Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Portrait of Mozart wearing the Order of the Golden Spur, received in 1770
from Pope Clement XIV in Rome, c. 1777
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, in full Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart (born January 27, 1756, Salzburg, archbishopric of Salzburg [Austria]—died December 5, 1791, Vienna), Austrian composer, widely recognized as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music. With Haydn and Beethoven he brought to its height the achievement of the Viennese Classical school. Unlike any other composer in musical history, he wrote in all the musical genres of his day and excelled in every one. His taste, his command of form, and his range of expression have made him seem the most universal of all composers; yet, it may also be said that his music was written to accommodate the specific tastes of particular audiences.

Early life and works
Mozart most commonly called himself Wolfgang Amadé or Wolfgang Gottlieb. His father, Leopold, came from a family of good standing (from which he was estranged), which included architects and bookbinders. Leopold was the author of a famous violin-playing manual, which was published in the very year of Mozart’s birth. His mother, Anna Maria Pertl, was born of a middle-class family active in local administration. Mozart and his sister Maria Anna (“Nannerl”) were the only two of their seven children to survive.

The boy’s early talent for music was remarkable. At three he was picking out chords on the harpsichord, at four playing short pieces, at five composing. There are anecdotes about his precise memory of pitch, about his scribbling a concerto at the age of five, and about his gentleness and sensitivity (he was afraid of the trumpet). Just before he was six, his father took him and Nannerl, also highly talented, to Munich to play at the Bavarian court, and a few months later they went to Vienna and were heard at the imperial court and in noble houses.

Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni; painted in 1763 on commission from Leopold Mozart


“The miracle which God let be born in Salzburg” was Leopold’s description of his son, and he was keenly conscious of his duty to God, as he saw it, to draw the miracle to the notice of the world (and incidentally to profit from doing so). In mid-1763 he obtained a leave of absence from his position as deputy Kapellmeister at the prince-archbishop’s court at Salzburg, and the family set out on a prolonged tour. They went to what were all the main musical centres of western Europe—Munich, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels, and Paris (where they remained for the winter), then London (where they spent 15 months), returning through The Hague, Amsterdam, Paris, Lyon, and Switzerland, and arriving back in Salzburg in November 1766. In most of these cities Mozart, and often his sister, played and improvised, sometimes at court, sometimes in public or in a church. Leopold’s surviving letters to friends in Salzburg tell of the universal admiration that his son’s achievements aroused. In Paris they met several German composers, and Mozart’s first music was published (sonatas for keyboard and violin, dedicated to a royal princess); in London they met, among others, Johann Christian Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach’s youngest son and a leading figure in the city’s musical life, and under his influence Mozart composed his first symphonies—three survive (K 16, K 19, and K 19a—K signifying the work’s place in the catalog of Ludwig von Köchel). Two more followed during a stay in The Hague on the return journey (K 22 and K 45a).

After little more than nine months in Salzburg the Mozarts set out for Vienna in September 1767, where (apart from a 10-week break during a smallpox epidemic) they spent 15 months. Mozart wrote a one-act German singspiel, Bastien und Bastienne, which was given privately. Greater hopes were attached to his prospect of having an Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice (“The Feigned Simpleton”), done at the court theatre—hopes that were, however, frustrated, much to Leopold’s indignation. But a substantial, festal mass setting (probably K 139/47a) was successfully given before the court at the dedication of the Orphanage Church. La finta semplice was given the following year, 1769, in the archbishop’s palace in Salzburg. In October Mozart was appointed an honorary Konzertmeister at the Salzburg court.

Still only 13, Mozart had by now acquired considerable fluency in the musical language of his time, and he was especially adept at imitating the musical equivalent of local dialects. The early Paris and London sonatas, the autographs of which include Leopold’s helping hand, show a childlike pleasure in patterns of notes and textures. But the London and The Hague symphonies attest to his quick and inventive response to the music he had encountered, as, with their enrichment of texture and fuller development, do those he produced in Vienna (such as K 43 and, especially, K 48). And his first Italian opera shows a ready grasp of the buffo style.

The Mozart family on tour: Leopold, Wolfgang, and Nannerl.
Watercolor by Carmontelle, ca. 1763


The Italian tours
Mastery of the Italian operatic style was a prerequisite for a successful international composing career, and the Austrian political dominion over northern Italy ensured that doors would be open there to Mozart. This time Mozart’s mother and sister remained at home, and the family correspondence provides a full account of events. The first tour, begun on December 13, 1769, and lasting 15 months, took them to all the main musical centres, but as usual they paused at any town where a concert could be given or a nobleman might want to hear Mozart play. In Verona Mozart was put through stringent tests at the Accademia Filarmonica, and in Milan, after tests of his capacities in dramatic music, he was commissioned to write the first opera for the carnival season. After a stop in Bologna, where they met the esteemed theorist Giovanni Battista Martini, they proceeded to Florence and on to Rome for Holy Week. There Mozart heard the Sistine Choir in the famous Miserere of Gregorio Allegri (1582–1652), which was considered the choir’s exclusive preserve but which Mozart copied out from memory. They spent six weeks in Naples; returning through Rome, Mozart had a papal audience and was made a knight of the order of the Golden Spur. The summer was passed near Bologna, where Mozart passed the tests for admission to the Accademia Filarmonica. In mid-October he reached Milan and began work on the new opera, Mitridate, rè di Ponto (“Mithradates, King of Pontus”). He had to rewrite several numbers to satisfy the singers, but, after a series of rehearsals (Leopold’s letters provide fascinating insights as to theatre procedures), the premiere at the Regio Ducal Teatro on December 26 was a notable success. Mozart, in the traditional way, directed the first three of the 22 performances. After a brief excursion to Venice he and his father returned to Salzburg.

Plans had already been laid for further journeys to Italy: for a theatrical serenata commissioned for a royal wedding in Milan in October 1771 and for a further opera, again for Milan, at carnival time in 1772–73. Mozart was also commissioned to write an oratorio for Padua; he composed La Betulia liberata during 1771, but there is no record of a performance. The second Italian visit, between August and December 1771, saw the premiere of his Ascanio in Alba, which, Leopold gleefully reported, “completely overshadowed” the other new work for the occasion, an opera (Ruggiero) by Johann Adolph Hasse, the most respected opera seria composer of the time. But hopes that Leopold had entertained of his son’s securing an appointment in Milan were disappointed. Back in Salzburg, Mozart had a prolific spell: he wrote eight symphonies, four divertimentos, several substantial sacred works, and an allegorical serenata, Il sogno di Scipione. Probably intended as a tribute to the Salzburg prince-archbishop, Count Schrattenbach, this work may not have been given until the spring of 1772, and then for his successor Hieronymus, Count Colloredo; Schrattenbach, a tolerant employer generous in allowing leave, died at the end of 1771.

The third and last Italian journey lasted from October 1772 until March 1773. Lucio Silla (“Lucius Sulla”), the new opera, was given on December 26, 1772, and after a difficult premiere (it began three hours late and lasted six) it proved even more successful than Mitridate, with 26 performances. This is the earliest indication of the dramatic composer Mozart was to become. He followed Lucio Silla with a solo motet written for its leading singer, the castrato and composer Venanzio Rauzzini, Exsultate, jubilate (K 165), an appealing three-movement piece culminating in a brilliant “Alleluia.” The instrumental music of the period around the Italian journeys includes several symphonies; a few of them are done in a light, Italianate style (e.g., K 95 and K 97), but others, notably the seven from 1772, tread new ground in form, orchestration, and scale (such as K 130, K 132, and the chamber musical K 134). There are also six string quartets (K 155–160) and three divertimentos (K 136–138), in a lively, extroverted vein.


Early maturity
More symphonies and divertimentos, as well as a mass, followed during the summer of 1773. Then Leopold, doubtless seeking again a better situation for his son than the Salzburg court (now under a much less sympathetic archbishop) was likely to offer, took him to Vienna. No position materialized, but Mozart’s contact with the newest Viennese music seems to have had a considerable effect on him. He produced a set of six string quartets in the capital, showing in them his knowledge of Haydn’s recent Opus 20 in his fuller textures and more intellectual approach to the medium. Soon after his return he wrote a group of symphonies, including two that represent a new level of achievement, the “Little” G Minor (K 183) and the A Major (K 201). Also dating from this time was Mozart’s first true piano concerto (in D, K 175; earlier keyboard concertos were arrangements of movements by other composers).

The year 1774 saw the composition of more symphonies, concertos for bassoon and for two violins (in a style recalling J.C. Bach), serenades, and several sacred works. Mozart was now a salaried court Konzertmeister, and the sacred music in particular was intended for local use. Archbishop Colloredo, a progressive churchman, discouraged lavish music and set a severe time limit on mass settings, which Mozart objected to but was obliged to observe. At the end of the year he was commissioned to write an opera buffa, La finta giardiniera (“The Feigned Gardener Girl”), for the Munich carnival season, where it was duly successful. It shows Mozart, in his first comic opera since his childhood, finding ways of using the orchestra more expressively and of giving real personality to the pasteboard figures of Italian opera buffa.

A period of two and a half years (from March 1775) began in which Mozart worked steadily in his Salzburg post. The work was for him undemanding and by no means compatible with his abilities. During this period he wrote only one dramatic work (the serenata-like Il rè pastore, “The Shepherd King,” for an archducal visit), but he was productive in sacred and lighter instrumental music. His most impressive piece for the church was the Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (K 243), which embraces a wide range of styles (fugues, choruses of considerable dramatic force, florid arias, and a plainchant setting). The instrumental works included divertimentos, concertos, and serenades, notably the Haffner (K 250), which in its use of instruments and its richness of working carried the serenade style into the symphonic without prejudicing its traditional warmth and high spirits. The five concertos for violin, all from this period (No. 1 may be slightly earlier), show a remarkable growth over a few months in confidence in handling the medium, with increasingly fanciful ideas and attractive and natural contexts for virtuoso display. The use of popular themes in the finales is typically south German. He also wrote a concerto for three pianos and three piano concertos, the last of them, K 271, showing a new level of maturity in technique and expressive range.

Family portrait: Maria Anna ("Nannerl") Mozart, her brother Wolfgang,
their mother Anna Maria (medallion) and father, Leopold Mozart


Mannheim and Paris
It must have been abundantly clear by this time to Mozart as well as his father that a small, provincial court like that at Salzburg was no place for a genius of his order. In 1777 he petitioned the archbishop for his release and, with his mother to watch over him, set out to find new opportunities. The correspondence with his father over the 16 months he was away not only gives information as to what he was doing but also casts a sharp light on their changing relationship; Mozart, now 21, increasingly felt the need to free himself from paternal domination, while Leopold’s anxieties about their future assumed almost pathological dimensions.

They went first to Munich, where the elector politely declined to offer Mozart a post. Next they visited Augsburg, staying with relatives; there Mozart struck up a lively friendship with his cousin Maria Anna Thekla (they later had a correspondence involving much playful, obscene humour). At the end of October they arrived at Mannheim, where the court of the Elector Palatine was musically one of the most famous and progressive in Europe. Mozart stayed there for more than four months, although he soon learned that again no position was to be had. He became friendly with the Mannheim musicians, undertook some teaching and playing, accepted and partly fulfilled a commission for flute music from a German surgeon, and fell in love with Aloysia Weber, a soprano, the second of four daughters of a music copyist. He also composed several piano sonatas, some with violin. He put to his father a scheme for traveling to Italy with the Webers, which, naive and irresponsible, met with an angry response: “Off with you to Paris! and that soon, find your place among great people—aut Caesar aut nihil.” The plan had been that he would go on alone, but now Leopold felt that he was not to be trusted and made the ill-fated decision that his mother should go too. They reached Paris late in March 1778, and Mozart soon found work. His most important achievement was the symphony (K 297) composed for the Concert Spirituel, a brilliant D Major work in which he met the taste of the Parisian public (and musicians) for orchestral display without sacrifice of integrity; indeed he exploited the devices they admired (such as the opening coup d’archet—a forceful, unanimous musical gesture) to new formal ends.

