Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky  
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Portrait of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky by Nikolai Kuznetsov
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Tchaikovsky also spelled Chaikovsky, Chaikovskii, or Tschaikowsky, name in full Anglicized as Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky (born April 25 [May 7, New Style], 1840, Votkinsk, Russia—died October 25 [November 6], 1893, St. Petersburg), the most popular Russian composer of all time. His music has always had great appeal for the general public in virtue of its tuneful, open-hearted melodies, impressive harmonies, and colourful, picturesque orchestration, all of which evoke a profound emotional response. His oeuvre includes 7 symphonies, 11 operas, 3 ballets, 5 suites, 3 piano concertos, a violin concerto, 11 overtures (strictly speaking, 3 overtures and 8 single movement programmatic orchestral works), 4 cantatas, 20 choral works, 3 string quartets, a string sextet, and more than 100 songs and piano pieces.

Tchaikovsky as a student at the conservatory. Photo, 1863

Early years
Tchaikovsky was the second of six surviving children of Ilya Tchaikovsky, a manager of the Kamsko-Votkinsk metal works, and Alexandra Assier, a descendant of French émigrés. He manifested a clear interest in music from childhood, and his earliest musical impressions came from an orchestrina in the family home. At age four he made his first recorded attempt at composition, a song written with his younger sister Alexandra. In 1845 he began taking piano lessons with a local tutor, through which he became familiar with Frédéric Chopin’s mazurkas and the piano pieces of Friedrich Kalkbrenner. Since music education was not available in Russian institutions at that time, Tchaikovsky’s parents had not considered that their son might pursue a musical career. Instead, they chose to prepare the high-strung and sensitive boy for a career in the civil service.

In 1850 Tchaikovsky entered the prestigious Imperial School of Jurisprudence in St. Petersburg, a boarding institution for young boys, where he spent nine years. He proved a diligent and successful student who was popular among his peers. At the same time Tchaikovsky formed in this all-male environment intense emotional ties with several of his schoolmates.

In 1854 his mother fell victim to cholera and died. During the boy’s last years at the school, Tchaikovsky’s father finally came to realize his son’s vocation and invited the professional teacher Rudolph Kündinger to give him piano lessons. At age 17 Tchaikovsky came under the influence of the Italian singing instructor Luigi Piccioli, the first person to appreciate his musical talents, and thereafter Tchaikovsky developed a lifelong passion for Italian music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Don Giovanni proved another revelation that deeply affected his musical taste. In the summer of 1861 he traveled outside Russia for the first time, visiting Germany, France, and England, and in October of that year he began attending music classes offered by the recently founded Russian Musical Society. When St. Petersburg Conservatory opened the following fall, Tchaikovsky was among its first students. After making the decision to dedicate his life to music, he resigned from the Ministry of Justice, where he had been employed as a clerk.

Tchaikovsky spent nearly three years at St. Petersburg Conservatory, studying harmony and counterpoint with Nikolay Zaremba and composition and instrumentation with Anton Rubinstein. Among his earliest orchestral works was an overture entitled The Storm (composed 1864), a mature attempt at dramatic program music. The first public performance of any of his works took place in August 1865, when Johann Strauss the Younger conducted Tchaikovsky’s Characteristic Dances at a concert in Pavlovsk, near St. Petersburg.


Middle years
After graduating in December 1865, Tchaikovsky moved to Moscow to teach music theory at the Russian Musical Society, soon thereafter renamed the Moscow Conservatory. He found teaching difficult, but his friendship with the director, Nikolay Rubinstein, who had offered him the position in the first place, helped make it bearable. Within five years Tchaikovsky had produced his first symphony, Symphony No. 1 in G Minor (composed 1866; Winter Daydreams), and his first opera, The Voyevoda (1868).

In 1868 Tchaikovsky met a Belgian mezzo-soprano named Désirée Artôt, with whom he fleetingly contemplated a marriage, but their engagement ended in failure. The opera The Voyevoda was well received, even by the The Five, an influential group of nationalistic Russian composers who never appreciated the cosmopolitanism of Tchaikovsky’s music. In 1869 Tchaikovsky completed Romeo and Juliet, an overture in which he subtly adapted sonata form to mirror the dramatic structure of Shakespeare’s play. Nikolay Rubinstein conducted a successful performance of this work the following year, and it became the first of Tchaikovsky’s compositions eventually to enter the standard international classical repertoire.

In March 1871 the audience at Moscow’s Hall of Nobility witnessed the successful performance of Tchaikovsky’s String Quartet No. 1, and in April 1872 he finished another opera, The Oprichnik. While spending the summer at his sister’s estate in Ukraine, he began to work on his Symphony No. 2 in C Minor, later dubbed The Little Russian, which he completed later that year. The Oprichnik was first performed at the Maryinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg in April 1874. Despite its initial success, the opera did not convince the critics, with whom Tchaikovsky ultimately agreed. His next opera, Vakula the Smith (1874), later revised as Cherevichki (1885; The Little Shoes), was similarly judged. In his early operas the young composer experienced difficulty in striking a balance between creative fervour and his ability to assess critically the work in progress. However, his instrumental works began to earn him his reputation, and, at the end of 1874, Tchaikovsky wrote his Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat Minor, a work destined for fame despite its initial rejection by Rubinstein. The concerto premiered successfully in Boston in October 1875, with Hans von Bülow as the soloist. During the summer of 1875, Tchaikovsky composed Symphony No. 3 in D Major, which gained almost immediate acclaim in Russia.


Years of fame
At the very end of 1875, Tchaikovsky left Russia to travel in Europe. He was powerfully impressed by a performance of Georges Bizet’s Carmen at the Opéra-Comique in Paris; in contrast, the production of Richard Wagner’s Ring cycle, which he attended in Bayreuth, Germany, during the summer of 1876, left him cold. In November 1876 he put the final touches on his symphonic fantasia Francesca da Rimini, a work with which he felt particularly pleased. Earlier that year, Tchaikovsky had completed the composition of Swan Lake, which was the first in his famed trilogy of ballets. The ballet’s premiere took place on February 20, 1877, but it was not a success owing to poor staging and choreography, and it was soon dropped from the repertoire.

