TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Art Timeline  
 
 
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
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17th century (1600-1699)
 
 
 
     
 
Baroque & Rococo
 
     
 
 
 
Baroque
 
PAINTING IN ITALY AND SPAIN
Michelangelo da Caravaggio
Jusepe de Ribera
Orazio Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
Agostino Carracci
Annibale Carracci
Giovanni Lanfranco
Domenichino

Guido Reni
Guercino

Pietro da Cortona

Luca Giordano
Sanchez Cotan
Salvator Rosa
Diego Velazquez
Francisco de Zurbaran
Bartolome Esteban Murillo

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Carlo Maderno
Gianlorenzo Bernini

Francesco Borromini
Guarino Guarini
Alessandro Algardi
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi
Filippo Juvarra
Niccolo Salvi

Baldassare Longhena
PAINTING IN FLANDERS AND
HOLLAND

Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Peter Paul Rubens

Anthony Van Dyck
Jacob Jordaens
Jan Brueghel the Elder
Frans Snyders
Adriaen Brouwer
Gerard Terborch
Pieter de Hooch
Terbrugghen
Frans Hals
Leyster
Rembrandt van Rijn
Jan van Goyen
Willem Kalf
David Teniers the Younger
Aelbert Cuyp
Jacob van Ruisdael
Saenredam

Heda

Jan Davids de Heem
Jan Steen
Jan Vermeer

Nicolaes Maes
Willem van de Velde the Younger
Jacob van Campen
Pieter Post

Meindert Hobbema
Gabriel Metsu
PAINTING IN FRANCE
De La Tour

Louis Le Nain
Jacques Callot
Nicolas Poussin
Philippe de Champaigne
Claude Lorrain
Simon Vouet

Peter Lely
Charles Le Brun

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Francois Mansart
Claude Perrault
Louis Le Vau
Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Antoine Coysevox
Pierre Puget
Francois Girardon
Inigo Jones
Christopher Wren
John Vanbrugh
Thomas Archer
Domenico Trezzini
Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Jacques Lemercier
Lucas von Hildebrandt

Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer
Georg Rafael Donner
James Gibbs
Nicholas Hawksmoor
 
 
Rococo
 
PAINTING
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Nicolas Lancret
Francois Boucher
Jean-Honore Fragonard
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin
Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun
William Hogarth
Allan Ramsay
Thomas Gainsborough
Joshua Reynolds
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Corrado Giaquinto
Canaletto
Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto)
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Pompeo Batoni
Francesco Guardi
Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain

Jean Baptiste Greuze
Allan Ramsay
George Stubbs
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
Nicolas Pineau
Clodion (Claude Michel)
Jean-Baptiste Pigalle

Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Germain Boffrand
Jacques-Germain Soufflot
Etienne-Maurice Falconet
Louis Francois Roubiliac
John Wood the Elder
Johann Fischer von Erlach
Jakob Prandtauer
Balthasar Neumann
Dominikus Zimmermann
Johann Michael Fischer
Georg Rafael Donner
Franz Xavier Messerschmidt
Luigi Vanvitelli
Carlo Fontana
Giacomo Serpotta
Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Jean-Baptiste Oudry

William Kent
 
 
 
Italian Sculpture in the 17th Century

During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, in the Rome of Pope Sixtus V and in Milan during the time of Cardinal Charles Borromeo, sculptors carefully observed principles laid down by the Council of Trent and adhered to the Mannerist tradition. The lessons learned from Michelangelo and the impetus towards strongly animated work led to the emergence of Baroque taste, which found expression in the style of the Lombard sculptor Stefano Maderno (c. 1576-1636). The beauty and emotive charge of the recumbent figure of Maderno's St Cecilia (1601) in Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, appeal to the onlooker with an immediacy that is both realistic and idealized, lifelike and theatrical. This synthesis of types and effects provided the pattern along which sculpture was to develop during the Baroque age. Francesco Mochi (1580-1654) also heralded the emergence of a new artistic language with his Angel of the Annunciation and Annunciate Virgin (1605-08). The polished smoothness of the marble surfaces and the audacity of the composition can be seen as the final, refined turning point of Mannerism and suggested new ideas. With his equestrian statue (1612-20) in memory of Ranuccio Farnese, which graces the Piazza Cavalli in the town of Piacenza, Mochi broke free once and for all from the legacy of his teacher, Giambologna, and the Renaissance and late Mannerist models. His ideas were later reworked by Gianlorenzo Bernini and in monumental statuary throughout Europe. Bernini was born in Naples and was the pupil of his father, the late Mannerist sculptor Pietro Bernini (1592-1629). He studied the work of Giambologna, and of the great 16th-century masters, as well as the sculptures and architecture of antiquity in Rome. Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the nephew of Pope Paul V. became Bernini's patron. He sculpted a series of marble statues for the Cardinal's Roman villa: Aeneas and Ancbises (1618-19), The Rape of Proserpine (1621-22), David (1623), and Apollo and Daphne (1622-24). These works encompass all the elements of 17th-century sculpture: dynamic poses; twisting bodies; expressive faces and gestures; a smooth and gleaming finish to the marble surfaces; virtuosity and mimetic skill; compositions conceived in the round and effective when viewed from any angle; and an emotional and spatial involvement with the viewer.