By the time of its premiere, on June 18, his mother was seriously ill, and on July 3 she died. Mozart handled the situation with consideration, first writing to his father of her grave illness, then asking an abbé friend in Salzburg to break the news. He went to stay with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, a German friend. Soon after, Grimm wrote pessimistically to Leopold about his son’s prospects in Paris, and Leopold negotiated a better post for him in Salzburg, where he would be court organist rather than violinist as before, though still nominally Konzertmeister. Mozart had in fact secured a position in Paris that might well have satisfied his father but which clearly did not satisfy Mozart himself; there is no evidence, in any case, that he informed his father of either the offer or his decision to refuse it. Summoned home, Mozart reluctantly obeyed, tarrying en route in Mannheim and in Munich—where the Mannheim musicians had now mostly moved and where he was coolly received by Aloysia Weber. He reached Salzburg in mid-January 1780.

Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint, made by Dora Stock during
Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789


Salzburg and Munich
Back in Salzburg, Mozart seems to have been eager to display his command of international styles: of the three symphonies he wrote in 1779–80, K 318 in G Major has a Parisian premier coup d’archet and crescendos of the type favoured in Mannheim, and K 338 in C Major shows many features of the brilliant Parisian manner. His outstanding orchestral work of this period was, however, the sinfonia concertante for violin and viola K 364; the genre was popular in both cities, and there are many features of the Mannheim style in the orchestral writing, but the character of the work, its ingenious instrumental interplay, and its depth of feeling are unmistakably Mozartian. Also from this time came the cheerful two-piano concerto and the two-piano sonata, as well as a number of sacred works, including the best-known of his complete masses, the Coronation Mass.

But it was dramatic music that attracted Mozart above all. He had lately written incidental music to a play by Tobias Philipp von Gebler, and during 1779–80 he composed much of a singspiel, known as Zaide, although with no sure prospects of performance. So Mozart must have been delighted, in the summer of 1780, to receive a commission to compose a serious Italian opera for Munich. The subject was to be Idomeneus, king of Crete, and the librettist the local cleric Giambattista Varesco, who was to follow a French text of 1712. Mozart could start work in Salzburg as he already knew the capacities of several of the singers, but he went to Munich some 10 weeks before the date set for the premiere. Leopold remained at home until close to the time of the premiere and acted as a link between Mozart and Varesco; their correspondence is accordingly richly informative about the process of composition. Four matters dominate Mozart’s letters home. First, he was anxious, as always, to assure his father of the enthusiasm with which the singers received his music. Second, he was concerned about cuts: the libretto was far too long, and Mozart had set it spaciously, so that much trimming—of the recitative, of the choral scenes, and even of two arias in the final acts—was needed. Third, he was always eager to make modifications that rendered the action more natural and plausible. And fourth, he was much occupied with accommodating the music and the action to the needs and the limitations of the singers.

In Idomeneo, rè di Creta Mozart depicted serious, heroic emotion with a richness unparalleled elsewhere in his operas. Though influenced by Christoph Gluck and by Niccolò Piccinni and others, it is not a “reform opera”: it includes plain recitative and bravura singing, but always to a dramatic purpose, and, though the texture is more continuous than in Mozart’s earlier operas, its plan, because of its French source, is essentially traditional. Given on January 29, 1781, just after Mozart’s 25th birthday, it met with due success. Mozart and his father were still in Munich when, on March 12, he was summoned to join the archbishop’s retinue in Vienna, where the accession of Joseph II was being celebrated.

Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819


Vienna: the early years
Fresh from his triumphs in Munich, where he had mixed freely with noblemen, Mozart now found himself placed, at table in the lodgings for the archbishop’s entourage, below the valets if above the cooks. Furthermore, the archbishop refused him permission to play at concerts (including one attended by the emperor at which Mozart could have earned half a year’s salary in an evening). He was resentful and insulted. Matters came to a head at an interview with Archbishop Colloredo, who, according to Mozart, used unecclesiastical language; Mozart requested his discharge, which was eventually granted at a stormy meeting with the court steward on June 9, 1781.

Mozart, who now went to live with his old friends the Webers (Aloysia was married to a court actor and painter), set about earning a living in Vienna. Although eager for a court appointment, he for the moment was concerned to take on some pupils, to write music for publication, and to play in concerts (which in Vienna were more often in noblemen’s houses than in public). He also embarked on an opera, Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio). (Joseph II currently required that German opera, rather than the traditional Italian, be given at the court theatre.) In the summer of 1781, rumours began to circulate, as far as Salzburg, that Mozart was contemplating marriage with the third of the Weber daughters, Constanze; but he hotly denied them in a letter to his father: “I have never thought less of getting married…besides, I am not in love with her.” He moved lodgings to scotch the gossip. But by December he was asking for his father’s blessing on a marriage with Constanze, with whom he was now in love and to whom, probably through the machinations of her mother and her guardian, he was in some degree committed. Because Constanze later destroyed Leopold’s letters, for reasons that are easy to imagine, only one side of the correspondence exists; Leopold’s reactions can, however, be readily inferred, and it would seem that this period marked a low point in the relationship between father and son.

Musically, Mozart’s main preoccupation was with Die Entführung in the early part of 1782. The opera, after various delays, reached the Burgtheater stage on July 16. The story of the emperor’s saying “very many notes, my dear Mozart” may not be literally true, but the tale is symptomatic: the work does have far more notes than any other then in the German repertory, with fuller textures, more elaboration, and longer arias. Mozart’s letters to his father give insight into his approach to dramatic composition, explaining, for example, his use of accompanying figures and key relationships to embody meaning. He also had the original text substantially modified to strengthen its drama and allow better opportunities for music. Noteworthy features are the Turkish colouring, created by “exotic” turns of phrase and chromaticisms as well as janissary instruments; the extended Act 2 finale, along the lines of those in opera buffa but lacking the dramatic propulsion of the Italian type; the expressive and powerful arias for the heroine (coincidentally called Constanze); and what Mozart called concessions to Viennese taste in the comic music, such as the duet “Vivat Bacchus.”

Die Entführung enjoyed immediate and continuing success; it was quickly taken up by traveling and provincial companies—as La finta giardiniera had been, to a lesser degree—and carried Mozart’s reputation widely around the German-speaking countries. He complained, however, that he had not made enough money from the opera, and he began to devote more time and energy in other directions. Later in the year he worked on a set of three piano concertos and began a set of six string quartets, the latter inspired by Haydn’s revolutionary Opus 33. He also started work on a mass setting, in C Minor, which he had vowed to write on his marriage (a vow he renewed when his wife survived a difficult childbirth) but of which only the first two sections, “Kyrie” and “Gloria,” were completed. Among the influences on this music, besides the Austrian ecclesiastical tradition, was that of the Baroque music (Bach, Handel, and others) that Mozart had become acquainted with, probably for the first time, at the house of his patron Baron Gottfried van Swieten, a music collector and antiquarian. The Baroque influence is noticeable especially in the spare textures and austere lines of certain of the solo numbers, though others are squarely in the decorative, south German late Rococo manner (this interest in “old-fashioned” counterpoint can also be seen in some of Mozart’s piano music of the time and in his string arrangements of music from Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier). Mozart and his wife visited Salzburg in the summer and autumn of 1783, when the completed movements were performed, with (as always intended) Constanze singing the solo soprano parts, at St. Peter’s Abbey. On the way back to Vienna Mozart paused at Linz, where he hastily wrote the symphony known by that city’s name for a concert he gave there.


The central Viennese period
Back in Vienna Mozart entered on what was to be the most fruitful and successful period of his life. He had once written to his father that Vienna was “the land of the piano,” and his greatest triumphs there were as a pianist-composer. During one spell of little more than five weeks he appeared at 22 concerts, mainly at the Esterházy and Galitzin houses but including five concerts of his own. In February 1784 he began to keep a catalog of his own music, which suggests a new awareness of posterity and his place in it (in fact his entries are sometimes misdated). At concerts he would normally play the piano, both existing pieces and improvisations; his fantasias—such as the fine C Minor one (K 475) of 1785—and his numerous sets of variations probably give some indication of the kind of music his audiences heard. He would also conduct performances of his symphonies (using earlier Salzburg works as well as the two written since he had settled in Vienna, the Haffner of 1782, composed for the Salzburg family, and the Linz [Symphony No. 36 in C Major]); but above all the piano concertos were the central products of his concert activity.

In 1782–83 Mozart wrote three piano concertos (K 413–415), which he published in 1785 with string and optional wind parts (so that they were suitable for domestic use) and described as “a happy medium between what is too easy and too difficult.” Six more followed in 1784, three each in 1785 and 1786 and one each in 1788 and 1791. With the 1784 group he established a new level of piano concerto writing; these concertos are at once symphonic, melodically rich, and orchestrally ingenious, and they also blend the virtuoso element effectively into the musical and formal texture of the work. Much melodic material is assigned to the wind instruments, and a unique melodic style is developed that lends itself to patterns of dialogue and instrumental interplay. After the relatively homogeneous 1784 group (K 449, 450, 451, 453, 456, and 459), all of which begin with themes stated first by the orchestra and later taken up by the piano, Mozart moved on in the concertos of 1785 (K 466, 467, and 482) to make the piano solo a reinterpretation of the opening theme. These concertos are increasingly individual in character—one a stormy and romantic D Minor work, the next a closely argued concerto in C Major with a slow movement remarkable for its troubled beauty, and the third, in E-flat Major, notable for its military rhythms and wind colouring. The 1786 group begins with the refined but conservatively lyrical K 488, but then follow two concertos with a new level of symphonic unity and grandeur, that in C Minor (K 491), using the largest orchestra Mozart had yet called for in the concert hall, and the imperious concerto in C Major (K 503). The two final concertos (K 537 and 595) represent no new departures.

Mozart’s other important contributions of this time come in the fields of chamber and piano music. The outpouring of 1784 included the fine piano sonata K 457 and the piano and violin sonata K 454 (written for a visiting violin virtuoso, it was produced in such haste that Mozart could not write out the piano part and played from blank paper at the premiere). He also wrote, in a style close to that of the concertos, a quintet for piano and wind instruments (K 452), which he considered his finest work to date; it was first heard at a concert in the house of his pupil Barbara Ployer, for whom two of the 1784 concertos had been written (K 449 and 453). The six string quartets on which he had embarked in 1782 were finished in the first days of 1785 and published later that year, dedicated to Haydn, now a friend of Mozart’s. In 1785 Haydn said to Leopold Mozart, on a visit to his son in Vienna, “Your son is the greatest composer known to me in person or by name; he has taste, and what is more the greatest knowledge of composition.” It was during Leopold’s visit that Mozart performed his D Minor concerto (K 466), which is marked by a particularly willful piano part that resists conformity more insistently than in any other Mozart concerto; small wonder that Mozart would return to D Minor to set his most intransigent operatic hero—Don Giovanni—and that this would be Beethoven’s favourite among Mozart’s concertos.

1782 portrait of Constanze Mozart by her brother-in-law Joseph Lange


From Figaro to Don Giovanni
In spite of his success as a pianist and composer, Mozart had serious financial worries, and they worsened as the famously fickle Viennese found other idols. One may calculate his likely income during his last five years, 1786–91, as being far larger than that of most musicians though much below that of the section of society with which he wanted to be associated; Leopold’s early advice to be aloof (“like an Englishman”) with his fellow musicians but friendly with the aristocracy had its price. His sense of being as good a man as any privileged nobleman led him and his wife into tastes that for his actual station in life, and his income, were extravagant. He saw a court appointment as a possible source of salvation but knew that the Italian musical influence at court, under the Kapellmeister Antonio Salieri, was powerful and exclusive—even if he and Salieri were never on less than friendly terms personally.

Success in the court opera house was all-important. Joseph II had now reverted to Italian opera, and since 1783 Mozart had been seeking suitable librettos (he had even started work on two but broke off when he came to realize their feebleness for his purpose). He had become acquainted with Lorenzo Da Ponte, an Italian abbé-adventurer of Jewish descent who was a talented poet and librettist to the court theatre. At Mozart’s suggestion he wrote a libretto, Le nozze di Figaro, based on Beaumarchais’s revolutionary comedy, Le Mariage de Figaro, but with most of the political sting removed. Nonetheless, the music of Figaro makes the social distinctions clear. Figaro, as well as the later opera Don Giovanni, treats the traditional figure of the licentious nobleman, but the earlier work does so on a more directly comic plane even though the undercurrents of social tension run stronger. Perhaps the central achievement of Figaro lies in its ensembles with their close link between music and dramatic meaning. The Act 3 Letter Duet, for instance, has a realistic representation of dictation with the reading back as a condensed recapitulation. The act finales, above all, show a broad, symphonic organization with each section worked out as a unit; for example, in the B-flat section of the Act 2 finale the tension of the count’s examination of Figaro is paralleled in the tonal scheme, with its return to the tonic only when the final question is resolved: a telling conjunction of music and drama. These features, coupled with the elaborate commentary on character and action that is embodied in the orchestral writing, add depth to the situations and seriousness to their resolution and set the work apart from the generality of Italian opere buffe.

