyon, were the bases from which Francois Mansart and Louis Le Vau developed their succession of superb country houses.

Mansart was the more accomplished of the two architects, and his Orléans wing of the Chateau de Blois (1635) in the Loire Valley and Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris (1642), are renowned for their high degree of refinement, subtlety, and elegance. Mansart's church of Val-de-Grace (1645) in Paris and his designs for the Bourbon mausoleum (1665) established the full Baroque in France; it was a rich, subtle Baroque that was quiet in its strength and restrained in its vigour.

Le Vau was Mansart's only serious competitor, and in 1657, with his Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Paris, he fired the imagination of Louis XIV and of his finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Vaux, though exhibiting certain Dutch influences, is noted for its integration of Le Vau's architecture with the decorative ensembles of the painter and designer Charles Le Brun and the garden designs of landscape architect Andre Le Notre. By serving as a model for Louis XIV's Palace of Versailles, the complex at Vaux was perhaps the most important mid-century European palace. Le Vau showed a sensitivity to Italian Baroque architecture that was unusual in a French architect, and his College of Four Nations (1662; now the Institute of France) in Paris owes much to the Roman churches of Santa Maria della Pace by Pietro da Cortona and Sant'Agnese in Agone (1652–55) in the Piazza Navona by Borromini and Carlo Rainaldi. Le Vau, Le Nôtre, and Le Brun began working at Versailles within a few years of their success at Vaux, but the major expansion of the palace did not occur until after the end of the Queen's War (1668). At Versailles, Le Vau showed his ability to deal with a building of imposing size. The simplicity of his forms and the rich, yet restrained, articulation of the garden facade mark Versailles as his mostaccomplished building. Le Nôtre's inventive disposition of ground, plant, and water forms created a wide range of vistas, terraces, gardens, and wooded areas that integrated palace and landscape into an environment emphasizing the delights of continuity and separation, of the infinite and the intimate. Upon Le Vau's death, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, grandnephew of François, succeeded him and proved himselfequal to Louis XIV's desires by more than trebling the size of the palace (1678–1708). Versailles became the palatial idealand model throughout Europe and the Americas until the endof the 18th century. A succession of grand palaces was built, including the following: Castle Howard and Blenheim Palace (see ) by Sir John Vanbrugh in England; the Residenz of Würzburg, Ger. (1719), by Neumann; the Zwinger in Dresden, Ger. (1711), by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann; the Belvedere,Vienna (1714), by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt; the Royal Palace at Caserta, Italy (1752), by Luigi Vanvitelli; and the Royal Palace (National Palace) at Madrid (1736), by GiovanniBattista Sacchetti.

Hardouin-Mansart's Dôme des Invalides, Paris (c. 1675), is generally agreed to be the finest church of the last half of the 17th century in France (). The correctness and precision of its form, the harmony and balance of its spaces, and the soaring vigour of its dome make it a landmark not only of the Paris skyline but also of European Baroque architecture.

After Nicolas Pineau returned to France from Russia, he, with Gilles-Marie Oppenordt and Juste-Aurele Meissonier, with their increasing concern for asymmetry, created the full Rococo. Meissonier and Oppenordt should be noted too for their exquisite, imaginative architectural designs, unfortunately never built (e.g., facade of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, 1726, by Meissonier).

The early years of the 18th century saw the artistic centre of Europe shift from Rome to Paris. Pierre Lepautre, working under Hardouin-Mansart on the interiors of the Château de Marly (1679), invented new decorative ideas that became the Rococo. Lepautre changed the typical late 17th-century flat arabesque, which filled a geometrically constructed panel, to a linear pattern in relief, which was enclosed by a frame that determined its own shape. White-and gold-painted 17th-century interiors (the central salon of the palace at Versailles) were replaced by varnished natural-wood surfaces (Château de Meudon, Cabinet à la Capucine) or by painted pale greens, blues, and creams (Cabinet Vert, Versailles, 1735). The resulting delicate asymmetry in relief and elegant freedom revolutionized interior decoration and within a generation exerted a profound effect on architecture. Architects rejected the massive heavy relief of the Baroque in favour of a light and delicate, but still active, surface. Strong, active, and robust interior spaces gave way to intricate, elegant but restrained spatial sequences.

