TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
  Art Timeline  
 
 
  1 c. 15000 - 5000 BC Prehistoric Art
  2 5000 BC - 5ОО BC The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms of Egypt - Aegean Art
  3-4 5ОО вс - 12th century The Art of the Greeks
  5-6 5ОО вс - 12th century Italic Art
  7-8-9 12th century (1100-1199) The Early Christians  Art - Byzantine Art
  10-11 13th century (1200-1299) Gothic Art
  12 14th century (1300-1399) Gothic Art - International Style
  13 15th century (1400-1499) The Early Renaissance
  14 16th century (1500-1599) The High Renaissance
  15-16 16th century (1500-1599) Mannerism
  17-18-19-20 17th century (1600-1699) Baroque
  21-22 18th century (1700-1799) Rococo
  23-24-25-26-27-28-29 19th century(1800–1899) Neoclassical - Romanticism
    19th century (1863-1899) Impressionism Timeline
    19th century (1860-1899) Simbolism
    20th century(1900-1999) ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK NEXT    
 
 
 
     
 
 
 
13th century (1200-1299)
 
 
 
     
  The Age of Great Cathedrals

(timeline)
     
 
 
 
     
  Gothic Art

Architecture-Sculpture-Stained Glass-Painting
     
 
 
 
     
 
Gothic & Early Renaissance Art

Painting
 
     
 
 
 
13th century (1200-1299)
 
Nicola Pisano
Antelami Benedetto
Master of Naumburg
1240
Cimabue
Arnolfo di Cambio
Giovanni Pisano
1250
Cavallini
1255
Duccio
1266
Giotto
Andrea Pisano
Bonaventura Berlinghieri
Lorenzo Maitani
Tino di Camaino
1280
Pietro Lorenzetti
1284
Simone Martini
Lippo Memmi
Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Giovanni di Balduccio
 
 
 
Sainte-Chapelle de Paris. France. 1241-48

Sainte-Chapelle had both the sacred and royal functions of the personal tabernacle of Louis IX (Saint Louis). Its base consists of a lower chapel for the use of the parish, while the upper chapel is flush with the palace and opens onto it through a porch and gallery. It is said that the architect of Sainte-Chapelle is Pierre de Montreuil (about 1200-67), who have rebuilt the apse of Saint-Denis and have completed south facade of Notre-Dame of Paris, but it is not sure.



Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248



Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248




Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248



Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248



Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248



Sainte-Chapelle de Paris, France, 1241-1248

Basilique Saint-Denis. France. 1136-44

Basilique Saint-Denis originated as a small chapel at the graveyard of Saint Denis in five century. After seven century, the Merovingian era (486-751) of Frankish kingdom, Basilique Saint-Denis became the royal abbey church. The third Basilique Saint-Denis was rebuilt in 775 of Carolingian era. Abbot Suger (1081-1151) began to reconstruct the church in 1137, completed west facade and narthex in the 1140 and completed choir in 1144. He continued to reconstruct the nave but he died in 1151 before finished it. It is said that the nave, including the upper part of the choir and transept, was reconstructed by probably Pierre de Montreuil (about 1200-67) and others from 1231 to 1281.


Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144

Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144



Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144



Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144



Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144



Basilique Saint-Denis, 1136-1144

 
 
 
 
Reims Cathedral Notre-Dame. Reims, France. 1211-13c
 

Cathedral Notre-Dame of Reims, the matured Gothic stule in Champagne, is located about 130m west of Paris. The original cathedral of Romanesque style was burned in 1210. An architect Jean d'Orbais started to make a plan in 1211 and to construct the choir. Work was interrupted in 1233 and the choir was completed in 1241. The construction of western facade was started in 1252 but the actual facade was not completed until 15th century.



Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213



Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

 

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

     
     

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213




Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213




Reims Cathedral, 1211-1213

 

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais. France. 1247-72

Cathedral Saint-Pierre de Beauvais was constructed in 10th century besides of Notre-dame de Beauvais at Caroling Period. The cathedral destruction by fire in 1180 and in 1225. The reconstruction begun in 1225.The construction of the choir was completed in 1272 but the vault of it had fellen down in 1284.The Choir was reconstructed again in 1322, adding another pier between each piers and changing the quadripartite vaults to sexpartite vaults. North and south transept was constructed in 1500-48. The tall tower at the crossing, 151m high, was constructed in 1558-69 but the tower had fellen in 1773.


Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

     
     

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais, 1247-1272

 
 
 
 
Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52

During the 14th century, the Papal Seat was centred at Avignon. As desired by Benedict XII. the main pontifical residence reflected the image of a castle-convent, characterized by turrets and high walls. The Palazzo Nuovo, commissioned in the middle of the century by Clement VI, conceived the interior as a sumptuous court, with salons, great stairways, and halls. Everywhere, decorations abounded with corbels, portals, and windows designed with great finesse. In these rooms and the adjoining chapels, the full flowering of the Avignon pictorial school could be found, with the refined realism of Matteo Giovannetti meeting the graphic elegance of French artists. Matteo, who painted the frescos between 1343 and 1347 in the chapels of San Marziale and San Giovanni, reproduced the strong Tuscan architectonic style of the early 14th century in a lively chromatic way. In many rooms, there were courtly scenes in elegant natural surroundings, in which every action and detail carried a moral message that ensured its popularity in ecclesiastical residences.

Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52



Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52




Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52

 



Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52


Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52


Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52


 

Matteo Giovannetti.
Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52



Matteo Giovannetti.
Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52



Matteo Giovannetti.
Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52



Matteo Giovannetti.
Papal Palace, Avignon 1342-52

 
 
 
 
Architecture in Germany

THE PARLER FAMILY

The Parlers were an important German family of masons in the 14th century. Heinrich I (b. C.1300), who trained on the site of Cologne Cathedral, built the Heiligkreuzkirche at Schwabisch-Gmuncl, where he was master mason and responsible for the late Gothic German style. One of his sons, Peter (1333-99), was a leading figure of the late Gothic European style. After his apprenticeship at Schwabisch-Gmiind with his father, he worked in Strasbourg. Cologne, and Nuremberg, before being summoned to Prague to finish the cathedral started by Matthias of Arras. Peter introduced new ideas that connected the windowed triforium arcade to the main upper windows, and developed intricate rib patterns for the vaulting. He was then employed by Charles IV in the most important Prague workshops. Peter's son Wenzel worked on Vienna Cathedral, and another family member. Heinrich III, is recorded as having worked on Milan Cathedral in 1392.

 

Cologne, Germany, begun in 1248.

Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is one of the most well-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Cologne's most famous landmark for centuries. Construction of the gothic church began in the 13th century and took, with interruptions, more than 600 years. The two towers are 157m tall, the cathedral is 144m long and 86m wide. It was built on the site of a 4th century Roman temple, a square edifice known as the 'oldest cathedral' and commissioned by Maternus, the first Christian bishop of Cologne. The present cathedral was built to house the relics of the Magi, brought to Cologne from Italy by Archbishop Rainald von Dassel in 1164. The foundation stone was laid on August 15, 1248, by Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden. The choir was consecrated in 1322. After this initial rapid progress, construction work gradually came to a standstill, and by the year 1560, only a torso had been built. It was only with 19th century romantic enthusiasm for the Middle Ages and the commitment of the Prussian Court that construction work resumed in 1842 with the addition of the towers and other substantial parts of the cathedral. The completion of Germany's largest cathedral was celebrated as a national event in 1880, 632 years after construction had began. The celebration was attended by Emperor Wilhelm I. In the end, the outer appearance remained faithful to the original medieval plans; however, the roof was a modern steel construction. At its completion, the Cologne cathedral was the tallest building in the world, having taken over from the cathedral of Rouen. In 1889, it lost the title to Mole Antonelliana, the cathedral of Turin. For a small fee it is possible to climb a spiral staircase to a viewing platform about 98 metres above the ground. The cathedral suffered 14 hits by World War II bombs; reconstruction was completed in 1956.


Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.




Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248.



Sankt Lozenz Kirche Cathedral. Nurnberg, Bavaria, Germany


Sankt Lozenz Kirche Cathedral



Sankt Lozenz Kirche Cathedral




Sankt Lozenz Kirche Cathedral


Church of Our Dear Lady. Nurnberg, Bavaria, Germany


Church of Our Dear Lady




Church of Our Dear Lady

 
 
 
 