Figaro reached the stage on May 1, 1786, and was warmly received. There were nine performances in 1786 and a further 26 when it was revived in 1789–90—a success, but a modest one compared with certain operas of Martín y Soler and Giovanni Paisiello (to whose Il barbiere di Siviglia it was a sequel, and planned in direct competition). The opera did, however, enjoy outstanding popularity in Prague, and at the end of the year Mozart was invited to go to the Bohemian capital; he went in January 1787 and gave a new symphony there, the Prague (K 504), a demanding work that reflects his admiration for the capabilities of that city’s musicians. After accepting a further operatic commission for Prague, he returned to Vienna in February 1787.

Mozart’s concert activities in Vienna were now on a modest scale. No Viennese appearances at all are recorded for 1787. In April he heard that his father was gravely ill. Mozart wrote him a letter of consolation putting forward a view of death (“this best and truest friend of mankind”) based on the teachings of Freemasonry, which he had embraced at the end of 1784. Leopold died in May 1787.

Mozart’s music from this time includes the two string quintets K 515–516, arguably his supreme chamber works. Clearly this genre, with the opportunities it offered for richness of sonority and patterns of symmetry, had a particular appeal for him. The quintet in C Major (K 515) is the most expansive and most richly developed of all his chamber works, while the G Minor (K 516) has always been recognized for its depth of feeling, which in the circumstances it is tempting to regard as elegiac. From this period come a number of short but appealing lieder and three instrumental works of note: the Musikalischer Spass (Musical Joke), a good-humoured parody of bad music, in a vein Leopold would have liked (it was thought to have been provoked by his death until it was found that it was begun much earlier); Eine kleine Nachtmusik, the exquisite and much-loved serenade, probably intended for solo strings and written for a purpose that remains unknown (though it has been speculated that it was performed during the musical gatherings hosted by Gottfried von Jacquin); and a fine piano and violin sonata, K 526.

But Mozart’s chief occupation during 1787 was the composition of Don Giovanni, commissioned for production in Prague; it was given on October 29 and warmly received. Don Giovanni was Mozart’s second opera based on a libretto by Da Ponte, who used as his model a libretto by Giovanni Bertati, set by Giuseppe Gazzaniga for Venice earlier in 1787. Da Ponte rewrote the libretto, inserting new episodes into the one-act original, which explains certain structural features. A difference in Mozart’s approach to the work—a dramma giocoso in the tradition of Carlo Goldoni that, because of its more serious treatment of character, had a greater expressive potential than an opera buffa—is seen in the extended spans of the score, with set-piece numbers often running into one another. As in Figaro, the two act finales are again remarkable: the first for the three stage bands that play dances for different social segments—a suggested social compatibility that is shattered by the Don’s attempted rape of the peasant Zerlina—the second for the supper scene in which the commendatore’s statue consigns Giovanni to damnation, with trombones to suggest the supernatural and with hieratic dotted rhythms, extreme chromaticism, and wildly lurching harmony as Giovanni is overcome. But it remains a comic opera, as is made clear through the figure of Leporello, who from under a table offers the common man’s wry or facetious observations; and at the end the surviving characters draw the moral in a cheerful sextet that has seemed jarring to later sensibilities more ready to identify with the rebellious Giovanni than with the restoration of social order that the sextet celebrates. The “demonic” character of the opera has caused it to exercise a special fascination for audiences, and it has given rise to a large critical, interpretative, and sometimes purely fanciful literature.


The last travels
On his return from Prague in mid-November 1787, Mozart was at last appointed to a court post, as Kammermusicus, in place of Gluck, who had died. It was largely a sinecure, the only requirement being that he should supply dance music for court balls, which he did, in abundance and with some distinction, over his remaining years. The salary of 800 gulden seems to have done little to relieve the Mozarts’ chronic financial troubles. Their debts, however, were never large, and they were always able to continue employing servants and owning a carriage; their anxieties were more a matter of whether they could live as they wished than whether they would starve. In 1788 a series of letters begging loans from a fellow Freemason, Michael Puchberg, began; Puchberg usually obliged, and Mozart seems generally to have repaid him promptly. He was deeply depressed during the summer, writing of “black thoughts”; it has been suggested that he may have had a cyclothymic personality, linked with manic-depressive tendencies, which could explain not only his depression but also other aspects of his behaviour, including his spells of hectic creativity.

During the time of this depression Mozart was working on a series of three symphonies, in E-flat Major (K 543), G Minor (K 550), and C Major (the Jupiter, K 551), usually numbered 39, 40, and 41; these, with the work written for Prague (K 504), represent the summa of his orchestral output. It is not known why they were composed; possibly Mozart had a summer concert season in mind. The Prague work was a climax to his long series of brilliant D Major orchestral pieces, but the closely worked, even motivic form gives it a new power and unity, adding particular force to its frequently dark tone. The E-flat Major work, scored with clarinets and more lyrical in temper, makes fewer departures, except in the intensity of its slow movement, where Mozart used a new palette of darker orchestral colours, and the epigrammatic wit of its finale. In the G Minor work the tone of passion and perhaps of pathos, in its constant falling figures, is still more pronounced. The Jupiter (the name dates from the early 19th century) summarized the series of C Major symphonies, with their atmosphere of military pomp and ceremony, but it went far beyond them in its assimilation of opera buffa style, profundity of expression (in its andante), and richness of working—especially in the finale, which incorporates fugal procedures and ends with a grand apotheosis in five-voice fugal counterpoint.

Early in 1789 Mozart accepted an invitation to travel to Berlin with Prince Karl Lichnowsky; they paused in Prague, Dresden (where he played at court), and Leipzig (where he improvised on the Thomaskirche organ). He appeared at the Prussian court and probably was invited to compose piano sonatas for the princess and string quartets with a prominent cello part for King Friedrich Wilhelm II. He did in fact write three quartets, in parts of which he allowed the individual instruments (including the royal cello) special prominence, and there is one sonata (his last, K 576) that may have been intended for the Prussian princess. But it is unlikely that Mozart ever sent this music or was paid for it.

The summer saw the composition of the clarinet quintet, in which a true chamber style is warmly and gracefully reconciled with the solo writing. Thereafter Mozart concentrated on completing his next opera commission, the third of his Da Ponte operas, Così fan tutte, which was given on January 26, 1790; its run was interrupted after five performances when theatres closed because of the death of Joseph II, but a further five were given in the summer. This opera, the subtlest, most consistent, and most symmetrical of the three, was long reviled (from Beethoven onward) on account of its subject, female fickleness; but a more careful reading of it, especially in light of the emotional texture of the music, which gains complexity as the plot progresses, makes it clear that it is no frivolous piece but a penetrating essay on human feelings and their mature recognition. The music of Act 1 is essentially conventional in expression, and conventional feeling is tellingly parodied in certain of the arias; but the arias of Act 2 are on a deeper and more personal level. Features of the music of Così fan tutte—serenity, restraint, poise, irony—may be noted as markers of Mozart’s late style, which had developed since 1787 and may be linked with his personal development and the circumstances of his life, including his Masonic associations, his professional and financial situation, and his marriage.

The year 1790 was difficult and unproductive: besides Così fan tutte, Mozart completed two of the “Prussian” quartets, arranged works by Handel for performance at van Swieten’s house (he had similarly arranged Messiah in 1789), and wrote the first of his two fantasy-like pieces, in a variety of prelude-and-fugue form, for a mechanical organ (this imposing work, in F Minor [K 594], is now generally played on a normal organ). In the autumn, anxious to be noticed in court circles, he went to Frankfurt for the imperial coronation of Leopold II, but as an individual rather than a court musician. His concert, which included two piano concertos and possibly one of the new symphonies, was ill timed, poorly attended, and a financial failure. Anxieties about money were a recurrent theme in his letters home.


The last year
But 1791 promised to be a better year. Music was flowing again: for a concert in March Mozart completed a piano concerto (K 595) begun some years before, reeled off numerous dances for the Redoutensaal, and wrote two new string quintets, the one in D (K 593) being a work of particular refinement and subtlety. In April he applied successfully for the role of unpaid assistant to the elderly Kapellmeister of St. Stephen’s Cathedral, Leopold Hofmann (with the expectation of being duly appointed his successor, but Hofmann was to live until 1793).

An old friend of Mozart’s, Emanuel Schikaneder, had in 1789 set up a company to perform singspiels in a suburban theatre, and in 1791 he engaged Mozart to compose a score to his Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute); Mozart worked on it during the spring and early summer. Then he received another commission, anonymously delivered, for a requiem, to be composed under conditions of secrecy. In addition he was invited, probably in July, to write the opera to be given during Leopold II’s coronation festivities in September. Constanze was away taking a cure at Baden during much of the summer and autumn; in July she gave birth to their sixth child, one of the two to survive (Carl Thomas, 1784–1858, and Franz Xaver Wolfgang, 1791–1844, a composer and pianist). Mozart’s letters to her show that he worked first on Die Zauberflöte, although he must have written some of the Prague opera, La clemenza di Tito (“The Clemency of Titus”), before he left for the Bohemian capital near the end of August. Pressure of work, however, was such that he took with him to Prague, along with Constanze, his pupil Franz Xaver Süssmayr, who almost certainly composed the plain recitatives for the new opera. The work itself, to an old libretto by Pietro Metastasio, condensed and supplemented by the Dresden court poet Caterino Mazzolà, was long dismissed as a product of haste and a commission unwillingly undertaken; but in fact the spare scoring, the short arias, and the generally restrained style are better understood in terms of Mozart’s reaction to the neoclassical thinking of the time and the known preferences of Leopold II. The opera was indifferently received by the court but quickly won over the Prague audiences and went on to become one of Mozart’s most admired works over the ensuing decades.

Mozart was back in Vienna by the middle of September; his clarinet concerto was finished by September 29, and the next day Die Zauberflöte had its premiere. Again, early reactions were cautious, but soon the opera became the most loved of all of Mozart’s works for the stage. Schikaneder took its plot from a collection of fairy tales by Christoph Martin Wieland but drew too on other literary sources and on current thinking about Freemasonry—all viewed in the context of Viennese popular theatre. Musically it is distinguished from contemporary singspiels not merely by the quality of its music but also by the serious ideas that lie below what may seem to be merely childish pantomime or low comedy, welding together the stylistically diverse elements.

Mozart had been ill during the weeks in Prague, but to judge by his letters to Constanze in October he was in good spirits and, with some cause, more optimistic about the future. He wrote a Masonic cantata for his lodge and directed a performance of it on November 18. He was also working steadily on the commissioned requiem. Later in November he was ill and confined to bed; some apparent improvement on December 3 was not sustained, and on December 5 he died. “Severe miliary fever” was the certified cause; later, “rheumatic inflammatory fever” was named. Other diagnoses, taking account of Mozart’s medical history, have been put forward, including Schönlein–Henoch syndrome. There is no evidence to support the tale that he was poisoned by Salieri (a colleague and friend, hardly a real rival) or anyone else. He was buried in a multiple grave, standard at the time in Vienna for a person of his social and financial situation; a small group of friends attended the funeral.

Constanze Mozart was anxious to have the requiem completed, as a fee was due; it had been commissioned, in memory of his wife, by Count von Walsegg-Stuppach to pass off as his own. She handed it first to Joseph Eybler, who supplied some orchestration but was reluctant to do more, and then to Süssmayr, who produced a complete version, writing several movements himself though possibly basing them on Mozart’s sketches or instructions. Subject to criticism for its egregious technical and expressive weaknesses (particularly glaring in the “Sanctus/Benedictus”), this has nevertheless remained the standard version of the work, if only because of its familiarity. The sombre grandeur of the work, with its restrained instrumental colouring and its noble choral writing, hints at what might have been had Mozart lived to take on the Kapellmeistership of St. Stephen’s.