England

The late designs of Inigo Jones for Whitehall Palace (1638) and Queen's Chapel (1623) in London introduced English patrons to the prevailing architectural ideas of northern Italyin the late 16th century. Although he was influenced heavily by 16th-century architects such as Palladio, Serlio, and Vincenzo Scamozzi, Jones approached the Baroque spirit in his late works by unifying them with a refined compositional vigour. Sir Christopher Wren presented English Baroque in itscharacteristic restrained but intricate form in St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London (1672), with its multiple changing views and spatial and structural complexity. Wren's greatest achievement, St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1675–1711), owes much to French and Italian examples of the Baroque period; but the plan shows a remarkable adaptation of the traditional English cathedral plan to Baroque spatial uses. Wren is notable for his large building complexes (Hampton Court Palace, 1689, and Greenwich Hospital, 1696), which, in continuing the tradition of Inigo Jones, paved the way for the future successes of Sir John Vanbrugh. Vanbrugh's Castle Howard in Yorkshire (1699) and Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire (1705; see ) mark the culmination of the Baroque style in England.

Even in England, reflections of an interest in continuous curvilinear form inspired by Borromini and Bernini may be seen in isolated examples such as St. Philip, Birmingham (1710), by Thomas Archer.
 

Central Europe

A stable political situation in central Europe and the vision of Rudolf II in Prague in the late 16th and early 17th centuries created an intellectual climate that encouraged the adoption of new Baroque ideas. The Thirty Years' War and the defense against the encroachments of the expanding French and Ottoman empires, however, absorbed all the energies of central Europe. The fully developed Baroque style appeared in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland after 1680 but flourished only after the end of the debilitating War of the Spanish Succession (1714). In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Germany and Austria turned for their models principally to Italy, where Guarini and Borromini exerted an influence on Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt. The third Austrian master, Jakob Prandtauer, on the other hand, came from a local stonemason tradition and worked primarily for monastic orders. Fischer von Erlach's University Church in Salzburg (1696) is particularly noteworthy and shows direct Italian inspiration, while the Karlskirche, Vienna (1715), demonstrates his original, mature phase. Hildebrandt's Belvedere palace in Vienna and Prandtauer's superbly sited Abbey of Melk overlooking the Danube (1702) are among their most notable works.

In Bohemia the developed, or high, Baroque was heralded by the work of a French architect, Jean-Baptiste Mathey, who carried both Roman and French ideas to Prague from Rome in 1675. The Bavarian Christoph Dientzenhofer, however, transformed architecture in Prague and Bohemia with his boldly conceived buildings in the high Baroque style (Prague, nave of St. Nicholas, 1703, and Brevnov, Benedictine church, 1708).

The spectacular Rococo of central Europe, Germany, and Austria, which by 1720 had begun to influence Italian architecture, grew out of a fusion of Italian Baroque and French Rococo. Its chief monuments are to be found in the Roman Catholic regions. Johann Michael Fischer, Balthasar Neumann, the brothers Cosmas Damian and Egid Quirim Asam, and Dominikus Zimmermann were the most accomplished of the native architects, while the Frenchmen François de Cuvilliés, Philippe de La Guêpière, and Nicolas de Pigage made the most important foreign contributions to mid-century architecture in Germany.

Fischer's austere, dignified facade of the church at Diessen (1732) and his masterpiece of integrated painting, decorative stucco, sculpture, and architecture, the Benedictine abbey of Ottobeuren (1744), are landmarks of the Bavarian Rococo. Neumann's joyous, airy Rococo Pilgrimage Church at Vierzehnheiligen (1743) and his later, more restrained Benedictine abbey at Neresheim (1745) characterize the increasing influence of classicism in Germany. In the north, in Berlin, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff alternated between Rococo (Potsdam, Sanssouci, 1745) and neo-Palladian classicism (Berlin, OperaHouse, 1741). Two influential country houses, La Guêpière's Solitude, near Stuttgart (1763), and Cuvilliés's Amalienburg, Munich (1734), exquisitely graceful and refined, are examples of French influence in Württemberg and Bavaria.

Henry A. Millon

David John Watkin

 

Russia

The Baroque appeared in Russia toward the end of the 17th century. The Russians imaginatively transformed its modes into a clearly expressed national style that became known as the Naryshkin Baroque, a delightful example of which is the Church of the Intercession of the Virgin at Fili (1693) on the estate of Boyarin Naryshkin, whose name had become identified with this phase of the Russian Baroque.