Bernini's connection with Maffeo Barberini, who became Pope Urban VIII in 1623, lasted for 20 years and afforded Bernini a position of unrivalled prestige and brought him the most sought-after commissions of the day. As early as 1624, the pope entrusted him with the task of creating the bronze baldacchino (a structure in the form of a canopy) to be placed under Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's as the focal point of the entire basilica. This was completed in 1633 with the help of several assistants, including the young Borromini, who arrived from Lombardy after gaining experience as a sculptor at Milan Cathedral. In 1629, following the death of Carlo Maderno, Bernini was appointed architect to St Peter's. He began to transform the decoration of the interior of the basilica, inserting niches containing sculptures in the four piers of the crossing under the dome, and designing the great church's furniture and furnishings, papal tombs, and the polychrome marble cladding of the nave. In addition to his work for the Vatican, Bernini also carried out private commissions, helped by assistants in his highly organized workshop. These included fountains such as the Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini, and portrait busts of, among others, Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1632) and his mistress Costanza Buonarelli (c.1635). Bernini's ability to exploit the effects of light gave even his court portrait busts - such as that of Louis XIV, sculpted in 1665, and now in the Musee du Louvre, Paris - a vitality that was to inspire 18th-century portrait sculptors. After the death of his protector and the election of Innocent X Pamphili, Bernini was passed over in favour of Alessandro Algardi (1595-1654). He had trained in the Carracci academy in Bologna and had developed an explicitly classical manner, consolidated during his time at the court of the Duke of Mantua (1622) and in Venice.

Algardi settled in Rome in 1625. where, until his promotion to Berninii's post, he worked on the restoration and completion of ancient statues belonging to Cardinal Ludovisi and made contact with fellow Emilian artists working in the city, as well as the French artist Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665). He produced monuments of a subtle, classieal dignity for the pope, which were often enlivened by dramatic realism, as is demonstrated by a marble altarpiece for St Peter's, Pope Leo I driving Attila from Rome (1646-53)-His later work, such as the bronze statue of Innocent X (1649-50). made concessions to the Baroque and had a certain affinity with Bernini's style. This is most evident in his portrait sculpture, for example, the bust of Olimpia Pamphili (c.l645). During Innocent's papacy, Bernini worked mainly on private commissions, including the Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria (1644—52). However, his most spectacular fountain, that of the Four Rivers in the Piazza Navona (1648-51), was a papal commission for Innocent X. His works had a profound effect on the appearance and character of Rome and were pivotal for Italian and European Baroque artistic culture. The accession of Alexander VII Chigi in 1655 returned Bernini to St Peter's in triumph, with the task of designing the piazza in front of the basilica to provide a prelude to the pilgrimage path through the church's interior, the symbolic significance of which Bernini enhanced with works of art. These culminated in the vision, through the baldacchino under the dome, of the Cathedra Petri (1657-66). a setting for the papal throne that occupied the huge apse at the east end of the basilica. This housed the wooden throne believed to have been used by St Peter himself, and Bernini's grandiose treatment by which it is elevated - supported by-four huge bronze figures of the Doctors of the Church -ensures its potency as a symbol of papal supremacy. Bernini's last commissions included Angels with the Symbols of the Passion for the Sant'Angelo bridge, largely sculpted by his pupils to his designs, and The Blessed Ludovica Albertoni (1671-74) in the Altieri chapel in San Francesco a Ripa. Shown in her death throes, the subject is framed by two shallow wings leading from the chapel and lit by rays of light. This theatrical display strengthens the emotional impact of the work despite the austere, contemplative treatment that reflects the deep religiosity of Bernini's last years. Many of his pupils continued to express his artistic language - including Ercole Ferrata (1610-86), Antonio Raggi, (1624-86), Paolo Naldini (1619-91), and Cosimo Fancelli (1620-88) - though after the deaths of Ferrata and Raggi, Roman sculpture and stucco decoration shook off the comparative restraint of the Baroque era and embarked upon the rich ornamentation of fullblown Rococo. The exuberant artistry of Bernini and Cortona and Borromini's flights of imagination were countered by artists who counselled restraint, balance, and measured control; in short, a reaffirmation of classical values. Like Algardi, the Flemish sculptor Francois Duquesnoy (1597-l643) was in the vanguard of this movement; he left Brussels for Rome, arriving in 1618. A great friend of Poussin, he too was influenced by Titian's Bacchanal (1518-23), clearly discernible in his creations with putti (Sacred Love and Profane Love) which were avidly collected. He worked with Bernini on the baldacchino in St Peter's, but his most typical work is the statue of St Susanna, in which the dignity of the figure is matched by its subtle grace. Neapolitan realism also played an important part in 17th-century sculpture, represented by the work of the Tuscan sculptors Pietro Bernini, Giuliano Finelli (1601-57), and Andrea Bolgi (1605-56). Cosimo Fanzago (1591-1678) from Bergamo was the most outstanding of the Neapolitan sculptors and was also a talented architect who brought the Lombard style and Bernini's influence to southern Italy.