Mozart’s place
At the time of his death Mozart was widely regarded not only as the greatest composer of the time but also as a bold and “difficult” one; Don Giovanni especially was seen as complex and dissonant, and his chamber music as calling for outstanding skill in its interpreters. His surviving manuscripts, which included many unpublished works, were mostly sold by Constanze to the firm of André in Offenbach, which issued editions during the 19th century. But Mozart’s reputation was such that even before the end of the 18th century two firms had embarked on substantial collected editions of his music. Important biographies appeared in 1798 and 1828, the latter by Constanze’s second husband; the first scholarly biography, by Otto Jahn, was issued on Mozart’s centenary in 1856. The first edition of the Köchel catalog followed six years later, and the first complete edition of his music began in 1877.

The works most secure in the repertory during the 19th century were the three operas least susceptible to changes in public taste—Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Die Zauberflöte—and the orchestral works closest in spirit to the Romantic era—the minor-key piano concertos (Beethoven wrote a set of cadenzas for the one in D Minor) and the last three symphonies. It was only in the 20th century that Mozart’s music began to be reexamined more broadly. Although up to the middle of the century Mozart was still widely regarded as having been surpassed in most respects by Beethoven, with the increased historical perspective of the later 20th century he came to be seen as an artist of a formidable, indeed perhaps unequaled, expressive range. The traditional image of the child prodigy turned refined drawing-room composer, who could miraculously conceive an entire work in his head before setting pen to paper (always a distortion of the truth), gave way to the image of the serious and painstaking creative artist with acute human insight, whose complex psychology demanded exploration by writers, historians, and scholars. The 1980 play Amadeus (written by Peter Shaffer) and especially its film version of 1984 (directed by Miloš Forman), although they did much to promote interest in Mozart, reinforced certain myths—i.e., that even as an adult Mozart remained an inappropriately childish vessel for divinely inspired music and that his premature death was brought about by Salieri. Yet even in this indulgent appropriation of Mozart’s legacy, his full-blooded humanity at times emerges with haunting vividness.

Stanley Sadie

Encyclopædia Britannica


Incompletely enlarged portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg m Austria, the son of Leopold, Kapellmeister to the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg. By the age of three he could play the piano, and he was composing by the time he was five; minuets from this period show a remarkable understanding of form. Mozart's elder sister Maria Anna (known as Nannerl) was also a gifted keyboard player, and in 1762 their father took the two prodigies on a short performing tour, of the courts at Vienna and Munich. Encouraged by their reception, they embarked the next year on a longer tour, including two weeks at Versailles, where the children enchanted Louis XV. In 1764 they arrived in London. Here Mozart wrote his first three symphonies, under the influence of Johann Christian Bach, youngest son of Johann Sebastian, who lived in the city.

After their return to Salzburg there followed three trips to Italy between 1769 and 1773. In Rome Mozart heard a performance of Allegri's Miserere; the score of this work was closely guarded, but Mozart managed to transcribe the music almost perfectly from memory. On Mozart's first visit to Milan, his opera Mitridate, re di ponto was successfully produced, followed on a subsequent visit by Lucia Silla. The latter showed signs of the rich, full orchestration that characterizes his later operas.

A trip to Vienna in 1773 failed to produce the court appointment that both Mozart and his father wished for him, but did introduce Mozart to the influence of Haydn, whose Sturm uud Drang string quartets (Opus 20) had recently been published. The influence is clear in Mozart's six string quartets, K I68—173, and in his Symphony in G minor, K183. Another trip in search of patronage ended less happily. Accompanied by his mother, Mozart left Salzburg in 1777, travelling through Mannheim to Pans. But in July 1778 his mother died. Nor was the trip a professional success: no longer able to pass for a prodigy, Mozart's reception there was muted and hopes of a job саmе to nothing.

Back in Salzburg Mozart worked for two years as a church organist for the new archbishop. His employer was less kindly disposed to the Mozart family than his predecessor had been, but the composer nonetheless produced some of his earliest masterpieces. The famous Sinfonia concertante for violin, viola, and orchestra was written in 1780, and the following year Mozart's first great stage work, the opera Idomeneo, was produced in Munich, where Mozart also wrote his Serenade for 13 wind instruments, K361. On his return from Munich, however, the hostility brewing between him and the archbishop came to a head, and Mozart resigned. On delivering his resignation he was verbally abused and eventually physically ejected from the archbishop's residence.

Without patronage, Mozart was forced to confront the perils of a freelance existence. Initially his efforts met with some success. He took up residence in Vienna and in 1782 his opera Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio) was produced in the city and rapturously received. The same year in Vienna's St Stephen's Cathedral Mozart married Constanze Weber. Soon afterwards he initiated a series of subscription concerts at which he performed his piano concertos and improvised at the keyboard. Most of Mozart's great piano concertos were written for these concerts, including those in С, К467, A, K488, and С minor, K491. In these concertos Mozart brought to the genre a unity and diversity it had not nobleman receives his comeuppance and descends into the fiery regions of hell. The third and last da Ponte opera was Cosi fan tutte (Women are all the same), commissioned by Emperor Joseph II and produced at Vienna's Burgtheater in 1790. Its cynical treatment of the theme of sexual infidelity may have been responsible for its relative lack of success with the Viennese, who responded with such enthusiasm to the comedy of Figaro.

Mozart wrote two more operas: the opera seria La demenza di Tito (The Mercy of Tito) and Die Zauberflote (The Magic flute). The latter was commissioned by actor-manager Emanuel Schikaneder to his own libretto. Its plot, a fairy tale combined with strong Masonic elements (Mozart was a devoted Freemason), is bizarre, but drew from Mozart some of his greatest music. When produced in 1791, two months before Mozart's death, the opera survived an initially cool reception and gradually won audiences over.

The year 1788 saw the composition of Mozart's two finest symphonies. Symphony No. 40, in the tragic key of G minor, contrasts strikingly with the affirmatory Symphony No. 41 (Jupiter). Neither helped alleviate his financial plight, however, which after 1789 became critical. An extensive concert tour of Europe failed to earn significant sums. A new emperor came to the Austrian throne but Mozart was unsuccessful in his bid to become Kapellmeister. He was deeply in debt when in July 1791 he received an anonymous commission to write a Requiem. (The author of the commission was in fact Count Franz von Walsegg, who wished to pass off the work as his own.) Mozart did not live to finish the Requiem. He became ill in autumn 1791 and died on December 5; his burial the next day was attended only by a gravedigger. Rumours that Mozart had been poisoned abounded in Vienna after his death, many suggesting that rival composer Antonio Salieri was responsible. Many now believe a heart weakened by bouts of rheumatic fever caused his death.

Mozart's legacy is inestimable. A master of every form in which he worked, lie set standards of excellence that have inspired generations of composers.


Mozart's symphonic production covers a 24 year interval, from 1764 to 1788. According to most recent investigations, Mozart wrote not just the 41 symphonies reported in traditional editions, but up to 68 complete works of this type. However, by convention, the original numbering has been retained, and so his last symphony is still known as "No. 41". Some of the symphonies (K. 297, 385, 550) were revised by the author after their first versions.

Childhood symphonies (1764–1771)
These are the numbered symphonies from Mozart's early childhood.

Symphony No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 16
Symphony No. 2 in B-flat major, K. 17 (spurious, attributed to Leopold Mozart)
Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, K. 18 (spurious, by Carl Friedrich Abel)
Symphony No. 4 in D major, K. 19
Symphony No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 22
Symphony No. 6 in F major, K. 43
Symphony No. 7 in D major, K. 45
Symphony No. 8 in D major, K. 48
Symphony No. 9 in C major, K. 73/75a
Symphony No. 10 in G major, K. 74
Symphony No. 11 in D major, K. 84/73q
Symphony No. 12 in G major, K. 110/75b
Symphony No. 13 in F major, K. 112
There are also several "unnumbered" symphonies from this time period. Many of them were given numbers past 41 (but not in chronological order) in an older collection of Mozart's works (Mozart-Werke, 1877–1910, referred to as "GA"), but newer collections refer to them only by their entries in the Köchel catalogue. Many of these can not be completely established as being written by Mozart.

Symphony in F major, K. 75 (GA 42)
Symphony in F major, K. 76/42a (GA 43: doubtful)
Symphony in D major, K. 81/73l (GA 44: doubtful)
Symphony in D major, K. 95/73n (GA 45)
Symphony in C major, K. 96/111b (GA 46)
Symphony in D major, K. 97/73m (GA 47)
Symphony in F major, K. 98/Anh.C 11.04 (GA 56: doubtful)
Symphony in B-flat major, K. Anh. 214/45b (GA 55: doubtful)
Symphony in B-flat major, K. Anh. 216/74g/Anh.C 11.03 (GA 54: doubtful)
Symphony in G major, "Old Lambach", K. Anh. 221/45a ("No. 7a")
Symphony in F major, K. Anh. 223/19a
Symphony in A minor, "Odense", K. Anh. 220/16a (doubtful)

Salzburg-era symphonies (1771–1777)

These symphonies are sometimes subcategorized as "Early" (1771–1773) and "Late" (1773–1777), and sometimes subcategorized as "Germanic" (with minuet) or "Italian" (without minuet). None of these was printed during Mozart's lifetime.

Although not counted as "symphonies" the three Divertimenti K. 136–138, in 3-movement Italian overture style, are sometimes indicated as "Salzburg Symphonies" too.

Symphony No. 14 in A major, K. 114 (1771)
Symphony No. 15 in G major, K. 124 (1772)
Symphony No. 16 in C major, K. 128 (1772)
Symphony No. 17 in G major, K. 129 (1772)
Symphony No. 18 in F major, K. 130 (1772)
Symphony No. 19 in E-flat major, K. 132 (1772)
Symphony No. 20 in D major, K. 133 (1772)
Symphony No. 21 in A major, K. 134 (1772)
Symphony No. 22 in C major, K. 162 (1773)
Symphony No. 23 in D major, K. 181/162b (1773)
Symphony No. 24 in B-flat major, K. 182/173dA (1773)
Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183/173dB (1773)
Symphony No. 26 in E-flat major, K. 184/161a (1773)
Symphony No. 27 in G major, K. 199/161b (1773)
Symphony No. 28 in C major, K. 200/189k (1774)
Symphony No. 29 in A major, K. 201/186a (1774)
Symphony No. 30 in D major, K. 202/186b (1774)
There are also several "unnumbered" symphonies from this time period that make use of music from Mozart's operas from the same time period. They are also given numbers past 41.

Symphony in D major, K. 111+(120/111a) ("No. 48")
Symphony in D major, K. (126+(161/163))/141a ("No. 50")
Symphony in D major, K. 196+(121/207a) ("No. 51")
Symphony in C major, K. 208+(102/213c) ("No. 52")
Symphony in D major, K. 135+61h
There are also three symphonies from this time period that are based on three of Mozart's serenades:

Symphony in D major, K. 204 (based on the Serenade No. 5)
Symphony in D major, K. 250 (based on the "Haffner" serenade)
Symphony in D major, K. 320 (based on the "Posthorn" serenade)
Late symphonies (1778–1791)[edit]
Symphony No. 31 in D major, "Paris", K. 297/300a (1778)
Symphony No. 32 in G major, "Overture in the Italian style", K. 318 (1779)
Symphony No. 33 in B-flat major, K. 319 (1779)
Symphony No. 34 in C major, K. 338 (1780)
Symphony No. 35 in D major, "Haffner", K. 385 (1782)
Symphony No. 36 in C major, "Linz", K. 425 (1783)
Symphony No. 37 in G major, K. 444 (1783)
For years this was categorized as a Mozart symphony, but later scholarship determined that it was actually composed by Michael Haydn (Symphony No. 25), and Mozart wrote only the slow introduction for it.
Symphony No. 38 in D major, "Prague", K. 504 (1786)
The three final symphonies (Nos. 39–41) were completed in about three months in 1788. It is quite likely that he hoped to publish these three works together as a single opus, although actually they remained unpublished until after his death. One or two of them might have been played in public in Leipzig in 1789.

Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major, K. 543 (1788)
Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550 (1788)
Symphony No. 41 in C major, "Jupiter", K. 551 (1788)


Piano concertos

Mozart's concertos for piano and orchestra are numbered from 1 to 27. The first four numbered concertos are early works. The movements of these concertos are arrangements of keyboard sonatas by various contemporary composers (Raupach, Honauer, Schobert, Eckart, C. P. E. Bach). There are also three unnumbered concertos, K. 107, which are adapted from piano sonatas by J. C. Bach. Concertos 7 and 10 are compositions for three and two pianos respectively. The remaining twenty-one are original compositions for solo piano and orchestra. Among them, fifteen were written in the years from 1782 to 1786, while in the last five years Mozart wrote just two more piano concertos.