Western Europeans brought the prevailing Baroque styles characteristic of their own countries, but the very different artistic and physical setting of St. Petersburg produced a new expression, embodying Russia's peculiar sense of form, scale, colour, and choice of materials. The transformed Baroque eventually spread all over Russia and, with its vast register of variations, developed many regional idioms.

A French architect, Nicolas Pineau, went to Russia in 1716 and introduced the Rococo style to the newly founded city of St. Petersburg (e.g., Peter's study in Peterhof, before 1721). The Rococo in Russia flourished in St. Petersburg under the protection of Peter I and Elizabeth. Peter's principal architect, Gaetano Chiaveri, who drew heavily on northern Italian models, is most noted for the library of the Academy of Sciences (1725) and the royal churches of Warsaw and Dresden. Bartolomeo Rastrelli was responsible for all large building projects under the reign of Elizabeth, and among his most accomplished designs in St. Petersburg are the Smolny Cathedral and the turquoise and white Winter Palace.

Arthur Voyce

Henry A. Millon

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 
 
 
 
 
Ange-Jacques Gabriel

(born Oct. 23, 1698, Paris, France
died 1782, Paris)

French architect who built or enlarged many chateaus and palaces during the reign of Louis XV. He was one of the most important and productive French architects of the 18th century.



Place de la Concorde, Paris, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, 1766-1755



Le Petit Trianon, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, at Versailles, France, 1762 to 1768



Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabrie

 

Lucas von Hildebrandt

(1668-1745)




Lucas von Hildebrandt
Upper Belvedere, Vienna
1721-22


Lucas von Hildebrandt
Upper Belvedere, Vienna
1721-22




Johann Michael Fischer

(1692-1766)


Johann Michael Fischer
Basilika St. Alexander und Theodor der Benediktinerabtei Ottobeuren
1737-66



Johann Michael Fischer
Sankt Bonifazkirche
1727-33




Johann Michael Fischer
Rott-am-Inn
Bavaria, Germany




Johann Michael Fischer
Kirche St. Elisabeth
Munchen



Filippo Juvarra


(b Messina, 16 June 1678; d Madrid, 31 Jan 1736).

Italian architect, draughtsman and designer. His work reinforced a Late Baroque classical tradition while also drawing on the leavening criticism of that tradition by Francesco Borromini. His work is characterized by clarity and directness, his architectural conceptions defined by a drastically reduced structure and complex conglomerate spaces; his surfaces were adorned with elaborate decorative systems the originality of which pointed the way to a light-hearted Rococo. In 1714 he became first architect of Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily. Juvarra’s mandate was to accomplish the transformation of Turin begun in the 17th century. During a 20-year residence in Turin he built sixteen palaces and eight churches, and designed numerous church ornaments. He also designed furniture, theatre scenery and urban complexes.



Filippo Juvarra
Basilica della Nativia di Maria
1717-1731



Filippo Juvarra
Palazzina di Caccia



Filippo Juvarra
Palazzo Madama



Filippo Juvarra
San Filippo Neri





Carlo Fontana

(1634-1714)

Fontana - Italian family of architects and engineers. They were distantly related to Domenico Fontana, and were mainly active in Rome. The family’s fame was largely based on the work of Carlo Fontana, who continued the traditions laid down by the great masters of the High Baroque (Bernini, Borromini, Pietro da Cortona) and passed them on to his students, who included Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Domenico Martinelli, Nicodemus Tessin, James Gibbs and Filippo Juvarra. The essential conservatism of this tradition was particularly obvious in the work of Mauro Fontana, which, although it does not offer genuine highlights or new directions for future development, nonetheless concludes the architectural mission of the family in a coherent and dignified fashion.)

Carlo Fontana
San Marcello



NEW STYLES IN GARDEN DESIGN

Keeping apace with the prevailing trend in 18th-century architecture and the decorative-arts, garden design adopted a more picturesque style than had been employed in the previous century. Extensive tapis verls or lawns replaced the rigid, ordered avenues, and formal flower beds. As a result, gardens became more romantic and less rigid. The park and palace of Caserta, near Naples, was built and designed by Luigi Vanvitelli, and they epitomized at its best the spirit of the Italian Baroque. They also echo the designs at Marly, near Versailles, designed for Louis XIV by the more conservative Antoine Coysevox. They have in common the same impressive scale, but the plans and styles of the gardens could not be more different. Coysevox kept the ornate rocaille motifs to a minimum, preferring a more restrained and linear classical style.