The growing popularity of Tchaikovsky’s music both within and outside of Russia inevitably resulted in public interest in him and his personal life. Although homosexuality was officially illegal in Russia, the authorities tolerated it among the upper classes. But social and familial pressures, as well as his discomfort with the fact that his younger brother Modest was exhibiting the same sexual tendencies, led to Tchaikovsky’s hasty decision in the summer of 1877 to marry Antonina Milyukova, a young and naive music student who had declared her love for him. Tchaikovsky’s homosexuality, combined with an almost complete lack of compatibility between the couple, resulted in matrimonial disaster—within weeks he fled abroad, never again to live with his wife. This experience forced Tchaikovsky to recognize that he could not find respectability through social conventions and that his sexual orientation could not be changed. On February 13, 1878, he wrote his brother Anatoly from Florence: “Only now, especially after the tale of my marriage, have I finally begun to understand that there is nothing more fruitless than not wanting to be that which I am by nature.”

The year 1876 saw the beginning of the extraordinary relationship that developed between Tchaikovsky and Nadezhda von Meck, the widow of a wealthy railroad tycoon; it became an important component of their lives for the next 14 years. A great admirer of his work, she chose to become his patroness and eventually arranged for him a regular monthly allowance; this enabled him in 1878 to resign from the conservatory and devote his efforts to writing music. Thereafter he could afford to spend the winters in Europe and return to Russia each summer. Although he and his benefactor agreed never to meet, they engaged in a voluminous correspondence that constitutes a remarkable historical and literary record. In the course of it they frankly exchanged their views on a broad spectrum of issues, starting with politics or ideology and ending with such topics as the psychology of creativity, religious faith, and the nature of love.

The period after Tchaikovsky’s departure from Moscow proved creatively very productive. Early in 1878 he finished several of his most famous compositions—the opera Eugene Onegin, the Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, and the Violin Concerto in D Major. From December 1878 to August 1879 he worked on the opera The Maid of Orleans, which was not particularly well received. Over the next 10 years Tchaikovsky produced his operas Mazepa (1883; based on Aleksandr Pushkin’s Poltava) and The Enchantress (1887), as well as the masterly symphonies Manfred (1885) and Symphony No. 5 in E Minor (1888). His other major achievements of this period include Serenade for Strings in C Major, Opus 48 (1880), Capriccio italien (1880), and the 1812 Overture (1880).


Final years
At the beginning of 1885, tired of his peregrinations, Tchaikovsky settled down in a rented country house near Klin, outside of Moscow. There he adopted a regular daily routine that included reading, walking in the forest, composing in the mornings and the afternoons, and playing piano duets with friends in the evenings. At the January 1887 premiere of his opera Cherevichki, he finally overcame his longstanding fear of conducting. Moreover, at the end of December he embarked upon his first European concert tour as a conductor, which included Leipzig, Berlin, Prague, Hamburg, Paris, and London. He met with great success and made a second tour in 1889. Between October 1888 and August 1889 he composed his second ballet, The Sleeping Beauty. During the winter of 1890, while staying in Florence, he concentrated on his third Pushkin opera, The Queen of Spades, which was written in just 44 days and is considered one of his finest. Later that year Tchaikovsky was informed by Nadezhda von Meck that she was close to ruin and could not continue his allowance. This was followed by the cessation of their correspondence, a circumstance that caused Tchaikovsky considerable anguish.

In the spring of 1891 Tchaikovsky was invited to visit the United States on the occasion of the inauguration of Carnegie Hall in New York City. He conducted before enthusiastic audiences in New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Upon his return to Russia, he completed his last two compositions for the stage—the one-act opera Iolanta (1891) and a two-act ballet Nutcracker (1892). In February 1893 he began working on his Symphony No. 6 in B Minor (Pathétique), which was destined to become his most celebrated masterpiece. He dedicated it to his nephew Vladimir (Bob) Davydov, who in Tchaikovsky’s late years became increasingly an object of his passionate love. His world stature was confirmed by his triumphant European and American tours and his acceptance in June 1893 of an honorary doctorate from the University of Cambridge.

On October 16 Tchaikovsky conducted his new symphony’s premiere in St. Petersburg. The mixed reaction of the audience, however, did not affect the composer’s belief that the symphony belonged among his best work. On October 21 he suddenly became ill and was diagnosed with cholera, an epidemic that was sweeping through St. Petersburg. Despite all medical efforts to save him, he died four days later from complications arising from the disease. Wild rumours circulated among his contemporaries concerning his possible suicide, which were revived in the late 20th century by some of his biographers, but these allegations cannot be supported by documentary evidence.


For most of the 20th century, critics were profoundly unjust in their severe pronouncements regarding Tchaikovsky’s life and music. During his lifetime, Russian musicians attacked his style as insufficiently nationalistic. In the Soviet Union, however, he became an official icon, of whom no adverse criticism was tolerated; by the same token, no in-depth studies were made of his personality. But in Europe and North America, Tchaikovsky often was judged on the basis of his sexuality, and his music was interpreted as the manifestation of his deviance. His life was portrayed as an incessant emotional turmoil, his character as morbid, hysterical, or guilt-ridden, and his works were proclaimed vulgar, sentimental, and even pathological. This interpretation was the result of a fallacy that over the course of decades projected the current perception of homosexuality onto the past. At the turn of the 21st century, a close scrutiny of Tchaikovsky’s correspondence and diaries, which finally became available to scholars in their uncensored form, led to the realization that this traditional portrayal was fundamentally wrong. As the archival material makes clear, Tchaikovsky eventually succeeded in his adjustment to the social realities of his time, and there is no reason to believe that he was particularly neurotic or that his music possesses any coded messages, as some theorists have claimed.

His artistic philosophy gave priority to what may be called “emotional progression”—i.e., the establishment of an immediate rapport with the audience through the anticipation and eventual achievement of catharsis. His music does not claim intellectual depth but conveys the joys, loves, and sorrows of the human heart with striking and poignant sincerity. In his attempt to synthesize the sublime with the introspective, and also in the symbolism of his later music, Tchaikovsky anticipated certain sensibilities that later became prominent in the culture of Russian modernism.

Tchaikovsky was the leading exponent of Romanticism in its characteristically Russian mold, which owes as much to the French and Italian musical traditions as it does to the German. Although not as ostentatiously as the nationalist composers, such as Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky was clearly inspired by Russian folk music. In the words of the Russian-born composer Igor Stravinsky, “Tchaikovsky drew unconsciously from the true, popular sources of our race.”