Architecture in Italy

From the start of the 12th century. Italian architecture was characterized by many different aspirations, which combined to create an architectural culture of great vitality and a striking geographical diversity. On the one hand Franco-Burgundian influences began to filter through with the foundation of Cistercian monasteries, from Chiaravalle to Fossanova, and were partially adopted by new orders, in particular the frugal Franciscans and Dominicans. Challenging these ideas was the tenacious Romanesque tradition, which was well able to cater for the needs of the new city states. This was the case in the Po Valley of northern Italy, although the church of Sant'Andrea in Vercelli and the top colonnade of the Baptistry of Parma already showed concessions to the new style from the north side of the Alps. Another important influence on Italian architecture was offered by the classical heritage, dominated by the early Christian basilicas in Rome, and in the Imperial revivals in Italy, splendidly interpreted by Frederick II of Germany (1194-1250). who was crowned emperor of Rome in 1220. This complex combination of influences was profoundly interlinked with equally multifaceted developments in other Italian art forms, making it difficult to recognize coherent and unambiguous patterns. From a historical point of view. Gothic represented a distinct change, which counteracts the traditional understanding of an uninterrupted transition from the Romanesque to the Renaissance (epitomized by the work of Brunelleschi). By the 13th century, the Franciscan and Dominican orders, together with the Humiliati. a penitential association of the laity specific to the Po Valley, were pushing for simpler constructions and more usable space. As a result, the ceilings of nave and aisles.
whether vaulted or wooden, were adjusted to reduce the differences in height between the side aisles, while the widely spaced pillars gradually diminished the excessive mix of straight and curved lines by the use of wide-diameter arches, either pointed or completely rounded. The result was a geometric architectonic image that was rationally coherent in design. The surrounding walls became a surface for the multicoloured decorations of cycles of legendary scenes, which were either painted on, as in the buildings at Assisi, or sculpted, as in the facade of Siena Cathedral. Seen from this point of view, Giotto's bell-tower in Florence represented an extraordinary return to the integrity of surface articulation. Despite the obvious French influences in the Upper church of Assisi or in San Francesco, Bologna, with its radial chapels around the choir, the Dominicans and Franciscans consciously respected civic needs and erected buildings of strong public character, as is clear in Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce in Florence. Out of this situation the image of the civic cathedral took shape: from Siena to Orvieto, Lecce, and Bologna. Milan provided an opportunity for later revisions of the French innovations, especially as regards decoration (triforia, rose-windows, spires, pinnacles). Other integrations are beautifully exemplified by the crowning of the Baptistry of Pisa and its neighbouring cemetery, the Camposanto. That these developments were closely modelled on the art of goldsmiths is evident in the two great facades of Orvieto and Siena, with the micro-architecture of ciboria (dome-shaped canopies above the high altar), pulpits, and funerary monuments - works in which artists such as Giovanni Pisano (c.1248- 1314) and Arnolfo di Cambio participated. Also characteristic of the new age was the versatility of great architects who were generally competent artists in a wide range of different fields, including draughtsmanship. Such artists include Giotto and Arnolfo di Cambio in Florence, and Giovanni Pisano in Siena. The Italian cities developed rapidly to reach economic independence and this fostered numerous new civic buildings with a versatile mixture of Gothic pinnacles, colonnaded porticos, and sculptural detail. Clustered around the central square, magnificent town halls, hospitals, and urban palazzos were built, and work continued on the cathedrals. Echoes of classical architecture, which retained vestiges of the ancient rules of proportion, was strongest in Rome. It was also seen at the court of Frederick, which in Castel del Monte interpreted Cistercian Gothic in noble, classical forms. The octagonal cathedral crossings provided a monumental example, which was to extend the geometric styles beyond the confines of the cathedral, to be applied to the fountains of city squares. It is also in the cathedrals of Pisa. Siena, and Ancona that another example of geometric order emerges: the cupola set above the transept and the body of the nave.


Baptistry of Parma (1196-1216).



Facade of Siena Cathedral, built and reworked from 1284 to 1382.



Facade of Siena Cathedral



Siena Cathedral (interior)


FRANCISCAN ARCHITECTURE

In 1228, the Basilica di San Francesco was begun in Assisi, two years after the saint's death. This long building project revealed the bitter quarrel between those who adhered strictly to St Francis's ideals of poverty - evident even in the first paintings of him in the Sacro Speco at Subiano - and those who supported the inclusion of the Franciscan phenomenon in the affairs of the Church. Unlike St Bernard, who had founded the Cistercian Order in the 12th century, St Francis had not introduced aesthetic ideals into new monastic foundations, but went about restoring small rural oratories. Otherwise, the brothers' work was purely mendicant. The building had the triple function of a burial place, a conventual church, and a papal chapel. The Lower Church, which perhaps represented the first phase, was soon followed by the more ambitious project of the Upper Church, which was rich in French Gothic elements, such as Angers cathedral and the unified space of episcopal chapels. The building itself stressed the relationship between his preaching mission, and Christ's mission, which was also emphasized in Giotto's cycle of frescos, the Life ofSt Francis, as well as by Dante in Canto XI of Paradiso in his Divine Comedy. Franciscan architecture soon gained a hold throughout Roman Catholic Europe. Favouring wide, well-lit spaces, walls were decorated with scenes from the Passion, the Nativity, the Life of the Virgin, saints, and the beatified who encouraged a life of charity. Franciscan convents and churches were prominent in the cities and it was here that many great artists worked, from Giotto to Piero della Francesca, and from Leonardo to Titian. Vying with the Dominicans, the Franciscans were philosophers and theologians, teaching in the universities and influencing the culture of the courts.