Alfonso Parigi the Younger, Bacino dell'lsolotto (ornamental island in small lake),
Boboli Gardens, Florence, 1618


 


Luigi Vanvitelli


(1700-1773)


Luigi Vanvitelli
Diana and Acteon
Fountain, Palazzo Reale
Marble, 1770

Great Cascade with Goddess Diana Bathing




Luigi Vanvitelli
Basilica della Santa Casa
Loreto, Marche, Italy



Luigi Vanvitelli
Lazzaretto
Ancona, Marche, Italy
1732-1738

 
 
 
 
 
PIRANESI AND ROME

One of the most important precursors of Neoclassical and Romantic architecture. Giovanni Battista Piranesi (l720-78) was more influential as an etcher than an architect. Born in Venice, he trained as an architect and moved to Rome in 1740. where he designed his only built work, the church of Santa Maria del Priorato (1764—65). In his printed work, however, Piranesi advocated Rome's position in the classical world. In Roman Antiques (1756), he sought to interpret the entire Roman civilization and its ethical and symbolic values. Piranesi maintained that Roman art, with us splendour and loftiness, surpassed Greek art, which the German art historian Johann Winckelmann had identified as the ideal of beauty and perfection, a thesis that he supported in his polemical work On the Architecture and Magnificence of the Romans (1761). It was, however, his Views of Ancient and Modern Rome, (published from 1745), with its poetic images of Italian ruins and antiquities, that was so effective in moulding the Romantic ideal of Rome abroad. His series, Carceri d'invenzione, (c.1745). was a subjective depiction of fantastic and imaginary prisons, and evoked a nightmarish, hallucinatory world.


Giovanni Battista Piranesi
View of the Arch of Constanthe and the Colosseum,
etching from Views of Rome.
Gabinetto Nazionaie delle Stampe, Rome

 
 
 
 
A New Style in Town Planning

During the 18th century, a new and effective style of town planning emerged. In Europe, this occurred largely because political power remained in the hands of a very few nobles. The form of entire cities could be dictated by autocratic rulers, and a capital city's appearance became a matter of prestige. Monarchs vied with one another to employ the virtuosos of the day, who were usually itinerant artists and architects. This movement between countries and the various royal patrons largely encouraged the development of a greater homogeneity in style. Although architectural works reflected the varying characteristics of different countries, they also expressed, for the first time, a common artistic language. The execution of town plans was more evident in some capital cities than others: for example, Rome continued to develop within the basic structure adopted during the 17th century, while Juvarra began the process of organizing the city of Turin according to a grid plan that survives until today. Several new palaces were built in Vienna, sited at intervals around the old centre of the city. The most important of these was the Belvedere, built from 1714 by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt for Prince Eugene of Savoy, not far from where the Karlskirche was built. Meanwhile, the great abbeys in the countryside of Eastern Europe were also built on a scale comparable to that of the edifices in towns. The Abbey of Melk (1702-14) in Austria, was designed by Jakob Prandtauer (1660-1726) on a site above the Danube, so it appeared to rise out of the rock. At the beginning of the 18th century, Tsar Peter the Great founded the city of St Petersburg. This drew artists and architects of many nationalities to Russia, including the Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli (c.1700—71), who designed churches and imperial residences such as Tsarskoe Selo (1756), which were noted for their distinctive, hybrid but brilliantly conceived version of the High Baroque style. In Scandinavia, a style became prevalent during the mid-18th century that combined Austrian and French Rococo. At Amalienborg in Copenhagen (laid out 1750 to 1754), Nils Eigtved (1701-54) built one of the finest urban groups outside France, consisting of four palaces arranged around an octagon and four streets.