The first great Russian symphonist, he exhibited a particular gift for melody and orchestration. In his best work, the powerful tunes underlining musical themes are harmonized into magnificent, formally innovative compositions. His resourceful use of instruments allows easy identification of most of his works by their characteristic sonority. Tchaikovsky excelled primarily as a master of instrumental music; his operas, often eclectic in subject matter and style, do not find much appreciation in the West, with the exception of Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades. Whereas most of his operas met with limited success, Tchaikovsky nonetheless proved eminently successful in transforming ballet, then a grand decorative gesture, into a staged musical drama, and thus he revolutionized the genre.

Moreover, Tchaikovsky brought an integrity of design that elevated ballet to the level of symphonic music. To this end, he employed a symphonist’s sense of large-scale structure, organizing successive dances through the use of keys to create a cumulative feeling of purpose, in distinction to the more random or decorative layout in the ballets of his predecessors. His special sense of how melody can engender the dance gave his ballets a unique place in the world’s theatres. The influence of his experimentation is evident in the ballets of Sergey Prokofiev and Aram Khachaturian.

Tchaikovsky’s symphonic poems are part of the line of development in single-movement programmatic works initiated by Franz Liszt, and they run the gamut of expressive and stylistic features that typify the genre. At one extreme the early Fatum (1868) shows a freedom of form and modernist expression. At the other extreme is the classical poise of the Romeo and Juliet fantasy overture, in which passionate Romanticism is counterbalanced by the rigours of the sonata form. Furthermore, Tchaikovsky loosened the strictures of chamber music by introducing unorthodox meter in the scherzo of the Second String Quartet in F Major, Opus 22 (1874), and undermining the sense of key in the finale. His innovation is also evident in the second movement of the string sextet Souvenir de Florence (1890), for which he wrote music that revels in almost pure sound-effect—something more familiar in the orchestral sphere. His skill in counterpoint, the traditional bedrock of chamber music, can also be seen throughout his chamber works.

Tchaikovsky’s approach to solo piano music, on the other hand, remained mostly traditional, that is, it more or less satisfied the 19th-century taste for short salon pieces with descriptive titles, usually arranged in groups, as in the famous The Seasons (1875–76). In several of his piano pieces, Tchaikovsky’s melodic flair surfaces, but on the whole he was far less committed when composing these works than he was when writing his orchestral music, concertos, operas, and chamber compositions.

Tchaikovsky steered an unlikely path between the Russian nationalist tendencies so prominent in the work of his rivals in The Five and the cosmopolitan stance encouraged by his conservatory training. He was both a Russian nationalist and a Westernizer of polished technical skill. He put his personal stamp on the late-19th-century symphony with his last three symphonies; they demonstrate a heightened subjectivity that would influence Gustav Mahler, Sergey Rachmaninoff, and Dmitry Shostakovich and encourage the genre to pass with renewed vigour into the 20th century.

It cannot be denied that the quality of Tchaikovsky’s oeuvre remains uneven. Some of his music is undistinguished—hastily written, repetitious, or self-indulgent. But in such symphonies as his No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, and Manfred and in many of his overtures, suites, and songs, he achieved the unity of melodic inspiration, dramatic content, and mastery of form that elevates him to the premiere rank of the world’s composers.

Alexander Poznansky

Encyclopædia Britannica


Tchaikovsky grew up in a family both upper class and unmusical. His father was a government mining official in St Petersburg, where the family moved when Tchaikovsky was eight. He developed a love of music largely by improvising at the piano, but he was sent to school to prepare for a training in law.

At the age of 19 he obtained a position in the Ministry of Justice in St Petersburg, continuing musical studies in his spare time at the St Petersburg Conservatoire. Its director, Anton Rubinstein, commented that Tchaikovsky, though careless, was "definitely talented." "With this encouragement Tchaikovsky gave up his job in order to study full time, and in 1865 he was appointed professor of harmony at the new Moscow Conservatoire.

In 1866 he suffered his first nervous breakdown, brought on by the stress of overwork on his First symphony. Tchaikovsky's "abnormally neurotic tendency" (in his brother's words) and lifelong unhappiness apparently stemmed in large part from feelings of guilt about his homosexuality and his attempts to repress it.

About this time he met Balakirev - one of the group of Russian composers known as "The Five" — and out of their friendship came the suggestion for Tchaikovsky's fantasy overture Romeo and Juliet. Tchaikovsky's attitude to The Five later soured as he grew to dislike their use of exotic oriental folk melodies (which he parodied in the dances of his ballet The nutcracker in 1892) in the name of a Russian nationalist style.

In 1877 he began to receive love letters from a woman he had never met, Antonina Milyukova. She threatened suicide unless he would meet her. At the time Tchaikovsky was working on his opera Eugene Onegin, based on Pushkin's poem, in which the hero rebuffs the love letter sent to him by the heroine.

Tatiana. Tchaikovsky had no wish to stoop to such behaviour and was trapped into marrying Antonina, with disastrous consequences. She turned out to be mentally unstable and, far from "curing" his homosexuality, the experience drove him to attempt suicide. He fled to St Petersburg in a state of nervous collapse. He never saw her again, and she eventually died in an asylum.

By this time Tchaikovsky had begun corresponding with a wealthy widow, Nadezhda von Meek, who confessed to an admiration for his music and gave him an annual pension of 6,000 roubles. It was enough to allow him to compose and tour freely in Europe, and he resigned from his Moscow professorship in 1878. Their letters were intense and passionate but, although they actually met on her estate once by chance, they never exchanged a spoken word. The relationship continued for 13 years until she broke it off suddenly without any explanation.

He completed Eugene Onegin in 1878, together with the Fourth symphony (dedicated to his "best friend", Nadezhda von Meek) and the Violin concerto. His credentials as a master of melodic invention were already established; but never before in such overtly Romantic material as these two orchestral works were lyrical themes tautly organized into a framework of such sustained dramatic impact.