His links with Caravaggism led him and other sculptors active in the mid-17th century to adopt a generally realistic and naturalistic approach, though often tinged with a certain austerity and drama, reminiscent of the Spainish painter Francisco Zurbaran's paintings. In Genoa, the French sculptor Pierre Puget (1620-94) blended local traditional style with those of Bernini and Pietro da Cortona, creating scenes in relief carving of great delicacy. Filippo Parodi (1630-1702), a Genoese sculptor, had gained experience in Rome before going to Venice; his sculptural creations show the influence of Bernini, as does the work of Alessandro Vittoria (1525-1608). Venice also gave Flemish sculptor Justus Le Court (1627-73) the opportunity to show his inspiration from Rubens and Bernini in an original and individual group for the high altar of Santa Maria della Salute, the altarpiece for which was sculpted by Orazio Marinali (1643-1720), one of the best exponents of the Venetian style. Marinali was receptive to the new decorative style that "was to become popular in the 18th century, and was in charge of a successful workshop in Vicenza where his brothers Angelo and Francesco also worked. Eventually, Bernini's influence reached northern Italy, inspiring a veritable forest of statues for Milan Cathedral, notably those by Dionigi Bussola (1612-87) whose traditional, popular realism was influenced by the Baroque style. Giuseppe Mazzuoli (1644-1725), a pupil of Bernini, was active in Siena and throughout Tuscany, while Giovan Battista Foggini (1652-1725) was working in Florence in Baroque style, as can be seen in his elaborate altarpiece (1685-90) in Santa Maria del Carmine.


Francesco Mochi

(b Montevarchi, 29 July 1580; d Rome, 6 Feb 1654).

Italian sculptor. The son of Lorenzo Mochi, not of Orazio Mochi as was previously believed, he studied in Florence with Santi di Tito. Around 1600 he went to Rome to continue his training with the Venetian sculptor Camillo Mariani, whom he may have assisted on his masterpiece, the eight colossal statues of saints for S Bernardo alle Terme (e.g. St Catherine of Alexandria, c. 1600). At this time Mochi attracted the attention of Duke Mario Farnese (d 1619), who secured for him his first independent commission, the large marble Annunciation group for Orvieto Cathedral (c. 1603–9; Orvieto, Mus. Opera Duomo). Originally placed on opposite sides of the high altar, the two free-standing figures of the Virgin and the Angel Gabriel electrify the broad space between them by their complementary gestures and powerful emotions. The treatment of the Annunciation as an unfolding drama broke decisively with earlier sculptural traditions, which focused on self-contained, individual figures. Rudolf Wittkower has likened its vitality to a ‘fanfare raising sculpture from its sleep’. Often considered the first truly Baroque sculpture of the 17th century, Mochi’s innovations compare to those of the early Roman Baroque painters Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci.




Francesco Mochi
Angel of Annunciation
1603-05
Marble, over life-size
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Orvieto





Francesco Mochi
Virgin Annunciate
1608-09
Marble, over life-size
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Orvieto






Francesco Mochi
Equestrian Statue of Alessandro Farnese
1620-25
Bronze
Piazza Cavalli, Piacenza





Francesco Mochi
Bust of Cardinal Antonio Barberini
1628-29
Marble, life-size
Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio






Francesco Mochi
St Martha
c. 1609-21
Marble, height 240 cm
Sant'Andrea della Valle, Rome





Francesco Mochi
St Veronica
1629-32
Marble, height 500 cm
Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican



Francesco Mochi
The Baptism of Christ
1634
Marble, height: 315 cm
Palazzo Braschi, Rome

 


Ercole Ferrata

(b Pelsoto [now Pellio Inferiore], nr Como, 1610; d Rome, 11 April 1686).

Italian sculptor. He was apprenticed at an early age to the sculptor Tommaso Orsolino ( fl 1616–?1674) of Genoa and was in Naples by 1637, when he is recorded as a marble-worker in the Corporazione di Scultori e Marmori. He remained in Naples for about nine years, during which time he carved several statues, including life-size ones of St Andrew, St Thomas and two members of the D’Aquino family kneeling in prayer (1641–6; S Maria la Nova, chapel of S Giacomo della Marca) as well as decorative and garden sculpture for villas of the nobility. Some of this work was done in collaboration with Cosimo Fanzago.




Ercole Ferrata
The Death of St Agnes
1660-64
Marble, over life-size
Sant'Agnese in Agone, Rome



Ercole Ferrata
Stoning of St Emerenziana
1660
Marble, height 310 cm
Sant'Agnese in Agone, Rome



Antonio Raggi

(b Vico Morcote, nr Lugano, 1624; d Rome, 1 Aug 1686).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist. He arrived in Rome in 1645 and remained based there for the rest of his life. He initially joined the workshop of Alessandro Algardi, under whom he made three stucco reliefs for S Giovanni in Laterano. In 1647 he joined 38 other sculptors working under Gianlorenzo Bernini on decorations at St Peter’s. Over the next few years he established himself as Bernini’s most trusted assistant and chief collaborator in both marble and stucco, working from drawings and models supplied by the master. As such he completed the over-life-size marble group of Christ and Mary Magdalene Noli me tangere (1649) for the Alaleona Chapel of SS Domenico e Sisto and the colossal Danube (1650–51) in Bernini’s Four Rivers Fountain on the Piazza Navona, as well as visiting the Este court at Modena in 1653 to make from Bernini’s sketches terracotta models from which large-scale sculptures for the Palazzo Ducale at Sassuolo could be executed. He also collaborated with Bernini on the Cathedra Petri (1657–64) in St Peter’s and on the redecoration of S Maria del Popolo, where he contributed the stucco relief sculptures of SS Barbara, Catherine, Thecla and Apollonia (1655–7), as well as angels and putti.