Jakob Prandtauer
L'Abbaye benedictine de Melk
1702
Melk, Austria

 
 
 
 
THE AGE OF STAGE DESIGN

Against the theatrical backdrop of the 18th century, a new concept of stage design developed through the collaboration of architects and painters. The Galli-Bibiena family, composed of stage designers, architects, and creators of mechanical installations for pageants, were renowned for their spectacular theatrical effects. One member, Ferdinando, invented the ingenious "oblique view", or perspectival side view, of elaborate architectural scenes, bringing an illusion of real dimensions to the theatre audience. The architect Filippo Juvarra was also a great and innovative designer of Rococo architectural scenery for theatres in Rome, Naples, and Turin. He excelled in producing three-dimensional backdrop scenes, in which the real and the illusionistic blended imperceptibly, combining archaeological elements and sentimental themes. Juvarra displayed the poetic verve and flair of an artist who was well-versed in architectural theory and practice. The Galliari family, founders of the Milanese and Turin schools of stage-design, spanned an era when ingenious and scientifically constructed mechanical devices were discarded in favour of a more tranquil, natural, and mood-evoking ambience. The Galliaris were responsible for creating and popularizing the "picture-scene", with its sweeping watercolour strokes and hazy, atmospheric treatments. Subject matter included pastoral scenes, landscapes with ruins, exotic pavilions, Chinese temples, and ports looking out to stormy seas. While the scenes were recreated with imaginative flair and a taste for the extraordinary, they often lacked historical accuracy in favour of Arcadian beauty. Algarotti and Milizia condemned this superficial attitude to history, and urged a return to the unity of libretto, music, and stage settings. Their disciple, Pietro Gonzaga (1751-1831), founder of the La Scala tradition and master of Italian stage-design in St Petersburg, carried on and reinforced this practice.

Pietro Gonzaga
(b Longarone, nr Venice, 25 March 1751; d St Petersburg, 6 Aug 1831).

Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.


Pietro Gonzaga
An Architectural Fantasy of Magnificent Courtyards and Loggie with a Monumental Staircase, c. 1775

 
 
 
Galli-Bibiena

Italian family of painters, architects and designers. For three generations they were prominent in many Italian cities and throughout the Habsburg empire. The founder of the dynasty was Giovanni Maria Galli-Bibiena (b Bibiena, nr Bologna, 1625; d Bologna, 21 June 1665), who was a pupil and much-prized assistant of Francesco Albani (being, apparently, particularly adept at the depiction of water). He produced faithful copies of his master’s paintings. His surviving independent works include a fine Ascension (1651; Bologna, Certosa) and, in the church of Buon Gesù, Bologna, a frescoed St Bernardino and two sibyls. His daughter Maria Oriana Galli-Bibiena (b Bologna, 1656; d Bologna, 1749) studied with Carlo Cignani and Marcantonio Franceschini and specialized in portraits and history pictures. She married the landscape painter Gioacchino Pizzoli (1661–1773), and their son Domenico Pizzoli (1687–1720) was also a painter. Giovanni Maria had two sons, Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena and Francesco Galli-Bibiena, who trained as painters but became best known for architectural design and the creation of festival decorations. Ferdinando in his turn had several children who were artists: Alessandro Galli-Bibiena (b Parma, 1687; d before 1769), Giovanni Maria Galli-Bibiena ( fl Prague, 1739–69), Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena and Antonio Galli-Bibiena. Alessandro became architect and painter to the Elector Palatine Charles Philip (reg 1716–42) and in 1719 supervised the building of the right wing of the Schloss at Mannheim (destr.). Between 1733 and 1756, under Charles Theodore Wittelsbach, Elector of Bavaria, he designed the Jesuit church in Mannheim. Giovanni Maria worked as a painter and architect until his marriage to a wealthy woman obviated the necessity. Giuseppe was his father’s pupil and assistant at the Habsburg court in Vienna before embarking on an influential career that took him to the main cities of the Habsburg empire. Antonio also worked with his father, in Bologna, and with his uncle Francesco in Rome and his brother Giuseppe in Vienna, before pursuing an independent career as architect, designer and painter. Giovanni Carlo Galli-Bibiena (d Lisbon, 20 Nov 1760), the son of Francesco, was a member of the Accademia Clementina, Bologna. In Bologna he decorated the staircase of Palazzo Savini and the Cappella di S Antonio in S Bartolommeo di Porta Ravegnana. He also produced a scheme for the decoration of the high altar of S Petronio, Bologna, for the Bolognese Pope Benedict XIV. He was then (1752) summoned by Joseph, the King of Portugal, to Lisbon, where he designed an opera house next to and communicating with the royal palace. It was completely destroyed only seven months after completion in the notorious earthquake of 1755. Finally, Carlo Galli-Bibiena, son of Giuseppe, found work throughout Europe as a designer of court and festive decoration and, most notably, as a theatre architect.


Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena
(b Parma, 5 Jan 1696; d Berlin, 1756).

Son of Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena. He was his father’s pupil and assisted him on various projects at the Habsburg court in Vienna. In 1716 he produced his first independent designs, as part of the festive decoration for the birth of the Archduke Leopold of Austria. For a similar occasion the following year he erected a magnificent triumphal decoration of his own (his father had by then left the imperial service). In 1718 he was given a position at court and was subsequently involved in all the major Habsburg celebratory decorations, including those for the marriage of Emperor Joseph’s daughter in Munich (1722). His lavish designs for open-air operatic performances were much admired. In 1727 he officially became chief theatrical designer to the imperial court. His subsequent employment on less secular schemes, such as his superb triumphal arch for the celebration in Prague of the canonization of St John Nepomuk (1729), may have contributed to the theatrical aspect of much German architecture of the period. During the next decade he was again mainly occupied with decorative settings for operas, funerals and celebrations, the most important of which were those for the marriage of Emperor Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa to Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1736). In 1740 he produced his most lasting work, Architetture e prospettive, a book dedicated (like his father’s) to Charles VI. It consists of engravings of fantastic architectural scenes, which, while showing more Neoclassical rigour in architectural detail than Ferdinando’s, far surpass them in variety of combined perspectives, expertly controlled groupings of space and structure and dazzlingly free evocations of endless vistas. Many of them accurately record the extraordinary temporary decorations he provided for religious festivals in the imperial chapel in the Hofburg, Vienna. His stage setting design of a Monumental Hall Supported by Spiral and Square Pilasters (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) exemplifies the style.


Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena
A Fantastic View of a City




Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena
Architectural capriccio
Sketch for a grand hall stage design, pen and ink and watercolour sketch.
Accademia di Belle Arti, Bologna.




Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740





Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740



Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740




Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740



Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740




Giuseppe Galli - Bibiena
Buhnenbildentwurf
1740

 
 
 
 
Ecclesiastical Sculpture

The new aesthetic criteria produced particularly interesting results when applied to ecclesiastical sculpture. The workshop of Milan Cathedral was active in its production of marble statues, commissioned to complete the sequence of figures that adorned the exterior walls, and the roof between the pinnacles. In this lavish display of works, the statues of the Viggiu school are particularly significant, especially those by Elia Buzzi. The stucco decorations of the great Sicilian sculptor Giacomo Serpotta (1652-1732) differ in style from the typically Rococo archetypes. The fluid linearity of the simple, yet highly imaginative, reliefs, as seen in the Oratorio del Santissimo Rosario in Palermo, echo the sublimity of the classical style. The use of stucco in large-scale statuary was typical of certain artistic groups, as well as a speciality of specific schools. Diego Carlone (1674—1750), an outstanding sculptor of stucco figures, belonged to a dynasty of Lombard painters and sculptors, and produced work for various European courts until the middle of the 18th century. The predominance of family workshops among Italian sculptors and artisans, especially in northern Italy, was traditional practice, dating from medieval times. Among those active during this period were Bernardo and Francesco Maria Schiaffino from Genoa and Jacopo and Andrea Brustolon from Venice. The most industrious and versatile family team was led by Andrea Fantoni (1659-1734.) from Bergamo, whose skills in wood carving can be seen in the altar of the Sottocasa chapel, Clusone Cathedral. In central Europe, Austrian and German sculptors proved to be the most expressive interpreters of the spirit of High Baroque. Johann Michael Fischer (1691-1766) and his lavish decoration for the Benedictine Abbey of Ottobeuren attests to this. The Bohemian school played an important role, as many artists converged on Prague in a surge of activity. Among them was Mattia Bernardo Braun (1684-1738) who had learnt his craft in the Austrian Tyrol and specialized in religions figures. Braun adopted the High Baroque style that was in vogue, and brought to it his own expressive liveliness. A collection of his work in the National Gallery in Prague is proof that the Rococo flamboyant style could, when appropriate, take on a moving, highly dramatic tone. A more restrained style was evident in some of the work of Ferdinand Maximilian Brokof (1688-1731). but for the most part, his wood carvings remained extremely elaborate. In certain respects, Brokof's expressive work, such as the sculptures decorating the church of St Gall in Prague, go beyond Baroque rhetoric and illustrate the influence of 18th-centurv taste.
 