Tchaikovsky had travelled in Europe almost every year since 1870, but toured as a conductor for the first time in 1888, and again in 1889. He met Brahms, Dvorak, Grieg, and others, visited London, and completed his Fifth symphony and his great ballet score, The sleeping beauty. In his last year he travelled again to England, this time to receive an honorary doctorate in music at Cambridge University in the distinguished company of Boito, Bruch, Saint-Saens, and Grieg.

He returned to complete the Pathetique symphony, of which he wrote, "I love it as I have never loved any one of my musical offspring." Its many innovative features include a "waltz" movement in 5/4 time and a slow, sorrowful finale. It stands as a fitting end to the career of a tragic man who displayed his deepest feelings in music, often with tremendous emotional power. He died of cholera after drinking contaminated water — possibly deliberately, according to recent research — just nine days after the premiere.


Symphony No.4
Andante sostenuto, Moderato
Andantino in modo di canzone
Scherzo: Pizzicato ostinato
Finale: Allegro con fuoco


Symphony No.5
Andante cantabile
Valse: Allegro moderato
Finale: Andante maestoso


Symphony No.6
Adadio - Allegro non troppo
Allegro con grazia
Allegro moltl vivace
Finale: Adagio lamentoso-Andante


Violin Concerto in D major Op.35


Valeria Walewska
Piano Concerto No.1 in B flat minor Op.23
Allegro non troppo
Andantino semplice
Allegro con fuoco


String Quartet No.1
Moderato e simplice
Andante cantabile
Scherzo: Allegro non tanto
Finale: Allegro giusto


Swan Lake Ballet Suite
Swan Dance


Irina Vasileva
"Grandma and a Grandchild"
"Spring Song"


Interlude from the opera "The Queen of Spades" (fragment)


"Romeo and Juliette"


Aria of Iolanta


"Eugene Onegin"
The letter of Tatiana


Women's Glee Club
Eugene Onegin

Chorus of Peasant Girls


Todd K. Frazier
Fragment (on french horn)


Overture Solennelle "1812" Op.49


Leonald Kaidja
op.37 No. 1 "January" (At the Fireside)

op.37 No. 5 "May" (Starlight Nights)
op.37 No. 6 "June" (Barcarole)
p.37 No. 10 "October" (Autumn Song)


The Seasons - Op.37b
L. Kaidja
January - At the fireside
S. Bisotti
March - Song of the lark
April - Snowdrop
L. Kaidja
May - Starlit nights
S. Bisotti
June - Barcarolle
L. Kaidja
October - Autumn Song
S. Bisotti
November - Troika
December - Christmas


J. Grocholski
Album for the Youth Op.39
Morning Prayer
The sick Doll
In the Church


Entracte from Sleeping Beauty
(Violin Solo from ballet "La belle au bois dormant")
Alexander Skwortsow, violin; Bert Mooiman, organ


Erick Friedman
Waltz Scherzo


J. Robson
Valse Bluette


J. Lebenstedt

Works by opus number
Works with opus numbers are listed in this section, together with their dates of composition. For a complete list of Tchaikovsky's works, including those without opus numbers, see here. For more detail on dates of composition, see here.

Op. 1 Two Pieces for piano (1867)
Scherzo à la russe
Impromptu in E-flat minor
Op. 2 Souvenir de Hapsal, 3 pieces for piano (1867)
Op. 3 The Voyevoda, opera (1868)
Op. 4 Valse-caprice in D major, for piano (1868)
Op. 5 Romance in F minor, for piano (1868)
Op. 6 6 Romances (1869), including "None but the lonely heart"
Op. 7 Valse-scherzo in A, for piano (1870)
Op. 8 Capriccio in G-flat, for piano (1870)
Op. 9 3 Morceaux, for piano (1870)
1. Rêverie
2. Polka de salon
3. Mazurka de salon
Op. 10 2 Morceaux, for piano (1871)
1. Nocturne
2. Humoresque
Op. 11 String Quartet No. 1 in D (1871)
Op. 12 The Snow Maiden (Snegurochka), incidental music (1873)
Op. 13 Symphony No. 1 in G minor Winter Daydreams (1866)
Op. 14 Vakula the Smith, (revised as Cherevichki), opera (1874)
Op. 15 Festival Overture in D on the Danish National Anthem, for orchestra (1866)
Op. 16 6 Songs (1872)
No. 1 Lullaby (Cradle Song)
No. 2 Wait!
No. 3 Accept Just Once
No. 4 O, Sing That Song
No. 5 So What?
No. 6 Modern Greek Song
Op. 17 Symphony No. 2 in C minor Little Russian (1872)
Op. 18 The Tempest, symphonic fantasia in F minor, after Shakespeare (1873)
Op. 19 6 Pieces, for piano (1873)
1. Rêverie du soir [Вечерние грезы] (G minor)
2. Scherzo humoristique [Юмористическое скерцо] (D major)
3. Feuillet d'album [Листок из альбом] (D major)
4. Nocturne [Ноктюрн] (C-sharp minor)
5. Capriccioso [Каприччиозо] (B-flat major)
6. Thème original et variations [Тема и вариации] (F major)
Op. 20 Swan Lake, ballet (1876)
Op. 21 6 Morceaux on a single theme, for piano (1873)
Op. 22 String Quartet No. 2 in F (1874)
Op. 23 Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor (1875)
Op. 24 Eugene Onegin, opera (1878)
Op. 25 6 Songs (1874)
No. 2 As When Upon Hot Ashes (Over Burning Ashes)
Op. 26 Sérénade mélancolique in B-flat minor, for violin and orchestra (1875)
Op. 27 6 Songs (1875)
Op. 28 6 Songs (1875)
Op. 29 Symphony No. 3 in D Polish (1875)
Op. 30 String Quartet No. 3 in E-flat minor (1876)
Op. 31 Marche slave in B-flat minor, for orchestra (1876)
Op. 32 Francesca da Rimini, symphonic fantasia in E minor, after Dante Alighieri (1876)
Op. 33 Variations on a Rococo Theme in A, for cello and orchestra (1876)
Op. 34 Valse-scherzo in C for violin and orchestra (1877)
Op. 35 Violin Concerto in D (1878)
Op. 36 Symphony No. 4 in F minor (1877)
Op. 37 Grand Piano Sonata in G (1878) (published as "No. 1", but actually No. 3)
Op. 37a (or 37b) The Seasons, 12 pieces for piano (1876)
Op. 38 6 Songs (1878)
Op. 39 Album pour enfants, 24 pieces for piano (1878)
Op. 40 12 Morceaux de difficulté moyenne, for piano (1878)
Op. 41 Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, for unaccompanied chorus (1878)
Op. 42 Souvenir d'un lieu cher, 3 pieces for violin and piano (1878)
Op. 43 Orchestral Suite No. 1 in D (1879)
Op. 44 Piano Concerto No. 2 in G (1880)
Op. 45 Capriccio Italien in A, for orchestra (1880)
Op. 46 6 Vocal duets, with piano (1880)
Op. 47 7 Songs (1880)
Op. 48 Serenade in C for Strings (1880)
Op. 49 1812 Overture (1880)
Op. 50 Piano Trio in A minor (1882)
Op. 51 6 Pieces, for piano (1882)
Op. 52 All-Night Vigil for unaccompanied chorus (1882)
Op. 53 Orchestral Suite No. 2 in C (1883)
Op. 54 16 Children's songs (1883; the 5th song "Legend" was the basis of Anton Arensky's Variations on a Theme by Tchaikovsky, Op. 35a)
Op. 55 Orchestral Suite No. 3 in G (1884)
Op. 56 Concert Fantasia in G, for piano and orchestra (1884)
Op. 57 6 Songs (1884)
Op. 58 Manfred Symphony in B minor (1885)
Op. 59 Dumka in C minor, for piano (1886)
Op. 60 12 Songs (1886)
No. 6 Wild Nights (Frenzied Nights)
No. 7 Gypsy's Song
No. 12 Gentle Stars Shone For Us (The Mild Stars Shone For Us)
Op. 61 Orchestral Suite No. 4 "Mozartiana" (1887)
Op. 62 Pezzo capriccioso in B minor, for cello and orchestra (or piano) (1887)
Op. 63 6 Songs (1887)
Op. 64 Symphony No. 5 in E minor (1888)
Op. 65 6 Songs on French texts (1888) (No. 2 Déception, No. 3 Sérénade ("J'aime dans le rayon"), No. 4 Qu'importe que l'hiver, No. 6 Rondel, all on poems by Paul Collin)[3]
Op. 66 The Sleeping Beauty, ballet (1889)
Op. 67a Hamlet, fantasy overture in F minor (1889)
Op. 67b Hamlet, incidental music (1891)
Op. 68 The Queen of Spades, opera (1890)
Op. 69 Iolanta, opera (1891)
Op. 70 String Sextet in D minor Souvenir de Florence (1890)
Op. 71 The Nutcracker, ballet (1892)
Op. 71a The Nutcracker, suite from the ballet (1892)
Op. 72 18 Pieces, for piano (1893)
Op. 73 6 Songs (1893)
Op. 74 Symphony No. 6 in B minor Pathétique (1893)
Opp. 75–80 were published posthumously.