Antonio Raggi
Angel with the Column
1668-69
Marble, over life-size
Ponte Sant'Angelo, Rome





Antonio Raggi
The Death of St Cecilia
1660-67
Marble, height 310 cm
Sant'Agnese in Agone, Rome




 

Giuliano Finelli

(b Carrara, 13 Dec 1601 or 12 Dec 1602; d Rome, 16 Aug 1653).

Italian sculptor. He received his earliest artistic training and his gift for handling marble from his uncle, a stonecutter in the quarries at Carrara. In 1611 he accompanied his uncle to Naples, and there he entered the workshop of Michelangelo Naccherino, one of the most prominent Neapolitan sculptors. In 1622 he moved to Rome and almost immediately came to the attention of Gianlorenzo Bernini, who made him one of his principal studio assistants. In that capacity Finelli participated in a number of Bernini’s most important projects of the 1620s. The young sculptor’s virtuosity in carving marble and his facility in using the drill to achieve pictorial effects are nowhere more evident than in his contributions to Bernini’s group Apollo and Daphne (1622–4; Rome, Gal. Borghese). The delicately carved twigs and roots that spring from Daphne’s hands and feet are the work of Finelli. By 1629 his association with Bernini had come to an end, and he established himself as an independent artist with his marble statue of St Cecilia (1629–30) for the choir of S Maria di Loreto, Rome. While generically akin to Bernini’s St Bibiana (1624–6; Rome, S Bibiana), Finelli’s statue departs from Bernini’s dynamic conception and is reserved and more classicizing in style, closer to Alessandro Algardi’s stucco Saints in S Silvestro al Quirinale and to Pietro da Cortona’s painted Saints in S Bibiana.




Giuliano Finelli
Bust of Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger
1630
Marble
Casa Buonarroti, Florence



Giuliano Finelli
Bust of Cardinal Giulio Antonio Santorio
1633-34
Marble
San Giovanni Laterano, Rome



Giuliano Finelli
Bust of Scipione Borghese
1632
Marble
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

 

Orazio Marinali

(b Angarano, 24 Feb 1643; d Vicenza, 7 April 1720).

The most celebrated member of the family, he trained in Venice with Josse de Corte, the leading sculptor in the city at that time, whose dramatic power and feeling for chiaroscural effects Orazio adopted. De Corte’s influence is to be found most clearly in Orazio’s early works, such as the marble statues of the Virgin and Child with SS Dominic and Catherine (1679), made for the altar of the Rosary in S Nicolò, Treviso, and the Virgin and Child with Saints, Angels and Putti, made for the cathedral in Bassano del Grappa. Orazio became a prolific sculptor of religious works, and he was active in towns throughout the Veneto. Most of his works are initialled ‘O.M.’. Although he collaborated with his brother Angelo on numerous occasions, Orazio remained the dominant partner. In 1681, for example, the city of Bassano del Grappa commissioned from both Marinali brothers the statue of St Bassano, the city’s patron saint, for the main square (in situ). One of Orazio’s own particularly successful projects was his decoration for the church of S Maria di Monte Berico, Vicenza, executed between 1690 and 1703. Here he provided numerous imposing statues of saints and reliefs in pietra tenera (a soft limestone from near Taranto) for the exterior and stucco figures of four prophets and marble Holy Water stoups for the interior. In 1704 he completed the high altar of S Giuliano, Vicenza, with marble figures of the Risen Christ with Saints. Nearly all the sculptures there are signed by him. He later (1715–17) executed the marble figures of the Guardian Angel and the Angel Gabriel for the altar of SS Sacramento in S Giovanni Battista, Bassano.




Orazio Marinali
Christ as the Man of Sorrows
1689



Orazio Marinali
Jupiter and Antiope
1690




Orazio Marinali
Monument to Alexander VIII

 
 
 
GIANLORENZO BERNINI

The son of a sculptor, Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) was influenced by ancient Greek and Roman art and by the 16th-century Italian masters. He was awarded the commission for the bronze baldacchino (canopy) in St Peter's in 1624, and continued to work on the cathedral and the colonnade around the piazza as sculptor and architect until shortly before he died. His architectural commissions include the Palazzo Montecitorio and Palazzo Barberini in Rome, as weil as unexecuted projects for the Louvre. His Ecstasy of St Theresa in Santa Maria della Vittoria and the Blessed Ludovica Albertoni in San Francesco a Ripa are among Rome's most celebrated sculptures.


Gianlorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini,
baldacchino over the high altar of St Peter's, Vatican City,
bronze, wood, and marble,
1624-33

 
 
 
THE BAROQUE ALTAR

With his figure of St Cecilia (1601), Stefano Maderno introduced a change in the architectural and decorative structure of the altar from traditional Renaissance designs. She is shown lying on her side, encased within an ante-pendium that resembles a sarcophagus. Later, in the Cornaro Chapel (1646—52). Bernini detached the altar from the wall, turning it into a convex stage on which a narrative takes place. His Cathedra Petti (1657-66) in the Vatican basilica is a theatrical creation reminiscent of temporary structures for open-air festivities, and a clear statement that sculpture had been liberated from architectural structure. Bernini collaborated with Alessandro Algardi, Domenico Facchetti, and others on the altar of St Paul's Church in Bologna (1638-43). The result was classical in style but was executed in polychrome marble. Open to the rear, its exedra and columns held a sculptural group, The Beheading of St Paul, in place of the usual painted altar-piece. During the second half of the l7th century, when the influence of Roman decorative art was paramount, a foretaste of the 18th-century's decorative extravagances could be seen in the altar of St Louis Gonzaga in the church of St Ignatius, which contained the marble altarpiece (1699) of Pierre Legros. It was also evident in the St Ignatius chapel (1695-99) in the Gesu in Rome, bv Andrea Pozzo.



Alessandro Algardi
Beheading of St Paul
c. 1650
Marble, height: 286 cm
San Paolo Maggiore, Bologna



Stefano Maderno

(b ?Rome, 1575; d Rome, 17 Sept 1636).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the outstanding sculptors in Rome in the early 17th century, and his work, together with that of such sculptors as Pietro Bernini, Nicolas Cordier, Camillo Mariani and Francesco Mochi, is generally considered to mark a transition from the late Renaissance (or Mannerist) style to the early Baroque. He has long been considered a Lombard, but Donati (1945) questioned his northern origins on the basis of his death certificate, which gives Palestrina (30 km from Rome) as his place of birth. Pressouyre (1984) published the marriage contract drawn up between the sculptor and his second wife, Lucrezia Pennina, on 24 October 1611, which refers to both Maderno and his father as Roman, and drew attention to the artist’s signature on his relief of Rudolf II of Hungary Attacking the Turks (1613–15) on the tomb of Paul V in S Maria Maggiore



Stefano Maderno
St Cecilia
1600
Marble, length 130 cm
Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome




Stefano Maderno
Hercules with the Infant Telephus
1620




Stefano Maderno
Nicodimus with the Body of Christ
1615

 
 
 
 
SCULPTURE IN FLANDERS

Many Flemish sculptors were extremely prolific, and some, like Francois Duquesnoy, met with success abroad. The most gifted and famous member of a family of artists, Duquesnoy worked in Rome from 1618 onwards and made his name as a brilliant interpreter of the classical style. Later in the century, the influence of Rubens extended to sculpture, as did that of Roman Baroque. This is evident in the work of Artus Quellinus the Elder (1609-68), a sculptor of note who was active in Amsterdam, where he was commissioned in 1650 to carve sculptures for the new town hall. Lucas Fayd'herbe (1617-97), a pupil of Rubens, was a gifted ivory carver, architect, and sculptor. Among his more famous works are ranked the statues of the Apostles in the church of Saints Michael and Gudula in Brussels, the funerary monument of Bishop Cruesen in Malines Cathedral and, in the same city, the reliefs in Notre-Dame de Hanswyck. The most outstanding of the Walloon sculptors was Jean Delcour (1627-1707), who studied with Bernini in Rome before returning to Liege in 1657. Many artists enriched the churches with elaborately decorated altars, choirstalls, screens, confessionals, and pulpits. One of the finest examples is the large wooden pulpit carved by Hendrick Frans Verbruggen for Brussels Cathedral in 1699.

Francois Duquesnoy
Flemish sculptor, (b. 1597, Bruxelles, d. 1643, Livorno)




Francois Duquesnoy
St Andrew
1629-33
Marble, height: 450 cm
Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican

 
 
 
 
Artus Quellinus the Elder

(b Antwerp, bapt 30 Aug 1609; d Antwerp, 23 Aug 1668).

Sculptor, son of Erasmus Quellinus. He is generally recognized as the greatest Flemish sculptor of the Baroque. After training with his father, in 1634 he travelled to Italy and worked in the studio of François du Quesnoy in Rome. By 1639 he had returned to Antwerp, where in 1640 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke and married Margaretha Verdussen; in the same year he took over his father’s studio. His pupils included Peeter Verbrugghen, his cousin Artus Quellinus, Gabriel Grupello, Guillielmus Kerricx and probably Louis Willemsens.




Artus Quellinus
Luis de Benavides
1664
Marble, height: 98 cm
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 
 
 
 
ARCHITECTURE IN FLANDERS

Following Antwerp's conversion from an outpost of Calvinism — the Christian doctrines as interpreted by the French protestant reformer and theologian John Calvin (1509-64) - into a bastion of the Counter-Reformation, two new churches were built: the church of St Augustine (begun 1615) by Wenzel Coebergher (c. 1560-1634) and the Jesuit Church, now St Charles Borromeo (c. 1615-25), by the architects Franciscus Aguillon (1567-1617) and Pieter Huyssens (1577-1637), possibly with the help of Rubens. He also provided the drawings for the statues on the facade as well as the entire decoration of the ceiling (destroyed in a fire in 1718) and various paintings. The espousal of an extravagant Baroque style by Flemish architects is evident in the church of St Michael in Louvain (1650-71), designed by the Jesuit Willem van Hess (1601-90). There, references to Italian churches (notably the Gesu in Rome) and rich decoration are combined with an emphasis on height and verticality which shows the continuing influence of Gothic taste. The houses in the Grande Place, Brussels, most of which were designed by Guillaume de Bruyn (1649-1719), have exuberant exterior decoration grafted onto a more traditional and deeply rooted Flemish style.