Giacomo Serpotta
(b Palermo, 10 March 1656; d Palermo, 27 Feb 1732).

Son of Gaspare Serpotta. He was the leading Sicilian sculptor of the late 17th century to the early 18th. Though occupying a central role in the intellectual and artistic life of his day, his real significance derives from the stuccos he produced for the oratories of Palermo, for which he was celebrated in his lifetime. A stay in Rome has been suggested, but this seems unlikely as the Roman elements in even his most mature work, such as the St Monica (c. 1720; Palermo, S Agostino), are derived from prints. His first commission, in 1677, was for the decoration of the small church of the Madonna dell’Istria in Monreale, in collaboration with Procopio de Ferari. The level of execution gives few hints of Giacomo’s outstanding future, but two years later he received a much more important commission for work at the oratory of the Compagna della Carità di S Bartolomeo degli Incurabili in Palermo (destr. 1780). From 1679 to 1680 Giacomo worked on the model for an equestrian statue of Charles II, King of Spain and Sicily; the statue was then cast in bronze by Andrea Romano and Gaspare Romano. This was destroyed in 1848, but a small bronze version survives (Trapani, Mus. Reg.).


Giacomo Serpotta
Interior decoration
1710-17
Stucco
Oratorio del Rosario di San Domenico, Palermo

 
 


Giacomo Serpotta
Fortitude
1710-17
White stucco and gilding, height 200 cm
Oratorio del Rosario di San Domenico, Palermo




Giacomo Serpotta
Oratorio del Rosario di San Domenico

 
 
 
Francesco Maria Schiaffino

(b Genoa, 17 July 1688; d Genoa, 2 Jan 1763).

Brother of Bernardo Schiaffino. He was the pupil and then assistant of Bernardo, who in 1721 sent him to complete his training in Rome, where he entered the workshop of Camillo Rusconi. He remained there until 1724, enriching his technique and cultural education by studying the works of Bernini, Rusconi and other sculptors. Back in Genoa, he executed such works as St Dominic (Genoa, Teatro Carlo Felice), in which Rusconi’s influence is evident. The marble group of Pluto and Proserpine, sculpted for the Durazzo family and still in its original location (Genoa, Pal. Reale), is based on a bozzetto by Rusconi. In 1731 Schiaffino executed the grandiose Crucifix with Angels for King John V of Portugal (Mafra, Convent) and in 1738 began the theatrical funeral monument to Caterina Fieschi Adorno (Genoa, SS Annunziata di Portoria). The wax models of the Eight Apostles and Four Doctors of the Church that he modelled in 1739 (all untraced) were clearly inspired by the large Apostles by Rusconi and other sculptors in S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. They were made for the stuccoist Diego Francesco Carlone so that he could, under Schiaffino’s directions, execute 12 monumental statues in stucco (Genoa, S Maria Assunta in Carignano). In these latter works the classicizing authority of Rusconi’s figures was transformed into a freer and more restless arrangement, the compact forms dissolving in the light, animated draperies. The statues reveal how Schiaffino had combined his knowledge of Roman sculpture with his study of Pierre Puget’s Genoese works and with the style of the Piola workshop. He emulated the free rhythms of the Rococo found in the painting of Gregorio de’ Ferrari, developing a decorative approach that is even more marked in the Assumption of the Virgin (1740; Varazze, S Ambrogio) and in the Rococo chapel of S Francesco da Paola (1755; Genoa, S Francesco da Paola), which he covered in polychrome marbles. His last works include the Virgin of Loreto (1762; Sestri Levante, Parish Church).
 


Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Immaculate Conception
1762
Marble
Palazzo Doria Lamba, Genoa



Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Le Duc de Richelieu
1748

 

Andrea Brustolon

(b Belluno, 20 July 1662; d Belluno, 25 Oct 1732).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level.
 



Andrea Brustolon
Verzuckung der hl. Therese von Avila
1700



Andrea Brustolon
Jacob's Fight with the Angel
1700-10
Boxwood, height 46,5 cm
Liebieghaus, Frankfurt



Andrea Brustolon
Vase-stand with Hercules and Moors
c. 1700
Boxwood and ebony, height 200 cm
Museo del Settecento Veneziano, Ca' Rezzonico, Venice

 
 
 

 
 
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