Op. 75 Piano Concerto No. 3 in E-flat (1893)
Op. 76 The Storm, overture in E minor (1864)
Op. 77 Fatum, symphonic poem in C minor (1868)
Op. 78 The Voyevoda, symphonic ballad in A minor (1893; unrelated to the earlier opera of the same name, Op. 3)
Op. 79 Andante and Finale, for piano and orchestra (1893; this was Sergei Taneyev's idea of what Tchaikovsky might have written had he used three of the movements of the abandoned Symphony in E-flat, rather than just the first movement Allegro brillante, when rescoring the symphony as the Piano Concerto No. 3 in E-flat)
Op. 80 Piano Sonata No. 2 in C-sharp minor (1865)

Works by genre


Swan Lake, Op. 20 (1875–6)
The Sleeping Beauty, Op. 66 (1889)
The Nutcracker, Op. 71 (1892)

The Voyevoda (Воевода – The Voivode, Op. 3, 1867–1868)[a 1]
Undina (Ундина or Undine, 1869, not completed)
The Oprichnik (Опричник), 1870–1872
Vakula the Smith (Кузнец Вакула or Kuznets Vakula), Op. 14, 1874[a 2]
Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин or Yevgeny Onegin), Op. 24, 1877–1878
The Maid of Orleans (Орлеанская дева or Orleanskaya deva), 1878–1879
Mazepa (or Mazeppa) (Мазепа), 1881–1883
Cherevichki (Черевички; revision of Vakula the Smith) 1885
The Enchantress (or The Sorceress, Чародейка or Charodeyka), 1885–1887
The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама or Pikovaya dama), Op. 68, 1890
Iolanta (Иоланта or Iolanthe), Op. 69, 1891[a 3]


No. 1 in G minor, Op. 13, Winter Daydreams (1866)
No. 2 in C minor, Op. 17, Little Russian (1872)
No. 3 in D major, Op. 29, Polish (1875)
No. 4 in F minor, Op. 36 (1877–1878)
Manfred Symphony, B minor, Op. 58; inspired by Byron's poem Manfred (1885)
No. 5 in E minor, Op. 64 (1888)
Symphony in E-flat (sketched 1892 but abandoned; Tchaikovsky rescored its first movement as the Piano Concerto No. 3 in E-flat; posthumously, Taneyev rescored two other movements for piano and orchestra as the Andante and Finale; the symphony was reconstructed during the 1950s and subsequently published as "Symphony No. 7")
No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74, Pathétique (1893)

Concertos and concertante pieces

Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 23 (1874-5)
Sérénade mélancolique, Op. 26, for violin and orchestra (1875)
Variations on a Rococo Theme for cello and orchestra, Op. 33 (1876-7)
Valse-Scherzo for violin and orchestra, Op. 34
Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 35 (1878)
Piano Concerto No. 2 in G major, Op. 44 (1879–80)
Concert Fantasia in G for piano and orchestra, Op. 56 (1884)
Pezzo capriccioso, Op. 62, for cello and Orchestra (1888)
Piano Concerto No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. posth. 75 (1893)
Andante and Finale for piano and orchestra, Op. posth. 79 (1893)
This was Sergei Taneyev's idea of what Tchaikovsky might have written had he used three of the movements of the abandoned Symphony in E-flat, rather than just the first movement Allegro brillante, when rescoring the symphony as the Piano Concerto No. 3 in E-flat
Cello Concerto (conjectural work based in part on a 60-bar fragment found on the back of the rough draft for the last movement of the composer's Sixth Symphony).
Concertstück for Flute and Strings, TH 247 Op. posth. (1893)