François d'Aguilon

François d'Aguilon (also d'Aguillon or in Latin Franciscus Aguilonius) (4 January 1567, Brussels – 20 March 1617, Tournai), was a Belgian Jesuit mathematician, physicist and architect.

He became a Jesuit in 1586. In 1611, he started a special school of mathematics, in Antwerp, which intended to perpetuate the mathematical research and study in the Jesuit society. This school produced geometers like André Tacquet and Jean Charles della Faille.

Illustration by Rubens for "Opticorum libri sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles", by François d'Aiguillon. It demonstrates how the projection is computed.His book, Opticorum Libri Sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles (Six Books of Optics, useful for philosophers and mathematicians alike), published in Antwerp in 1613, was illustrated by famous painter Peter Paul Rubens. It was notable for containing the principles of the stereographic and the orthographic projections, and it inspired the works of Desargues and Christiaan Huygens.


Franciscus Aguillon and Pieter Huyssens
St Ignatius, now St Charles Borromeo,
interior, Antwerp




Jesuit Willem van Hess and Jan Steen
Jesus Church (now St Michael's),
fasade, Louvain


Pieter Huyssens
Church of St.Charles Borromeo, Antwerp
1615-1623

 
 
 
 
SCULPTURE IN SPAIN

Some of the most outstanding works by 17th-century Spanish sculptors were devotional pieces in polychrome wood. Those of Gregorio Hernandez (1576— 1636), the greatest sculptor of the Castilian school, are imbued with an intense, passionate expressivity.
The polychrome sculptures of Juan Martinez Montanes (1568-1649), a sculptor active in Seville and a friend of Francisco Pacheco, possessed a powerful naturalism yet strove to convey a spiritual message. Some of his most important commissions, including Christ of Clemency (1603-06), are in Seville Cathedral. Montanes was an important influence on his contemporaries Velazquez, Zurbaran, and Alonso Cano. Cano gradually adopted more elegant shapes in his work, aiming at a softer and more idealized approach, in both his sculpture and his painting.


Gregorio Hernandez

(1576— 1636)



Gregorio Hernandez
Pieta (detail)
1616
Museo de Bellas Artes, Valladolid, Spain

 

Juan Martinez Montanes

(b Alcala la Real (Jaen), bapt 16 March 1568; d Seville, 18 June 1649).

Spanish sculptor. He strove constantly for perfection, and, although he did not paint his own statues, he arranged for polychrome to be added by the most competent masters. Montanes was frequently sought for prestigious sculptural commissions in Seville, and he ran the most complete and organized workshop in the city, with an enormous production, similar to that run by Gregorio Fernandez in Valladolid. The names of many of his collaborators are known, which implies that he was the director of a large enterprise. He planned and directed work and carried out the execution of appropriate parts or whole works as requested by his customers.





Juan Montanez
The Merciful Christ
c. 1603
Polychromed wood
Cathedral, Seville





Juan Montanez
The Adoration of the Shepherds
1609-13
Wood
San Isidoro del Campo, Santiponce




Juan Montanez
St Ignatius Loyola (detail)
c. 1610
Polychromed wood
Chapel, Seville University




ARCHITECTURE IN MADRID

During the 17th century, a huge amount of new building and urban development took place in Madrid, reflecting its new role as the capital city. The most important buildings were for the Royal Court. During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the Alcazar Palace, in the westernmost part of the city, was enlarged and altered, from 1561 onwards, under the supervision of Juan Bautista de Toledo (the building was destroyed in a fire in 1734). He was succeeded as the leading court architect by Juan Gomez de Mora, who also designed the Plaza Mayor and was involved in the construction of El Escorial, the huge monastery-palace in the foothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama near Madrid, built at Philip Us behest. Alonso Carbonel and Giovanni Crescenzi (1577-1660) also worked on El Escorial, as well as designing the Palace of the Buen Retiro (1623-29), the sovereign's summer residence in eastern Madrid, which was partially destroyed in 1640. A Jesuit priest, Francisco Bautista (1594-1678), was appointed architect of the new cathedral of St Isidore.

Juan Bautista de Toledo

Juan Bautista de Toledo (died May 19, 1567) was a well-known Spanish sculptor and architect from Madrid.

Nothing is known of his birth or childhood, but in 1547, Toledo went to Rome and studied under Michelangelo Buonarroti. He went next to Naples, where he had been summoned by the Viceroy, Don Pietro de Toledo, to work as an architect for Charles V. He designed many buildings there, including: the Strada di Toledo (since 1870 called Strada di Roma), the church of St. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli; the square bastions to the Castello Nuovo; a large palazzo at Posillipo, and a number of fountains. In 1559, he was summoned back to Madrid by Philip II and appointed Architect-in-Chief of the royal works in Spain. His yearly salary as architect to the Crown was at first no more than 220 ducats, because Philip's policy, with his Spanish artists at least, was to give them moderate allowances until he had tested their abilities. In Madrid, he designed the Casa de la Misericordia and the façade of the church de las Descalzas Reales. He also created works at Aceca; at the palace of Aranjuez; at Martininos de las Posadas, the palace of Cardinal Espinosa, and a villa at Esteban de Ambran for the secretary D. de Vargas. Toledo's final work was the Escorial, which he supervised until his death.