Piano Concerto No. 1 in F major, K. 37
Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major, K. 39
Piano Concerto No. 3 in D major, K. 40
Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major, K. 41
Three Piano Concertos in D major, G major and E-flat major, K. 107
Piano Concerto No. 5 in D major, K. 175
Piano Concerto No. 6 in B-flat major, K. 238
Piano Concerto No. 7 in F major for Three Pianos, K. 242
Piano Concerto No. 8 in C major, "Lützow", K. 246
Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat major, "Jeunehomme", K. 271
Piano Concerto No. 10 in E-flat major for Two Pianos, K. 365
Piano Concerto No. 11 in F major, K. 413/387a
Piano Concerto No. 12 in A major, K. 414/385p
Piano Concerto No. 13 in C major, K. 415/387b
Piano Concerto No. 14 in E-flat major, K. 449
Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-flat major, K. 450
Piano Concerto No. 16 in D major, K. 451
Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major, K. 453
Piano Concerto No. 18 in B-flat major, K. 456
Piano Concerto No. 19 in F major, K. 459
Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466
Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major, K. 467
Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-flat major, K. 482
Piano Concerto No. 23 in A major, K. 488
Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491
Piano Concerto No. 25 in C major, K. 503
Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major, "Coronation", K. 537
Piano Concerto No. 27 in B-flat major, K. 595
Rondo for piano and orchestra in D major, K. 382
Rondo for piano and orchestra in A major, K. 386

Violin concertos

Mozart's five violin concertos were written in Salzburg around 1775. They are notable for the beauty of their melodies and the skillful use of the expressive and technical characteristics of the instrument, though Mozart probably never went through all the violin possibilities that others (e.g. Beethoven and Brahms) did after him. (Alfred Einstein notes that the violin concerto-like sections in the serenades are more virtuosic than in the works titled Violin Concertos.)

Violin Concerto No. 1 in B-flat major, K. 207 (1775)
Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 211 (1775)
Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major, K. 216 (1775)
Violin Concerto No. 4 in D major, K. 218 (1775)
Violin Concerto No. 5 in A major, K. 219 (1775)
Mozart also wrote a concertone, an adagio and two stand-alone rondos for violin and orchestra.

Concertone in C major, for Two Violins and Orchestra, K. 190 (1774)
Adagio for violin and orchestra in E major, K. 261 (1776)
Rondo for violin and orchestra in B-flat major, K. 269/261a (between 1775 and 1777)
Rondo for violin and orchestra in C major, K. 373 (1781)
In addition, there are three works that are spuriously attributed to Mozart.

Violin Concerto in E-flat major, K. 268/365a/Anh.C 14.04 ("No. 6") (1780) (attributed to Johann Friedrich Eck)
Violin Concerto in D major, "Kolb", K. 271a/271i ("No. 7") (1777)
Violin Concerto in D major, "Adélaïde", K. Anh. 294a/Anh.C 14.05 (actually written by Marius Casadesus)

Horn concertos

Arguably the most widely played concertos for horn, the four Horn Concertos are a major part of most professional horn players' repertoire. They were written for Mozart's lifelong friend Joseph Leutgeb. The concertos (especially the fourth) were written as virtuoso vehicles that allow the soloist to show a variety of abilities on the valveless horns of Mozart's day.

The Horn Concertos are characterized by an elegant and humorous dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. Many of the autographs contain jokes aimed at the dedicatee.

Horn Concerto No. 1 in D major, K. 412 (1791)
Horn Concerto No. 2 in E-flat major, K. 417 (1783)
Horn Concerto No. 3 in E-flat major, K. 447 (c. 1784–7)
Horn Concerto No. 4 in E-flat major, K. 495 (1786)
There are some other unfinished Mozart works for horn:

Horn Concerto, K. 370b+371 in E-flat major (1781)
Horn Concerto, K. 494a in E major (c. 1785–6)

Woodwind concertos

K. 299 (3rd movement, Rondeau allegro)

Concerto for Flute, Harp, and Orchestra
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Bassoon Concerto in B-flat major, K. 191 (1774)
Concerto for Flute, Harp, and Orchestra in C major, K. 299 (1778)
Oboe Concerto in C major, K. 314 (has come down to us as the second flute concerto, but was almost certainly an oboe concerto) (1777–78)
Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra in A major, K. 622 (1791)
Flute Concerto No. 1 in G major, K. 313 (1778)
Flute Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 314 (1778) (an arrangement of the above Oboe Concerto)
Andante for flute and orchestra in C major, K. 315/285e (1778)

Concertante symphonies

K. 364 (3rd movement, Presto)

Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra
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Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364 (1779)
Sinfonia Concertante for Oboe, Clarinet, Horn, Bassoon and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 297b (Anh. 9 and later Anh. C 14.01) (Probably spurious arrangement of lost Sinfonia Concertante for Flute, Oboe, Horn, Bassoon, and Orchestra from 1778)
These were not Mozart's only attempts at the genre; a few other fragmentary works were also composed around the same time, though not completed.

Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola, Cello and Orchestra in A major, K. 320e (Anh. 104) (c. 1779, fragment)
Sinfonia Concertante for Piano, Violin and Orchestra in D major, K. Anh. 56/315f (1778, fragment)


Concerto for Trumpet, K. 47c (lost)
Cello Concerto, K. 206a (1775, lost)

Piano music

Mozart's earliest composition attempts begin with piano sonatas and other piano pieces, as this is the instrument on which his musical education took place. Almost everything that he wrote for piano was intended to be played by himself (or by his sister, also a proficient piano player). Examples of his earliest works are those found in Nannerl's Music Book. Between 1782 and 1786 he wrote 20 works for piano solo (including sonatas, variations, fantasias, suites, fugues, rondo) and works for piano four hands and two pianos.

Solo piano works

Dual piano/performer works
Piano four-hands

Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in C major, K. 19d (London, May 1765)
Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in D major, K. 381 / 123a
Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in B-flat major, K. 358 / 186c
Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in F major, K. 497
Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in C major, K. 521
Sonata for Keyboard Four-hands in G major, K. 357 (incomplete)
Fugue in G minor, K. 401
Andante and Variations in G major, K. 501
Adagio and Allegro (Fantasia) in F minor, K. 594
Fantasia in F minor, K. 608 (organ, composer's transcription)

Two pianos

Sonata for Two Pianos in D major, K. 448 / 375a
Fugue in C minor for Two Keyboards, K. 426 (transcribed in 1788 for strings as K. 546)

Chamber music
Violin music

He also wrote for piano and violin. Note the order of the two instruments, for the most part, these are keyboard-centric sonatas where the violin plays a more accompanying role. In later years, the role of the violin grew to not just a support to the other solo instrument, but to build a dialogue with it.

Childhood violin sonatas (1763–66)
Violin Sonatas, KV 6–9
Violin Sonata No. 1 in C for Keyboard and Violin, K. 6
Violin Sonata No. 2 in D for Keyboard and Violin, K. 7
Violin Sonata No. 3 in B-flat for Keyboard and Violin, K. 8
Violin Sonata No. 4 in G for Keyboard and Violin, K. 9
Violin Sonatas, KV 10–15
Violin Sonata No. 5 in B-flat for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 10
Violin Sonata No. 6 in G for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 11
Violin Sonata No. 7 in A for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 12
Violin Sonata No. 8 in F for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 13
Violin Sonata No. 9 in C for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 14
Violin Sonata No. 10 in B-flat for Keyboard and Violin (or Flute), K. 15
Violin Sonatas, KV 26–31
Violin Sonata No. 11 in E-flat for Keyboard and Violin, K. 26
Violin Sonata No. 12 in G for Keyboard and Violin, K. 27
Violin Sonata No. 13 in C for Keyboard and Violin, K. 28
Violin Sonata No. 14 in D for Keyboard and Violin, K. 29
Violin Sonata No. 15 in F for Keyboard and Violin, K. 30
Violin Sonata No. 16 in B-flat for Keyboard and Violin, K. 31

Mature violin sonatas (1778–88)
Violin Sonata No. 17 in C major, K. 296
Violin Sonata No. 18 in G major, K. 301
Violin Sonata No. 19 in E-flat major, K. 302
Violin Sonata No. 20 in C major, K. 303
Violin Sonata No. 21 in E minor, K. 304
Violin Sonata No. 22 in A major, K. 305
Violin Sonata No. 23 in D major, K. 306
Violin Sonata No. 24 in F major, K. 376
Violin Sonata No. 25 in F major, K. 377
Violin Sonata No. 26 in B-flat major, K. 378
Violin Sonata No. 27 in G major, K. 379
Violin Sonata No. 28 in E-flat major, K. 380
Violin Sonata No. 29 in A major, K. 402 (fragment, completed by M. Stadler)
Violin Sonata No. 30 in C major, K. 403 (fragment, completed by M. Stadler)
Violin Sonata No. 31 in C major, K. 404 (fragment)
Violin Sonata No. 32 in B-flat major, K. 454
Violin Sonata No. 33 in E-flat major, K. 481
Violin Sonata No. 35 in A major, K. 526
Violin Sonata No. 36 in F major, K. 547

Variations for violin and piano

Variations in G major, "La bergère Célimène", K. 359
6 Variations in G minor on "Hélas, j'ai perdu mon amant", K. 360

String duos and trios

Trio for 2 Violins and Cello in B-flat major, K. 266
Preludes and Fugues for Violin, Viola and Cello, K. 404a
Duo for Violin and Viola in G major, K. 423 (1783)
Duo for Violin and Viola in B-flat major, K. 424 (1783)
Trio for Violin, Viola and Cello in E-flat major, K. 563 (1788)
Trio for Violin, Viola and Cello in G major, K. 562e (1788; fragment)
Arrangements: Trios in G major and in B-flat major, after the Duos K. 423 and 424, arranged for two violins (or violin and viola) and cello by Gerhard Präsent (2012–13)

String quartets

String Quartet No. 1 in G major, "Lodi", K. 80/73f (1770)
Milanese Quartets, K. 155–160 (1772–1773)
This cycle, in three movements, is interesting as far as these works can be considered precursors of the later—more complete—string quartets.
String Quartet No. 2 in D major, K. 155/134a (1772)
String Quartet No. 3 in G major, K. 156/134b (1772)
String Quartet No. 4 in C major, K. 157 (1772–73)
String Quartet No. 5 in F major, K. 158 (1772–73)
String Quartet No. 6 in B-flat major, K. 159 (1773)
String Quartet No. 7 in E-flat major, K. 160/159a (1773)
Viennese Quartets, K. 168–173 (1773)
Much more stylistically developed. In Vienna Mozart is believed to have heard the op. 17 and op. 20 quartets of Joseph Haydn, and had received from them a deep impression.
String Quartet No. 8 in F major, K. 168 (1773)
String Quartet No. 9 in A major, K. 169 (1773)
String Quartet No. 10 in C major, K. 170 (1773)
String Quartet No. 11 in E-flat major, K. 171 (1773)
String Quartet No. 12 in B-flat major, K. 172 (1773)
String Quartet No. 13 in D minor, K. 173 (1773)
Haydn Quartets K. 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, 465, Op. 10 (1782–1785)
Mozart returned to the quartet in the early 1780s after he had moved to Vienna, met Haydn in person, and developed a friendship with the older composer. Haydn had just published his set of six quartets, Op. 33, which are thought to have been a stimulus to Mozart in returning to the genre. These quartets are often regarded as among the pinnacles of the genre.
String Quartet No. 14 in G major, "Spring", K. 387 (1782)
String Quartet No. 15 in D minor, K. 421/417b (1783)
String Quartet No. 16 in E-flat major, K. 428/421b (1783)
String Quartet No. 17 in B-flat major, "Hunt", K. 458 (1784)
String Quartet No. 18 in A major, K. 464 (1785)
String Quartet No. 19 in C major, "Dissonance", K. 465 (1785)
String Quartet No. 20 in D major, "Hoffmeister", K. 499 (1786)
This work was published by (dedicated to?) Franz Anton Hoffmeister, as well as the Prussian Quartets. Mozart's last three quartets, dedicated to the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm II, are noted for the cantabile character of the parts for cello (the instrument played by the king himself), the sweetness of sounds and the equilibrium among the different instruments.
Prussian Quartets, K. 575, 589, 590 (1789–1790)
String Quartet No. 21 in D major, K. 575 (1789)
String Quartet No. 22 in B-flat major, K. 589 (1790)
String Quartet No. 23 in F major, K. 590 (1790)

String quintets

The string quintets (K. 174, 406, 515, 516, 593, 614), for two violins, two violas and cello. Charles Rosen wrote that "by general consent, Mozart's greatest achievement in chamber music is the group of string quintets with two violas."