Other orchestral works

Program music and commissioned pieces

The Storm, Op. posth. 76 (1864)
Festival Overture on the Danish National Anthem (1866)
Fatum, Op. posth. 77 (1868)
Romeo and Juliet (1870, revised 1880)
The Tempest, Op. 18 (1873)
Marche Slave, Op. 31 (1876)
Francesca da Rimini, Op. 32 (1876)
Capriccio Italien, Op. 45 (1880)
1812 Overture, Op. 49 (1882)
Festival Coronation March (1883)
Hamlet, Op. 67a (1889)
The Voyevoda, Op. posth. 78 (1891)

Orchestral suites and Serenade

Orchestral Suite No. 1 in D minor, Op. 43 (1878–1879)
Orchestral Suite No. 2 in C major, Op. 53 (1883)
Orchestral Suite No. 3 in G major, Op. 55 (1884)
Orchestral Suite No. 4 in G major "Mozartiana", Op. 61 (1887)
Serenade for Strings in C major, Op. 48 (1880)

Incidental music

Dmitri the Pretender and Vassily Shuisky (1867), incidental music to Alexander Ostrovsky's play Dmitri the Pretender
The Snow Maiden (Snegurochka), Op. 12 (1873), incidental music for Ostrovsky's play of the same name. Ostrovsky adapted and dramatized a popular Russian fairy tale,[4] and the score that Tchaikovsky wrote for it was always one of his own favorite works. It contains much vocal music, but it is not a cantata or an opera.
Montenegrins Receiving News of Russia's Declaration of War on Turkey (1880), music for a tableau.
The Voyevoda (1886), incidental music for the Domovoy scene from Ostrovsky's A Dream on the Volga
Hamlet, Op. 67b (1891), incidental music for Shakespeare's play. The score uses music borrowed from Tchaikovsky's overture of the same name, as well as from his Symphony No. 3, and from The Snow Maiden, in addition to original music that he wrote specifically for a stage production of Hamlet. The two vocal selections are a song that Ophelia sings in the throes of her madness and a song for the First Gravedigger to sing as he goes about his work.


Two Pieces, Op. 1 (1867)
Scherzo à la russe
Souvenir de Hapsal, Op. 2, 3 pieces (1867)
Valse-caprice in D major, Op. 4 (1868)
Romance in F minor, Op. 5 (1868)
Valse-scherzo in A, Op. 7 (1870)
Capriccio in G-flat, Op. 8 (1870)
3 Morceaux, Op. 9 (1870)
1. Rêverie
2. Polka de salon
3. Mazurka de salon
2 Morceaux, Op. 10 (1871)
1. Nocturne
2. Humoresque
6 Pieces, Op. 19 (1873)
1. Rêverie du soir [Вечерние грезы] (G minor)
2. Scherzo humoristique [Юмористическое скерцо] (D major)
3. Feuillet d'album [Листок из альбом] (D major)
4. Nocturne [Ноктюрн] (C-sharp minor)
5. Capriccioso [Каприччиозо] (B-flat major)
6. Thème original et variations [Тема и вариации] (F major)
6 Morceaux, Op. 21 (1873)
The Seasons (Les saisons), Op. 37a (1876), 12 pieces
Piano Sonata in G major, Op. 37b (1878)
Album pour enfants, Op. 39, 24 pieces for piano (1878)
12 Morceaux de difficulté moyenne, Op. 40 (1878)
Six Morceaux, Op. 51 (1882)
Dumka, Russian rustic scene in C minor for piano, Op. 59 (1886)
18 Morceaux for piano, Op. 72 (1892). Some of these pieces were used in a cello concerto arrangement by Gaspar Cassadó.
Piano Sonata No. 2 in C-sharp minor, Op. posth. 80 (1865)

Chamber music

String Quartet in B-flat major, Op. posth. (1865)
String Quartet No. 1 in D major, Op. 11 (1871)
String Quartet No. 2 in F major, Op. 22 (1874)
String Quartet No. 3 in E-flat minor, Op. 30 (1875)
Souvenir d'un lieu cher (Memory of a Cherished Place) for violin and piano, Op. 42 (Meditation, Scherzo and Melody) (1878)
Piano Trio in A minor, Op. 50 (1882)
String Sextet in D minor (Souvenir de Florence), Op. 70 (1890)

Choral music

A considerable quantity of choral music (about 25 items), including:

Cantata (Hymn) on the Occasion of the Celebration of the 50th Jubilee of the Singer Osip Afanasievich Petrov, tenor, chorus and orchestra, words by Nikolay Nekrasov (1875; performed at the St Petersburg Conservatory on 6 May 1876, under the conductor Karl Davydov)[5]
A Hymn to the Trinity (1877)
Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, Op. 41 (1878)
All-Night Vigil, Op. 52 (1881)
Moscow (1883)
9 Sacred Pieces (alternative name: 9 Church Pieces) (1884–85)[6][7]

The Best of Tchaikovsky
1. Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-Flat Minor Op. 23 - Allegro non troppo
2. Eugene Onegin Act III -- Polonaise ( 8:56 )
3. Symphony No. 6 in B Minor Pathetique - 1 mov. ( 14:00 )
4. Violin Concert in D Major Op. 35 - Andante ( 33:15 )
5. Slavonich March, in B-Flat Minor, Op. 31 ( 40:06 )
6. 1812 - Overture ( 50:50 )
7. The Nutcracker, Op. 71 -- Overture ( 1:06:46 )
8. The Nutcracker Op. 71 - Sugar Plum Fairies ( 1:10:13 )
9. The Nutcracker Op. 71 - Waltz of the Flowers ( 1:12:04 )
10. The Sleeping Beauty Op. 66 -- Overture ( 1:18:43 )
11. Swan Lake - Dances of the Swans ( 1:21:31 )
12. Swan Lake - Valse in A Major ( 1:30:17 )
13. Swan Lake - Scene from Act 2 ( 1:37:51 )
Tchaikovsky - The Nutcracker: Mariinsky Ballet
Tchaikovsky The Swan Lake , Bolshoi Ballet
Swan Lake HD by Tchaikovsky (Mariinsky (ex-Kirov) Theatre, 2013)
Choreography: Marius Petipa, Lev Ivanov (a revised version by Konstantin Sergeyev)
Execute: Odette-Odile - Ekaterina Kondaurova
Prince Siegfried - Timur Asgerov
Rothbart - Andrey Ermakov
Peers Prince: Catherine Ivannikova, Nadejda Batoeva, Xander Parish
Jester - Vasily Tkachenko
Artists of the Mariinsky Ballet
The Sleeping Beauty Kirov Ballet 1989
“Eugene Onegin“ - Opera by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
New Year's Music Festival '2014
Tchaikovsky - Eugene Onegin / Евгений Онегин Op. 24
Act I - 00:00:00
Act II - 01:08:05
Act III - 01:46:59