Plaza Mayor, Madrid, begun 1590

Plaza Mayor of Madrid

The Plaza Mayor is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. The Plaza Mayor is only a few blocks away from another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, 129 by 94 meters, and is surrounded by three-floored residential buildings with 237 balconies. It has a total of nine entranceways. The Plaza Mayor was built during the Austrian period. The Casa de la Panadería, serving municpal and cultural functions, dominates the Plaza Mayor.

The origins of the Plaza go back to 1581 when Philip II of Spain asked Juan de Herrera, a renowned Renaissance architect, to devise a plan to remodel the busy and chaotic area of the old Plaza del Arrabal. Juan de Herrera was the architect who designed the first project in 1581 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but the construction didn't start until 1617, during the Philip III of Spain's reign. The king asked Juan Gomez de Mora to continue with the project, and he finished the porticoes in 1619. Nevertheless, the Plaza Mayor as we know it today is the work of the architect Juan de Villanueva who was entrusted with its reconstruction in 1790 after a spate of big fires. Juan de Bolonia's statue of Philip III on horseback in the center of the square dates back to 1616.



Juan de Herrera, Juan Gomez de Mora
The Plaza Mayor
16th century; completed 1619




Juan Gomez de Mora
Casa de la Villa, Plaza de la Villa
one source says 1630; another 1644



 

El Escorial, begun 1563

The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (in Spanish, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial) is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of Madrid in the autonomous community of Madrid in Spain.

At the foot of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range, the complex was commanded by King Philip II of Spain as a necropolis for the Spanish monarchs and the seat of studies in aid of the Counter-Reformation. It was designed by the architects Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera in an austere classical style, and built from 1563 to 1584. It is shaped as a grid in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Lawrence. It is said that during the battle of Saint Quentin (1557), the Spanish troops destroyed a small hermitage devoted to Lawrence. The King Philip II of Spain decided to dedicate the monastery to the saint in thanks for his victory.






The Escorial,
by Juan Bautista de Toledo, Juan de Herrera, at near Madrid, Spain,
1562 to 1584.




El Escorial, south facade, begun 1563



Francisco Bautista, interior of Cathedral of St Isidore, Madrid, c 1622-60

 
 
 
 
Hapsburgs and the 17th Century

In the 16th century, an irreparable schism developed in Central Europe: the north espoused the Protestant cause while the south, on the whole, remained Roman Catholic. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) this " split deepened, ending with the Peace of Munster under which the German nation was no longer a political unity - over 300 small states were recognized - and the House of Austria tightened its grip on Bohemia, which lost all political autonomy. The country had come under the control of the Hapsburgs in 1526, and by the turn of the century the presence of Rudolph II's court in Prague had transformed the city into a lively centre of international culture. From 1581 to l6ll, Bartholomaeus Spranger (1546-1611), one of the greatest pre-Baroque Mannerist artists, was active in Prague. He is best known for his mythological pictures such as Minerva Conquering Ignorance (c. 1591). Although the Thirty Years' War blighted artistic activity in Central Europe until the mid-century, the larger cities. Vienna and Prague, soon recovered their ascendancy and the southern zones began to flourish. With the Hapsburg dynasty and the Catholic religion established,many Italian architects were attracted to the empire, particularly during the first phase of building activity. As early as 1621, Count Wallenstein entrusted his magnificent new palace in Prague to Andrea Spezza (died 1628). In the same city, the Jesuit College (Klementinum) and the Leopold Gate (c.1670) were designed by Carlo Lurago , and the Czernin Palace (begun 1668) by Francesco Caratti and church of the Crusader Knights (1679-88) by the French architect Jean-Baptiste Mathey (c. 1630-95) were also built. In Munich, Agostino Barelli (1627-99) was responsible for the Church of the Theatines (1663) and for beginning the Nymphenburg Palace (1664), which was completed by Enrico Zuccalli (1642-1724). In Vienna, Carlo Antonio Carlone designed the Jesuit church of the Nine Angelic-Choirs (1662) and Filiberto Lucchese the Leopold wing of the Hofburg Palace (1661-68). The great era of Austrian Baroque only began after 1683, the year the Turks were defeated and Hapsburg power assured. The concentrated urban development in Vienna did not, however, destroy the ancient plan of the city. The new districts effectively encircled the old nucleus. The ring-road on the site of the old city walls was lined with palaces and gardens, many designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656-1723), the leading Austrian architect, between 1690 and 1700.

 

Carlo Lurago

(1615-1684)
Italian architect, active in Prague.


Carlo Lurago
St. Stephan's Cathedral, Passau




 

Francesco Caratti

(1620-1677)

Francesco Caratti
Czernin Palace, Prague, detail of the facade, begun 1668.
Appointed architect to Prince Czernin in 1668, Caratti held the post until his death in 1677.


 

Agostino Barelli

(1627-1699)


Agostino Barelli
Facade and dome of the Church of the Theatines, Munich, 1663-74.