String Quintet No. 1 in B-flat major, K. 174
String Quintet No. 2 in C minor, K. 406 (516b) – This is a transcription for string quintet of the earlier Serenade for wind octet in C minor, K. 388.
String Quintet No. 3 in C major, K. 515
String Quintet No. 4 in G minor, K. 516
String Quintet No. 5 in D major, K. 593
String Quintet No. 6 in E-flat major, K. 614

Piano trios

Piano Trio No. 1 - Divertimento à 3 in B-flat major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 254 (1776)
Piano Trio No. 2 - Trio (Sonata) in G major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 496 (1786)
Piano Trio No. 3 - Trio in B-flat major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 502 (1786)
Piano Trio No. 4 - Trio in E major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 542 (1788)
Piano Trio No. 5 - Trio in C major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 548 (1788)
Piano Trio No. 6 - Trio in G major for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 564 (1788)
Piano Trio in D minor for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 442 (1785–87?) (incomplete)

Other chamber music

K. 452 (3rd movement, Allegretto)

Quintet for Piano and Winds

Flute Quartets (flute, violin, viola, cello) K. 285, K. 285a, K. 285b, K. 298 (1777–1778)
Sonata for Bassoon and Violoncello in B-flat major, K. 292
Oboe Quartet (oboe, violin, viola, cello) in F major, K. 370 (1781)
Horn Quintet In E-flat, K. 407
Quintet for Piano and Winds (oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon) K. 452 (1784)
Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor K. 478 (1785)
12 Duets – For Two Horns, K. 487 (incorrectly published as being for basset horns)
Piano Quartet No. 2 in E-flat major K. 493 (1786)
Trio for Clarinet, Viola and Piano in E-flat major, "Kegelstatt", K. 498 (1786)
Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. 546 (1788) (a transcription from Fugue in C minor for Two Keyboards, K. 426)
Clarinet Quintet in A major, K. 581 (1789)
Adagio and Rondo for Glass Harmonica, Flute, Oboe, Viola and Cello, K6. 617 (1791)
Adagio in C for Glass Harmonica, K6. 617a (1791)

Serenades, divertimenti, and other instrumental works

The production for instrumental ensembles includes several divertimenti, cassations, notturni, serenades, marches, and dances, a quodlibet, besides, of course, his symphonies. Mozart's production for orchestra is written for string ensembles (like the early Divertimenti K. 136–138), as well as for wind instruments ensembles and the varied combinations of string and wind.


Cassation in D major (Serenade No. 1), K. 100/62a (1769)
4 Contredanses in F major (Serenade No. 2), K. 101/250a (1776)
Serenade No. 3 in D major, "Antretter", K. 185/167a (1773)
Serenade No. 4 in D major, "Colloredo", K. 203/189b (1774)
Serenade No. 5 in D major, K. 204/213a (1775)
Serenade No. 6 in D major, "Serenata Notturna", K. 239 (1776)
Serenade No. 7 in D major, "Haffner", K. 250/248b (1776)
Notturno in D for Four Orchestras (Serenade No. 8), K. 286 (1776–77) (each of the four "orchestras" composed of 2 French horns in D, 2 violins, viola and cello)
Serenade No. 9 in D major, "Posthorn", K. 320 (1779)
Serenade No. 10 for twelve winds and double bass in B-flat major, "Gran Partita", K. 361/370a (1781)
Serenade No. 11 for winds in E-flat major, K. 375 (1781–82)
Serenade No. 12 for winds in C minor, K. 388/384a (1782)
Serenade No. 13 for string quartet and bass in G major, "Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K. 525 (1787)
Cassation in G major, K. 63 (1769)
Cassation in B-flat major, K. 99 (1769)
Galimathias Musicum, in D major, K. 32 (1766)


Divertimento No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 113 (1771)
Divertimento No. 2 in D major, K. 131 (1772)
Divertimento for string quartet or string orchestra in D major, K. 136/125a ("Salzburg Symphony No. 1") (1772)
Divertimento for string quartet or string orchestra in B-flat major, K. 137/125b ("Salzburg Symphony No. 2") (1772)
Divertimento for string quartet or string orchestra in F major, K. 138/125c ("Salzburg Symphony No. 3") (1772)
Divertimento No. 3 in E-flat major, K. 166/159d (1773)
Divertimento No. 4 in B-flat major, K. 186/159b (1773)
Divertimento No. 5 in C major, K. 187 (Anh. C 17.12) (spurious, composer unknown)
Divertimento No. 6 in C major, K. 188/240b (1773)
Divertimento No. 7 in D major, K. 205/167A (1773)
Divertimento No. 8 in F major, K. 213 (1775)
Divertimento No. 9 in B-flat major, K. 240 (1776)
Divertimento No. 10 in F major K. 247, "Lodron No. 1" ("Lodronische Nachtmusik") (1776)
Divertimento No. 11 in D major K. 251 (1776)
Divertimento No. 12 in E-flat major, K. 252/240a (1776)
Divertimento No. 13 in F major, K. 253 (1776)
Divertimento for piano, violin and violoncello in B-flat major, K. 254 ("Piano Trio No. 1") (1776)
Divertimento No. 14 in B-flat major, K. 270 (1777)
Divertimento No. 15 in B-flat major, K. 287/271h "Lodron No. 2" ("Lodronische Nachtmusik") (1777)
Divertimento No. 16 in E-flat major, K. 289/271g (1777)
Divertimento No. 17 in D major, K. 334/230b (1779–80)
Five Divertimentos (25 pieces) for three basset horns in B-flat major, K. 439b (Anh. 229) (1783)
Divertimento for two horns and strings in F major, "A Musical Joke" ("Ein Musikalischer Spaß"), K. 522 (1785–87?)
Divertimento for string trio in E-flat major, K. 563 (1788)


March and Divertimento in C major; the music title when the two marches of K. 214 are played before and after the three movements of Symphony in C major, K. 208+(102/213c) ("Il re pastore") (1772, 1775)

Three Milanese Quartets called "Divertimento":

String Quartet No. 2 in D major, K. 155/134a ("Divertimento") (1772)
String Quartet No. 5 in F major, K. 158 ("Divertimento") (1772–73)
String Quartet No. 6 in B-flat major, K. 159 ("Divertimento") (1773)

Divertimento in F major, K. 288/246c (unknown date) (incomplete)
Divertimento in D major, K. 320B (1772–73) (incomplete)


March in D major, K. 62 (Introduction to K. 100 Serenade, also used in Mitridate, re di Ponto) (1769)
March in D major, K. 189 (probably to open/close K. 185 Serenade) (1773)
March in C major, K. 214 (two marches opening and closing the divertimento—three movements of Symphony in C major, K. 208+(102/213c)—Il re pastore) (1775)
March in D major, K. 215/213b (to open and/or close Serenade, K. 204) (1775)
March in D major, K. 237/189c (to open and/or close Serenade, K. 203) (1774)
March in F major, K. 248 (for use with Divertimento No. 10, K. 247) (1776)
March in D major, K. 249 (to open and/or close Serenade, "Haffner", K. 250) (1776)
March in D major, K. 290 (for use with Divertimento No. 7, K. 205/167A) (1772)
March in D major, K. 335/320a, No. 1 (probably to open Serenade, "Posthorn", K. 320) (1779)
March in D major, K. 335/320a, No. 2 (probably to close Serenade, "Posthorn", K. 320) (1779)
March in C major, K. 408/883e, No. 1 (1782)
March in D major, K. 408/385a, No. 2 (1782)
March in C major, K. 408/383F, No. 3 (1782)
March in D major, K. 445/320c (for use with Divertimento No. 17, K. 334) (1780)

Cassation in G major, K. 63, first movement march (1769)
Divertimento No. 11 in D major, K. 251, sixth movement (1776)
Act I: March; Act II: March; and Act III: March, Idomeneo, K. 366 (1781)
Kleiner Trauermarsch ("Little Funeral March") in C minor, K. 453a (1784)
Act III: March, Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492 (1786)

March in B-flat major, K. 384b (1782?)


Mozart left a huge production of dances for orchestra, including the genres of minuetto (more than 100), quadrille, gavotte, ballet intermezzo, contredanse and Allemande (or Teitsch, or Ländler, or German Dances).

In his production of minuets, Mozart generally followed Haydn's example, preferring the slow character of the dance. Allemandes (56 between 1787 and 1791) were written mainly for public balls in Vienna. In the Contredanse production, also written mainly in Vienna, some examples of program music are found, like Il Temporale, K. 534, La Bataille, K. 535, Canary, K. 600/5, etc.

6 Menuets, K. 61h (Symphony in D major, K. 135+61h) (1769?)
7 Menuets, K. 61a*/61b (1769)
(* not to be confused with Missa brevis #2 in D minor, K. 65/61a)
4 Contredanses, K. 101/250a (alternative title: Serenade No. 2) (1776)
20 Menuets, K. 103/61d (1776)
6 Menuets, K. 104/61e (1770–71)
6 Menuets, K. 105/61f (spurious, by Michael Haydn)
Menuet in E-flat, K. 122/73t (1770)
Contredanse in B-flat, K. 123/73g (1770)
6 Menuets, K. 164/130a (1772)
16 Menuets, K. 176 (1773)
4 Contredanses, K. 267/271c (1777)
Sketches for a ballet intermezzo, "Bagatelles Ballet Pantomime", K. 299c (1778)
Gavotte in B-flat, K. 300 (1778)
3 Menuets, K. 363 (1783?)
5 Menuets, K. 461/448a (1784)
6 Contredanses, K. 462/448b (1784)
2 Quadrilles, K. 463/448c (1784)
6 German Dances, K. 509 (1778)
Contredanse in D, "Das Donnerwetter" (The Thunderstorm), K. 534 (1788)
Contredanse in C, "La Bataille", K. 535 (1788)
6 German Dances, K. 536 (1788)
6 German Dances, K. 567 (1788)
12 Menuets, K. 568 (1788)
6 German Dances, K. 571 (1789)
12 Menuets, K. 585 (1789)
12 German Dances, K. 586 (1789)
Contredanse in C, "Der Sieg vom Helden Koburg" (Coburg's Victory), K. 587 (1789)
6 Menuets, K. 599 (1791)
6 German Dances, K. 600 (1791)
4 Menuets, K. 601 (1791)
4 German Dances, K. 602 (includes No. 3 "Die Leirer") (1791)
2 Contredanses, K. 603 (1791)
2 Menuets, K. 604 (1791)
3 German Dances, K. 605 (includes No. 3 "Die Schlittenfahrt" Sleigh Ride) (1791)
6 German Dances, "Ländlerische Tänze", K. 606 (1791)
Contredanse in E-flat, "Il Trionfo delle Donne", K. 607/605a (1791)
5 Contredanses, K. 609 (includes No. 1 "Non più andrai") (1787)
Contredanse in G, "Les filles malicieuses", K. 610 (1791)

Sacred music

Mozart's sacred music is mainly vocal, though also instrumental examples exist, like the Sonate da Chiesa for 2 violins, double bass and organ, composed between 1767 and 1780. His sacred music presents a rich stylistic mosaic: Gregorian choral elements meet rigorous counterpoint, and even operatic elements can sometimes emerge. Sylistic unity and consistency is present over all his sacred music work. Included in this genre, for their liturgical character, are also the compositions written for the Masonic Lodge, like the Kleine Freimaurer-Kantate (The Little Freemasons' Cantata) entitled Laut verkünde unsre Freude, K. 623, and the Maurerische Trauermusik (Masonic Funeral Music), K. 477.