Basilica di San Francesco, Assisi.



Basilica di San Francesco, Assisi.



View of the Upper Church towards the apse, Basilica di San Francesco, Assisi.

 

THE HARMONY OF ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

The capitals of Milan Cathedral and the Pilasters of the Angels testify to the great constant of Gothic cathedrals — the close relationship between architecture and sculpture. This is not merely decoiatne, but is of great iconographic meaning. The Pilasters of the Angels, inside the portals of the transept of Strasbourg Cathedral, date from 1220 to 1225. The sculptor, who had probably worked on the site at Chartres, placed the angels inside false-niches formed by Gothic-brackets and pediments made to represent the city.
This figurative tradition, widespread on the portals and facades of the cathedrals, was to find a new application in the capitals of Milan Cathedral. Completed at the end of the 14th century to designs by Giovannino De' Grassi, they were criticized by the Frenchman Jean Mignot. However, the church authorities replied that they respected proportions analogous to Vitruvian rationality, and that their decorative merit was strictly related to the iconography. The "Gallery of Saints" was transferred from the portals and facades to the pilasters, where it lined the pathway of the faithful to the altar.


Milan Cathedral. Milan, Italy. 1386-1577


Begun in the 1380's on a site where several churches had existed earlier, the building of this cathedral was fraught with difficulties. Over a number of years several different architects and consultants (including Leonardo and Bramante) were asked to work on the design.The cathedral is white marble, over a brick core, and has a cruciform plan. One of the largest cathedrals in the world (14,000 square yards) it was designed to accommodate 40,000 worshippers. The forest of pinnacles, the tracery panels, and the rich embellishment with statuary identifies it as Late Gothic. Closer to France than most Italian cathedrals, it borrows more directly from the French "rayonnant" style.


Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577



Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1386-1577

 
 
 
 
 
Architecture in England

Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, England, 597-15th century

Founded 597 by St. Augustine. Mother Church of the Anglican Communion. Romanesque Crypt. 12th century Gothic Quire. 14th-15th century Nave. Site of Becket's Martyrdom and Shrine. Notable stained glass.
The foundation of this splendid Cathedral dates back to the coming of the first archbishop, Augustine, from Rome in A.D. 597, but the earliest part of the present building is the great Romanesque crypt built circa 1100. The monastic "quire" erected on top of this at the same time was destroyed by fire in 1174, only 4 years after the murder of Thomas Becket on a dark December evening in the northwest transept, still one of the most famous places of pilgrimage in Europe. The destroyed "quire" was immediately replaced by a magnificent early Gothic one, the first major expression of that architectural style in England. Its architects were the Frenchman, William of Sens and "English" William, who took his place after the Frenchman was crippled in an accident in 1178 that later proved fatal.


Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, England, 597-15th century



Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, England, 597-15th century



Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, England, 597-15th century



Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, England, 597-15th century





Saint Mary Cathedral. Salisbury, England. 1220-1258

Formerly New Sarum city in Salisbury district, administrative and historic county of Wiltshire, England, at the confluence of the Rivers Avon and Wiley. It has functioned historically as the principal town of Wiltshire and is the seat of an Anglican bishop. The origins of Salisbury lie in Old Sarum, an Early Iron Age fort 1.5 miles (2.5 km) north taken over by the Romans. Underthe Saxons it became an important town, and by the 11th century it possessed a mint. The Normans built a castle on the mound, and Old Sarum became a bishopric when the see was transferred from Sherborne in 1075. The present cathedral was founded in the neighbouring valley, site of modern Salisbury, in 1220, and a new city quickly developed around it. The Black and Grey friaries were both established in the 13th century. An earthen rampart was built around the city in 1310, and soon afterward gates were added. The cloth and wool trades flourished in the Middle Ages, and the making of cutlery also became prominent. Today the city centre remains much as it was in medieval times, laid out in gridiron fashion. The cathedral and a largenumber of timber-framed buildings survive. Salisbury is a tourist and market centre. Principal occupations are cattle and poultry marketing, engineering, brewing, leatherwork, and printing.


Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258



Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258



Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258



Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258



Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258



Saint Mary Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220-1258

 
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK NEXT