Barelli spent many years working for the religious order founded by St Gaetano of Thiene.


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach

(1656-1723)

Austrian architect. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (the honorific was granted by the emperor in 1696 when Fischer was ennobled) was the son of Johann Baptist Fischer, a sculptor and decorator active in Graz, near the Austrian border with Italy. Johann Bernhand became the last great architect of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, occupying a central role in the buildings of the imperial court circle in Vienna. His eclectic approach was adopted as the official style of the Habsburg court. His second son, Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, was trained by his father as his successor and completed his unfinished work after his death.


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Kollegienkirche in Salzburg (1696-1707)



Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Karlskirche, Vienna, 1716.

The church was commissioned by Emperor Karl VI in fulfilment of his vow made during the 1713 plague.
The life of St Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan and patron saint of the plague,
is illustrated on the columns.


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Karlskirche, Vienna, 1716



Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Palais Lobkowitz

 

ROYAL PALACES IN VIENNA AND BERLIN

Begun in 1695 to a design by Fischer von Erlach, the construction of the Schonbrunn Palace was not complete until the mid-18th century. This was Vienna's answer to Versailles, an expression of Austria's leading status as a European monarchy. The architect's original plans had been even more ambitious, fusing elements of Roman architecture with massive and imposing French models, such as Bernini's project for the Louvre and Hardouin-Mansart's Palace of Versailles, and also perhaps making reference to ancient architecture in the east. In 1698. another grandiose building project was launched: the Royal Palace in Berlin, designed by the architect and sculptor Andreas Schluter for the Elector of Brandenburg, who became the first king of Prussia in 1701. The palace was destroyed in 1945.


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, 1695

 
 
 
 
The 17th Century in England and Scandinavia

The English preference for classical architecture was confirmed by the success of Inigo Jones (1573-1652), a versatile architect inspired by the theories and buildings of Andrea Palladio, whose work he first encountered during his visits to Italy (1597-1603 and 1613-14). With the Stuart monarchs, James I (1603-25) and Charles I (1625-49), as his patrons, Jones designed the Queen's House at Greenwich (begun 1616); the Banqueting Hall for the Palace of Whitehall (1619-22. decorated by Rubens in 1634 to celebrate the reign of James I); and Covent Garden (c. 1630). Christopher Wren (1632-1723), a strict classicist, was the leading architect during the second half of the century and was responsible for the many City churches, including St Paul's Cathedral, which was rebuilt after the Great Fire of London in 1666 (estimated to have destroyed 13,200 houses). English painting started to emerge from isolation from the reign of James I onwards with the arrival of foreign artists, among them the Flemish painters Paul van Somer (1577-1621) and Daniel Mytens (1590-1656). Charles I was a great collector and passionate about art: Rubens was invited to London, as were van Dyck, who settled in the capital in 1632, and Orazio Gentileschi, a follower of Caravaggio, who arrived from Pisa in 1626. Towards the end of the century, large-scale mural decorations were first made fashionable by Antonio Verrio (c. 1639-1707), whose classicism influenced James Thornhill (1675-1734), the artist responsible for the decorative paintings inside the dome of St Paul's Cathedral and the Painted Hall at Greenwich Hospital. In Scandinavia, there was intense architectural activity in Stockholm after Gustavus Adolphus (reigned 1611-32) made it his capital. Early influences were mainly French and Dutch: one of the most notable figures was Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (1615-81), who designed the majestic Drottningholm Palace (begun 1662). The park was laid out by his son Nicodemus II (1654-1728), who was also the architect of the Royal Palace in Stockholm. The classical style was also used in Denmark in the Rosenborg Palace commissioned by Christian IV, who during his reign (1588-1648) promoted many major building projects.

INIGO JONES

A great admirer of Palladio and Scamozzi, Inigo Jones (1573-1652) was the foremost exponent of late-Renaissance classicism in England, where his work left an indelible mark; it also influenced 18th-century architecture in the US. His most successful projects included country houses (the Queen's House at Greenwich and Wilton House), the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall, and the enlargement of St Paul's Cathedral. He was famous in his day for his designs for the royal court's masques. An interesting collection of his drawings has survived, including designs for the Palace of Whitehall.


The Queen's House, by Inigo Jones, at Greenwich, England, 1616 to 1635




Banqueting House, by Inigo Jones, at Whitehall, London, England, 1619 to 1622



Inigo Jones, Queen's House, London, England, 1616




Sir Christopher Wren

(b East Knoyle, Wilts, 20 Oct 1632; d London, 25 Feb 1723).

English architect. The leader of the English Baroque school, he was the creator of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, completed in his lifetime, and remains the most famous architect in English history.


Greenwich Hospital, by Sir Christopher Wren, at Greenwich, England, 1696 to 1715



Greenwich Hospital, by Sir Christopher Wren, at Greenwich, England, 1696 to 1715



Saint Paul's Cathedral, by Sir Christopher Wren, at London, England, United Kingdom, 1675 to 1710



St. James, by Sir Christopher Wren, at Picadilly, London, England, 1674 to 1687



St. Stephen's Walbrook, by Sir Christopher Wren, at London, England, UK, 1672 to 1687

 
 
 

 
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