Missa brevis in G major, K. 49
Missa brevis in D minor, K. 65
Missa solemnis in C major, Dominicusmesse, K. 66
Missa solemnis in C minor, Waisenhausmesse, K. 139
Missa brevis in G major, K. 140
Missa brevis in F major, K. 192
Missa in honorem Sanctissimae Trinitatis, K. 167
Missa brevis in D major, K. 194
Sparrow Mass in C major, Spatzenmesse, K. 220
Credo Mass in C major, Credo Mass, K. 257
Missa brevis in C major, Piccolomesse, K. 258
Missa brevis in C major, Organ Solo, K. 259
Missa longa in C major, K. 262
Missa brevis in B-flat major, K. 275
Coronation Mass, K. 317
Missa solemnis, Missa aulica, K. 337
Great Mass in C minor, K. 427

Requiem Mass in D minor, K. 626 (compl. Franz Xaver Süssmayr after Mozart's death)

Other sacred music

God is Our Refuge, K. 20
Kyrie in F major, K. 33
Scande Coeli Limina in C, K. 34
Miserere in A minor, K. 85
Kyrie in D minor for soprano, alto, tenor and bass, K. 90
Three settings of the Marian antiphon Regina coeli:

Regina Coeli for soprano, chorus and orchestra, K. 108
Regina Coeli for soprano, chorus and orchestra, K. 127
Regina Coeli for soloists, chorus and orchestra, K. 276
Te Deum, K. 141
Exsultate, jubilate, K. 165
Two Vesper services:

Vesperae de Dominica in C, K. 321
Vesperae solennes de confessore, K. 339 (1780)
Kyrie in D minor, K. 341
Ave verum corpus, K. 618
as well as four litanies, numerous offertories, psalms, motets, and other mass fragments.

Church sonatas

Main article: Church Sonatas (Mozart)
Church Sonata No. 1 in E-flat K. 67/41h (1772)
Church Sonata No. 2 in B-flat K. 68/41i (1772)
Church Sonata No. 3 in D K. 69/41k (1772)
Church Sonata No. 4 in D, K. 144/124a (1772)
Church Sonata No. 5 in F, K. 145/124b (1772)
Church Sonata No. 6 in B-flat, K. 212 (1775)
Church Sonata No. 7 in F, K. 224/241a (1776)
Church Sonata No. 8 in A, K. 225/241b (1776)
Church Sonata No. 9 in G, K. 241 (1776)
Church Sonata No. 10 in F, K. 244 (1776)
Church Sonata No. 11 in D, K. 245 (1776)
Church Sonata No. 12 in C, K. 263 (1776)
Church Sonata No. 13 in G, K. 274/271d (1777)
Church Sonata No. 14 in C, K. 278/271e (1777)
Church Sonata No. 15 in C, K. 328/317c (1779)
Church Sonata No. 16 in C, K. 329/317a (1779)
Church Sonata No. 17 in C, K. 336/336d (1780)

Organ music

Fugue in E-flat major, K. 153 (375f)
Fugue in G minor, K. 154 (385k)
Ouverture in C major, K. 399 (385i)
Fugue in G minor, K. 401 (375e)
Eine kleine Gigue, K. 574
Adagio and Allegro in F minor for a Mechanical Organ, K. 594 (1790)
Fantasia in F minor for a Mechanical Organ, K. 608 (1791)
Andante in F for a Small Mechanical Organ, K. 616 (1791)


Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, K. 35 (1767)
Apollo et Hyacinthus, K. 38 (1767)
Bastien und Bastienne, K. 50=46b (1768)
La finta semplice, K. 51 (1768)
Mitridate, re di Ponto, K. 87 (1770)
Ascanio in Alba, K. 111 (1771)
Betulia liberata, an oratorio, K. 118=74c (1771)
Il sogno di Scipione, K. 126 (1772)
Lucio Silla, K. 135 (1772)
Thamos, König in Ägypten (1773, 1775)
La finta giardiniera, K. 196 (1774–75)
Il re pastore, K. 208 (1775)
Zaide, K. 344 (1779)
Idomeneo, K. 366 (1781)
Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K. 384 (1782)
L'oca del Cairo, K. 422 (1783)
Lo sposo deluso, K. 430
Der Schauspieldirektor, K. 486 (1786)
Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492 (1786)
Don Giovanni, K. 527 (1787)
Così fan tutte, K. 588 (1789)
Die Zauberflöte, K. 620 (1791)
La clemenza di Tito, K. 621 (1791)

Kochel catalogue   Köchel's Catalogue of Mozart's Works

The Köchel-Verzeichnis is an inclusive, chronological catalogue of compositions by
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus, which was originally created by Ludwig von Köchel. It is abbreviated K. or KV. Köchel catalogue numbers not only reflect an ongoing attempt to establish a chronology of Mozart's works, but also provide a shorthand to refer to them. For example, Mozart's Requiem in D minor was, according to Köchel's counting, the 626th piece Mozart composed. Thus, the piece is designated K. 626 or KV 626. However, Köchel's original 1862 catalogue has been twice substantially revised, and some works have had three K. numbers assigned to them; e.g. Mozart's Horn Concerto No. 1, K. (412+514)/386b.


In the decades after Mozart's death there were several attempts to catalogue his compositions, for example by Franz Gleißner and Johann Anton André (published in 1833), but it was not until 1862 that Ludwig von Köchel succeeded in producing a comprehensive one. Köchel's 551-page catalogue was titled Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämmtlicher Tonwerke W. A. Mozarts (Chronological-thematic Catalogue of the Complete Musical Works of W. A. Mozart). Köchel attempted to arrange the works in chronological order, but many compositions written before 1784 could only be estimated, although Leopold Mozart had compiled a partial list of his son's earlier works; Mozart's work book of his own compositions (begun in February 1784 with K. 449) allows relatively precise dating of many of his later works. The catalogue included the opening bars of each piece, known as an incipit. Köchel divided the corpus into a main chronology of 626 works, and five appendices (Anhang in German, abbreviated to Anh.) The appendices (Anh. I-V) included:

I - Lost authentic works
II - Fragments by Mozart
III - Works by Mozart transcribed by others
IV - Doubtful works
V - Misattributed works
Since Köchel published his original catalogue in 1863 (now referred to as K1), the dating of Mozart's compositions has been subject to constant revision. Many more pieces have since been found, re-dated, re-attributed and re-numbered, requiring three revised editions of the catalogue. Subsequent editions - especially the third edition (K3) by Alfred Einstein (1937), and the sixth edition (K6) by Franz Giegling, Gerd Sievers, and Alexander Weinmann (1964) - have reflected attempts to arrange the growing list of works in a more accurate chronological order, according to various levels of scholarship.

A major shortcoming of K1 was that there was no room to expand the strictly sequential numbering in the main catalogue to allow for any new discoveries or further reassessment of existing works. For the 1937 edition (K3) Einstein (following the analyses of Théodore de Wyzewa and Georges de St. Foix) re-assigned a number of works from the original K1 appendices into the main catalogue by interpolating new numbers into the main sequence with a lower-case letter suffix. In K6 some of these were reassessed in the light of scholarship since 1937 and returned to the re-worked appendices to K6:

K. 626a
K. 626aI - 64 cadenzas by Mozart to his own keyboard concertos
K. 626aII - Cadenzas by Mozart to keyboard concertos by other composers
K. 626b - 42 sketches & other fragments by Mozart (replacing K3 Anh. II)
Anh. A - Copies by Mozart of other composers' works
Anh. B - Works by Mozart transcribed by others
Anh. C - Doubtful and misattributed vocal (C.1-10) and instrumental (C.11-30) works
For example, the Divertimento for Wind Octet in E♭ was numbered Anh. 226 in K1; Einstein placed it in the K3 main catalogue as K. 196e, between K. 196 and K. 197; K6 reassigned it again to the 'doubtful' appendix C as Anh. C 17.01. Some works in Anh. A have been identified since 1965 as by Leopold Mozart. Many works in Anh. C have since been more reliably assigned to other composers, or to Mozart himself.

see also:

Köchel's Catalogue of Mozart's Works


Symphony No. 40 in G minor,  KV550
Allegro molto
Menuetto. Allegro
Finale (Allegro assai)


Symphony No. 41 C-DUR KV 551 "Jupiter"
Allegro vivace
Andante cantabile
Menuetto. Allegretto
Molto Allegro


Symphony No. 35 in D major, KV385 "Haffner"
Allegro con spirito
Fenale (Presto)


Symphony No. 38 in D major, K504 "Prague"
Finale (Presto)


Symphony No. 39 in E flat major, K543
Andante con moto
Menuetto (Allegretto) and Trio
Finale (Allegro)


Symphony No. 28 in C major, K200
Allegro spiritoso
Menuetto. Allegretto


Symphony No. 29 in A major, K201
Allegro moderato
Allegro con spirito


Symphony No. 33 in B flat major, K319
Allegro assai
Andante moderato
Finale (Allegro assai)


* * *




Sonata in F, KV280


Sonata in B flat, KV333


Sonata in G, KV283


Sonata in F, KV533/494


Fantasia in C minor, KV475


Sonata in C minor, KV457


* * *


Eine Kleine Nachtmusik


Violin concerto No. 2 in D major KV211
Allegro moderato
Rondo (Allegro)


Violin concerto No. 3 in G major KV216
Rondo (Allegro)


Violin concerto No. 2 in D major KV218
Andante cantabile
Rondo (Andante grazioso)


Le nozze di Figaro
Bravo signor
E Susanna non vien
Tutto e disposto


Die entfuhrung aus dem serail
Ach ich liebre
Welche Wonne, Welche Lust
Vivat, Bacchus!


Don Giovanni
Madamina, il catalogo e questo
Finch han dal vino
Dalla sua pace
Deh, vieni alla finestra
Vedrai, carino
Crudele? Non mi dir


Cosi fan tutte
Donne mie la fate a tanti
Fra gli amplessi


Die Zauberflote
Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schon
O zittre nicht
Ein Madchen oder Weibchen

Requiem in D minor, K626
Berlin Philharmonik Orchestra - Herbert von Karajan
01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08   09   10   11   12   13   14


The Best of Mozart
Published on Jan 8, 2013
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - The Best of Mozart
K.P.M. Philarmonic Orchestra

1. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Movt 1
2. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Movt 2 ( 7:45 )
3. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Movt 3 ( 12:50 )
4. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Movt 4 ( 14:50 )
5. Symphony No 35 "Haffner Symphony" Movt 1 ( 20:08 )
6. Symphony No 35 "Haffner Symphony" Movt 3 ( 25:54 )
7. Symphony No 40 Movement 1 "Molto Allegro" ( 29:53 )
8. Magic Flute "Overture" ( 37:29 )
9. Marriage of Figaro "Overture" ( 44:41 )
10. String Quartet No 23 K 590 Movt 1 ( 49:12 )
11. String Quartet No 23 K 590 Movt 4 ( 58:13 )
12. String Quartet No 20 K 499 "Minuet" ( 1:03:17 )
13. Violin Sonata K378 "Rondeau" ( 1:06:38 )
14. Piano Concerto No 21 "Andante" ( 1:10:46 )
15. Piano Concerto No 23 Movt 1 ( 1:16:25 )
16. Turkish March Piano Sonata No 11 ( 1:27:15 )
17. Clarinet Concerto Movt 2 ( 1:29:35 )
18. Violin Concerto No 3 K 216 Movt 1 ( 1:36:36 )
19. Flute Concerto No 2 K 314 Movt 2 ( 1:46:08 )
20. Horn Concerto No 3 K 447 Movt 2 ( 1:51:36 )
Mozart - The Complete Symphonies (PART I) - HD Classical Music (Música Clásica)

1. Symphony No.1 in E-flat major, K.16
2. Symphony No.2 in B-flat major, K.17
3. Symphony No.3 in E-flat major, K.18
4. Symphony No.4 in D major, K.19
5. Symphony No.5 in B-flat major "The Hague", K.22
6. Symphony No.6 in F major, K.43
7. Symphony No.7 in D major, K.45
8. Symphony No.8 in D major, K.48
9. Symphony No.9 in C major, K.73
10. Symphony No.10 in G major, K.74
11. Symphony No.11 in D major, K.84
12. Symphony No.12 in G major, K.110
13. Symphony No.13 in F major, K.112
14. Symphony No.14 in A major, K.114
15. Symphony No.15 in G major, K.124

Mozart - Symphonies (COMPLETE / PART II) - Classical Music (Música Clásica) HD

1. Symphony No.16 in C, K128
2. Symphony No.17 in G, K129
3. Symphony No.18 in F, K130
4. Symphony No.19 in E-flat, K132
5. Symphony No.20 in D, K133
6. Symphony No.21 in A, K134
7. Symphony No.22 in C, K162
8. Symphony No.23 in D, K181
9. Symphony No.24 in B-flat, K182
10. Symphony No.25 in G minor, K183
11. Symphony No.26 in E-flat, K184
12. Symphony No.27 in G, K199
13. Symphony No.28 in C, K200
14. Symphony No.29 in A, K201

Mozart - Symphonies (COMPLETE / PART III) - Classical Music (Música Clásica) HD
1. Symphony No.30 in D, K202 (0:00)
2. Symphony No.31 in D, K297 "Paris"
3. Symphony No.32 in G, K318
4. Symphony No.33 in B flat, K319
5. Symphony No.34 in C, K338 (1:09:56)
6. Symphony No.35 in D, K385 "Haffner"
7. Symphony No.36 in C, K425 "Linz"
8. Minuet for a Symphony in C, K409 (2:23:13)
9. Adagio mestoso in G, K444
10. Symphony No.38 in D, K504 "Prague"
11. Symphony No.39 in E-flat, K543
12. Symphony No.40 in G minor, K550 (3:29:39)
13. Symphony No.41 in C, K551 "Jupiter"
Mozart - Symphony No. 1 in E flat, K. 16
The Symphony No. 1 in E flat major, K. 16, was written in 1764 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the age of eight years. By this time, he was already notable in Europe as a wunderkind performer, but had composed little music.