Valentina Petrova, soprano - Larina
Galina Vishnevskaya, soprano - Tatiana
Larisa Avdeyeva, contralto - Olga
Evgeniya Verbitskaya, mezzo-soprano - Filipievna, the nurse
Evgeni Belov, baritone - Eugene Onegin
Sergei Lemeshev, tenor - Lensky
Ivan Petrov, bass - Prince Gremin
Georgi Pankov, bass - Company Commander
Igor Mikhailov, bass - Zaretsky
Andrei Sokolov, tenor - Triquet, a french tutor

Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre
cond. Boris Khaykin

Galina Vishnevskaya sings Tatiana's Letter Scene by Tchaikovsky PART 1
Galina Vishnevskaya sings Tatiana's Letter Scene by Tchaikovsky PART 2
Dmitri Hvorostovsky - Aria's Eugene Onegin 12/14
27 декабря 1997 г. Москва
Открытие Театра "Новая Опера"
Дирижёр - Евгений Колобов
Опера «Евгений Онегин» - Сцена на балу
Е.Онегин - Д.Хворостовский, Татьяна -- Р.Флеминг, Гремин -- С.Алексашкин
Анна Нетребко и Дмитрий Хворостовский. Финал оперы Евгений Онегин.
Anna Netrebko and Dmitri Hvorostovsky. "Eugene Onegin" by Tchaikovsky. Final Scene.The concert in the Red Square, Moscow, June 19, 2013. Svetlanov Symphony Orchestra, conductor: Constantine Orbelian.
Sergei Lemeshev "Kuda, kuda vy udalilis" Eugen Onegin
Placido Domingo - Eugene Onegin : Lensky's Aria (Tchaikovsky)
Domingo sings Lenski's Air from Tchaikovsky's opera "Eugene Onegin"
Issued in 1969 on Domingo's first RCA Red Seal LP, "Romantic Arias".
The Queen of Spades - Tchaikovsky - Glyndebourne 1992
Yuri Marusin, Nancy Gustafson, Felicity Palmer, Sergei Leiferkus,
Conductor: Andrew Davis
Pique Dame - Atlantov Milashkina Obraztsova Mazurok Simonov Bolshoi LIVE 1983
Vladimir Atlantov Tamara Milashkina Elena Obraztsova Yuri Mazurok
Yuri Simonov conductor
Bolshoi LIVE
Tchaikovsky - The Queen Of Spades - Overture
Tchaikovsky, Queen of Spades, Пиковая дама, Polina - Lisa scene
Tchaikovsky-Queen of Spades Lisa's aria
Tchaikovsky-"Pique dame" 1 act Lisa's aria
Michailovsky theatre
Lisa-Maria Litke
Conductor Peter Feranec
Tchaikovsky-Queen of Spades Lisa's aria 3act
"Pique dame" Tchaikovsky
Lisa's aria 3 act
Lisa-Maria Litke
Galina Vishnevskaya sings Lisa's aria -3 Act- Pique Dame
Elena Obraztsova -The Countess- "Pique Dame"
The Countess- Elena Obraztsova
Orchestra of the Bolshoi
Conductor - Pavel Sorokin
June 17, 1999 Moscow Bolshoi Theatre
Elena Obraztsova (Countess), Kristian Benedikt (Hermann) - Pikovaya dama - Queen of Spades
Famous russian mezzosoprano Elena Obraztsova and lithuanian tenor Kristian Benedikt singing IV scena from P.I.Tchaikovsky opera "Queen of Spades" (Pikovaya dama);
Gala concert in LIthuanian Nathional Opera (21.2.2011, Vilnius);
Conductor - Robertas Servenikas; Orchestra LNO;
The Queen of Spades Elena Obraztsova, Vladimir Galouzine,Nataliya Tymchenko
Pique Damme - Elena Obraztsova
Germann - Vladimir Galouzine
Liza - Nataliya Tymchenko
Conductor - Mikhail Tatarnikov
Tchaikovsky: Iolanta with Anna Netrebko
Recorded on 28th September 2009, Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg

Director: Mariusz Treliński
Conductor: Valery Gergiev

Anna Netrebko (Iolanta) Sergei Aleksashkin (René, King of Provence), Alexei Markov (Robert, Duke of Burgundy), Sergei Skorokhodov (Count Vaudémont, a Burgundian knight), Edem Umerov (Ibn-Hakia, a Moorish physician), Andrei Zorin (Alméric, armor-bearer to King René), Fyodor Kuznetsov (Bertrand, doorkeeper of the castle), Natalia Evstafieva (Marta, Bertrand's wife, Iolanta's nursemaid), Eleonora Vindau (Brigitta, Iolanta's friend), Yekaterina Sergeyeva (Laura, Iolanta's friend), Choir and Orchestra of the Mariinsky Theatre

Anna Netrebko & Rolando Villazon - Iolanta (Tchaikovsky)
Extract from the Paris recital, March 2007
Galina Vishnevskaya - Arioso - Iolanta
Tchaikovsky : Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op.13 " Winter Dreams "
Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op. 13
"Winter Dreams"

Bernard Haitink
Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra

Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.2 in C minor, Op.17 "Little Russian"
Symphony No. 2 "Little Russian"
Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra
Bernard Haitink
Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.3 in D major, Op.29 "Polish"
Symphony No.3 in D major, Op.29 "Polish"

Bernard Haitink
Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra

Tchaikovsky: Symphony Nº 4 OP 36 - Herbert Von Karajan WPO
Orquestra Filarmônica de Viena, regida por Herbert Von Karajan, executa a Sinfonia Nº 4 OP 36 de Tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky - Symphony №5 (Bernstein)
Boston symphony orchestra.
1. Andante — Allegro con anima
2. Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza
3. Valse: Allegro moderato
4. Andante maestoso— Allegro vivace
TCHAIKOVSKY - Symphony no6 (Pathetique) - Herbert von Karajan & Wiener Phil
Piano Concerto No. 1 - Tchaikovsky (Herbert von Karajan)
Conductor: Herbert von Karajan
Pianist: Evgeny Kissin
Year: 1988

Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 23 was composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky between November 1874 and February 1875. It was revised in the summer of 1879 and again in December 1888. The first version received heavy criticism from Nikolai Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky's desired pianist. Rubinstein later repudiated his previous accusations and became a fervent champion of the work. It is one of the most popular of Tchaikovsky's compositions and among the best known of all piano concerti.

The concerto follows the traditional form of three movements:
0:53 Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso -- Allegro con spirito (B flat minor - B flat major)
11:16 Andantino semplice -- Prestissimo (D flat major)
33:21 Allegro con fuoco (B flat minor - B flat major)

Tchaikovsky - Romeo and Juliet, Fantasy-Overture | Valery Gergiev, London Symphony Orchestra [HD]
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky - Romeo and Juliet, fantasy-overture for orchestra in B minor, 1880. Maestro Valery Gergiev with the London Symphony Orchestra.
Gergiev conducts Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini, Op. 32 (Fantasia da Dante)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini, Op. 32 (Fantasia da Dante)

London Philarmonic Orchestra
London, July 1989

Tchaikovsky - The Seasons
Published on Jun 11, 2013
00:00 ➢ January: At the Fireside
06:19 ➢ February: Carnival
09:14 ➢ March: Song of the Lark
11:28 ➢ April: Snowdrop
14:32 ➢ May: Starlit Nights
19:16 ➢ June: Barcarolle
24:43 ➢ July: Song of the Reaper
26:52 ➢ August: Harvest
30:31 ➢ September: The Hunt
33:22 ➢ October: Autumn Song
39:23 ➢ November: Troika
42:54 ➢ December: Christmas
Evgeni Koroliov
Tchaikovsky - Children's Album, Op. 39 (Vera Gornostaeva)
Published on Nov 14, 2013
00:00 ➢ Morning Prayer (Утренная молитва)
01:14 ➢ Winter Morning (Зимнее утро)
02:17 ➢ Playing Hobby-Horses (Игра в лошадки)
02:54 ➢ Mama (Мама)
04:07 ➢ March of the Wooden Soldiers (Марш деревянных солдатиков)
04:50 ➢ The Sick Doll (Болезнь куклы)
06:51 ➢ The Doll's Funeral (Похороны куклы)
08:18 ➢ Waltz (Вальс)
09:33 ➢ The New Doll (Новая кукла)
10:13 ➢ Mazurka (Мазурка)
11:24 ➢ Russian Song (Русская песня)
12:05 ➢ The Harmonica Player (Мужик на гармонике играет)
12:58 ➢ Kamarinskaya (Камаринская)
13:26 ➢ Polka (Полька)
14:15 ➢ Italian Song (Итальянская песенка)
15:17 ➢ Old French Song (Старинная французская песенка)
16:23 ➢ German Song (Немецкая песенка)
17:22 ➢ Neapolitan Song (Неаполитанская песенка)
18:25 ➢ Nanny's Story (Нянина сказка)
19:09 ➢ The Old Witch (Баба-Яга)
19:50 ➢ Sweet Dreams (Сладкая греза)
22:00 ➢ Lark Song (Песня жаворонка)
23:02 ➢ The Organ-Grinder Sings (Шарманщик поет)
24:04 ➢ In Church (В церкви)

Vera Gornostaeva (b. October 1, 1929) is a Russian pianist and pedagogue.

Tchaikovsky - Piano sonata in c sharp minor - Gilels
Piano sonata in c sharp minor op. posth. 80

I. Allegro con fuoco 0:00
II. Andante 10:23
III. Allegro vivo 14:44
IV. Allegro vivo 20:33

Emil Gilels
Live recording, Moscow, 9.IV.1962

P. I. Tchaikovsky - Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 35 - Itzhak Perlman
Itzhak Perlman
Conductor: Eugene Ormandy
Philadelphia Orchestra
Tchaikovsky : Violin Concerto in D major op.35
Sayaka Shoji is the first Japanese and youngest winner at the Paganini Competition in Genoa in 1999.
She was born into an artistic family and spent her childhood in Siena, Italy. She studied at Hochschule für Musik Köln under Zakhar Bron and graduated in 2004. Her other teachers have included Sashko Gawrillow, Uto Ughi and Shlomo Mintz.

Zubin Mehta has been her strong supporter. When Shoji auditioned for him in 2000, he immediately changed his schedule in order to make her first recording with the Israel Philharmonic possible in the following month, then invited her to perform with Bavarian State Opera and Los Angeles Philharmonic.

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Galina Vishnevskaya: Songs of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
I. Noch' 00:00
II. Skazhi, o chem v teni vetvey 04:12
III. Kolybel'naya pesn' v buryu 08:07
IV. Net, tol'ko tot, kto znal 10:39
V. Zabyt' tak skoro 13:38
VI. On tak menya lyubil 16:58
VII.Ni slova , o drug moy 20:43
VIII. Nochi bezumnyye 24:16
IX. Zakatilos' solntse 27:20
X. Primiren'ye 29:02
XI. Serenada 34:42
XII. Ne sprashivay 36:39
XIII. Sred' shumnogo bala 40:06
XIV. Den' li tsarit ? 42:04

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich (1840-93) composer
Galina Vishnevskaya -soprano
Mstislav Rostropovich -piano

Vishnevskaya Rostropovich 1964 Tchaikovsky Recital Rostropovich
Vishnevskaya and Rostropovich all Tchaikovsky Concert 1964 LIVE Gorgeous and young Galina Vishnevskaya, live, in concert with husband Mstislav Rostropovich, singing Tchaikovsky in the early years of her career. She demonstrates the dramatic, musical gifts that brought her so many admirers.
Tchaikovsky - 1812 Overture (Full with Cannons)
Tchaikovsky - Waltz of the Flowers
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