The autograph score of the symphony is today preserved in the Biblioteka Jagiellońska in Kraków.


The piece was written on the Mozart family's Grand Tour of Europe in London when they had to move to Chelsea during the summer of 1764 due to Mozart's father Leopold's illness (throat infection). The house at 180 Ebury Street, now in the borough of Westminster, where this symphony was written, is marked with a plaque. The symphony was first performed on 21 February 1765. The work shows the influence of several composers, including his father and the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach, especially Johann Christian Bach, an important early symphonist working in London whom Mozart had met during his time there.

Movements and instrumentation
The symphony is scored for 2 oboes, 2 horns, harpsichord and strings.

The work is in 3 movements:

Molto allegro, 4/4
Andante, C minor, 2/4
Presto, 3/8
In the second movement, the eight-year-old Mozart makes use of the four note motif that appears in the finale of his Jupiter symphony, No. 41. The four notes, Do, Re, Fa, Mi, make an appearance in several of Mozart's works, including his Symphony No. 33. This theme is stated by the horns in his first symphony.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mozart - Symphony No. 1 in E flat, K. 16
Mozart - Symphony No. 19 in E flat, K. 132
Symphony No. 19 in E flat major, K. 132, was a symphony composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in July, 1772. The symphony has the scoring of two oboes, four horns (two of them uniquely written in "E flat alto"), and strings. There are four movements:
1. Allegro, 4/4
2. Andante, 3/8
3. Menuetto: Trio, 3/4
4. Allegro, 2/2.
The first movement opens with a motif that Mozart would later use at the beginning of his twenty-second piano concerto in the same key. The exposition is brief and there is no repeat. The development focuses on new material. There is also an alternative slow movement, marked Andantino grazioso. The tempo marks in the first, second and fourth movements were written in the hand of Leopold Mozart. The finale is a French rondo in seven part (ABACADA) form. Each part of the rondo is repeated except for the final A.
Mozart - Symphony No. 20 in D, K. 133
Symphony No. 20 in D major, K. 133, was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in July, 1772, when Mozart was sixteen years old. This symphony is one of many written during the period Mozart stayed in Salzburg, between two trips to Italy. Compared to other symphonies Mozart wrote in this period, the scoring is extravagant, featuring two trumpets in addition to the standard oboes, horns, and strings. The key of D major, which is a key often reserved for ceremonial music, is well suited to the presence of these trumpets. The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two horns, two trumpets and strings. There are four movements:
1. Allegro:
The first movement, in D major and 4/4 time, is written in sonata-allegro form, with the notable deviation of the recapitulation being the mirror image of the exposition. That is, the recapitulation starts with the second theme, and Mozart waits until the very end to unveil the return of the first theme. He does so by first bringing the theme in softly with the strings, then repeating with the strings now doubled by the trumpets.
2. Andante:
The second movement, in A major and 2/4, features strings with a solo flute, which typically doubles the first violin one octave higher. The violins play with mutes throughout the movement, and the bass part is played pizzicato. These features, in combination, give the movement a delicate texture.
3. Menuetto; Trio:
This minuet in D major starts boldly. A more subdued trio written primarily for strings (with a bit of oboe).
4. [Allegro]:
The fourth movement, also in D major, is a long dance in 12/8 time cast in sonata-allegro form. Though Mozart himself did not label the tempo of the fourth movement, the character of the piece and the standard symphonic form of the time indicates that Mozart probably intended the piece to go at an "allegro" tempo.
Mozart - Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183
The Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183/173dB, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in October 1773, shortly after the success of his opera seria Lucio Silla. It was supposedly completed October 5, a mere two days after the completion of his Symphony No. 24, although this remains unsubstantiated. Its first movement is widely known as the opening music in Miloš Forman's film Amadeus. The symphony is laid out in standard classical form:
1. Allegro con brio, 4/4 in G minor
2. Andante, 2/4 in E-flat major
3. Menuetto & Trio, 3/4 in G minor, Trio in G major
4. Allegro, 4/4 in G minor.
With its wide-leap melodic lines and brisk musical subjects, this symphony is characteristic of the Sturm und Drang style. It shares certain features with other Sturm und Drang symphonies of this time, and is likely inspired from Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 39 which is likewise in G minor. The opening Mannheim rocket (a rising arpeggiated sequence) was quoted by Beethoven in his first Piano Sonata as the principal subject of the first movement.
Mozart - Symphony No. 29 in A, K. 201
The Symphony No. 29 in A major, K. 201/186a, was completed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart on 6 April 1774. It is, along with Symphony No. 25, one of his better known early symphonies. Stanley Sadie characterizes it as "a landmark ... personal in tone, indeed perhaps more individual in its combination of an intimate, chamber music style with a still fiery and impulsive manner." The symphony is scored for 2 oboes, 2 horns and strings, as was typical of early-period Mozart symphonies.
There are four movements:
1. Allegro moderato, 2/2
2. Andante, 2/4
3. Menuetto: Allegretto -- Trio, 3/4
4. Allegro con spirito, 6/8
The first movement is in sonata form, with a graceful principal theme characterized by an octave drop and ambitious horn passages. The second movement is scored for muted strings with limited use of the winds, and is also in sonata form. The third movement, a minuet, is characterized by nervous dotted rhythms and staccato phrases; the trio provides a more graceful contrast. The energetic last movement, another sonata-form movement in 6/8 time, connects back to the first movement with its octave drop in the main theme.
W. A. Mozart - Symphony No. 31 "Paris" in D major (Harnoncourt)
Symphony No. 31 "Paris" in D major, K. 297/300a (1778):
1. Allegro assai
2. Andante
3. Allegro

Conductor - Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Wiener Philharmoniker
Musikvereinssaal Wien, 1984

Mozart - Symphony No. 33 in B flat, K. 319
The Symphony No. 33 in B flat major, K. 319, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and dated on 9 July 1779. The symphony has four movements:
1. Allegro assai, 3/4
2. Andante moderato, 2/4
3. Menuetto, 3/4
4. Finale: Allegro assai, 2/4.
The autograph score is today preserved in the Biblioteka Jagiellońska, in Kraków.
Mozart - Symphony No. 34 in C, K. 338
Symphony No. 34 in C Major, K. 338, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780, and completed on August 29. The work is scored for 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. Although most symphonies have four movements, this symphony has only three, which was still common in the early classical period:
1. Allegro vivace, 4/4
2. Andante di molto (più tosto Allegretto), 2/4 in F major
3. Finale: Allegro vivace, 6/8.
The symphony features the fanfares and flourishes typical of the "festive symphony" or "trumpet symphony", which is characteristic of Austrian symphonic writing in C major. This is the first of Mozart's C-major symphonies to exhibit this character, but the style would be revisited in his subsequent two works in this key, the 36th and 41st symphonies. The first movement is written in sonata form but also contains many styles and formal aspects of an Italian overture. There is no expositional repeat. The expositional coda contains an overture-like crescendo which is not included in the recapitulation. The development is based entirely on new material. The recapitulation on the exposition's first theme is abbreviated and interrupted by a brief development of that theme. Finally, the movement's coda contains nearly all of this first theme creating the appearance of a reverse-recapitulation common in Italian overtures. The second movement in F major is scored for strings sotto voce with divided violas and a single bassoon doubling the cellos and bass. Alfred Einstein advanced a theory in the third edition of the Köchel catalogue that the Minuet K. 409 was written at a later date by the composer for this work. However, there is no proof in the sources to support his thesis. Also, K. 409 calls for two flutes in its orchestration which does not match the rest of the symphony. The finale is in sonata form and features energetic tarantella or saltarello rhythms.
W. A. Mozart - Symphony n. 35 KV385 "Haffner" (Sir A. Pappano)
W. A. Mozart, Symphony n. 35 KV 385 "Haffner"
Orchestra dell'Accademia Santa Cecilia
Sir Antonio Pappano, conductor
Mozart - Symphony No. 36 in C, K. 425 (Linz)
The Symphony No. 36 in C major, KV 425, (known as the Linz Symphony) was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart during a stopover in the Austrian town of Linz on his and his wife's way back home to Vienna from Salzburg in late 1783. The entire symphony was written in four days to accommodate the local count's announcement, upon hearing of the Mozarts' arrival in Linz, of a concert. The première in Linz took place on 4 November, 1783. The composition was also premièred in Vienna on 1 April, 1784. The autograph score of the "Linz Symphony" was not preserved. The symphony is scored for 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. There are four movements:
1. Adagio, 3/4 — Allegro spiritoso, 4/4
2. Poco adagio, 6/8
3. Menuetto, 3/4
4. Finale (Presto), 2/4.
Every movement except the minuet is in sonata form. The slow movement has a siciliano character and meter which was rare in Mozart's earlier symphonies (only used in one of the slow movements of the "Paris") but would appear frequently in later works such as #38 and #40. The next symphony by Mozart is Symphony No. 38. The work known as "Symphony No. 37" is mostly by Michael Haydn.
Mozart - Symphony No. 38 in D, K. 504 [complete] (Prague)
The Symphony No. 38 in D major, K. 504, was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in late 1786. It was premiered in Prague on January 19, 1787, a few weeks after Le nozze di Figaro opened there. It is popularly known as the Prague Symphony. Mozart's autograph thematic catalogue bears December 6, 1786, as the date of composition. Other works written by Mozart about contemporary with this symphony include the twenty-fifth piano concerto and the piano trio in B-flat (K. 503 and K. 502, respectively) the former also written in December 1786, the latter written in November. The aria scena and rondo Ch'io mi scordi di te? K.505 for soprano and orchestra with piano obligato, regarded by Girdlestone in his book on Mozart and his Piano Concertos as a work on the same level, also dates from the same period. This work would be called No. 37 if the K. 444 work (mostly by Michael Haydn, except for the slow introduction, which is by Mozart) was removed from the numbering. The early classical symphony of the 18th century would either have three movements or four (or one movement in three recognizable sections, like the 26th or the 32nd), the four-movement symphonies having a minuet in addition. By the time Mozart wrote his Prague symphony, however, the symphony was no longer a step away from the opera overture, no longer bound to this tradition, so that the symphony without a minuet could be, and was, similar in weight to his other symphonies, different mostly in the lack of that minuet and not in overall specific gravity. The Prague Symphony was scored for two flutes, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. The work has the following three movements:
1. Adagio—Allegro, 4/4 (Sonata form)
2. Andante in G major, 6/8 (Sonata form)
3. Finale (Presto), 2/4.
Although Mozart's popularity among the Viennese waxed and waned, he was consistently popular among the Bohemians and had a devoted following in Prague. A piece appearing in the Prager Neue Zeitung shortly after Mozart's death expresses this sentiment: "Mozart seems to have written for the people of Bohemia, his music is understood nowhere better than in Prague, and even in the countryside it is widely loved." The Prague Symphony was written in gratitude for their high esteem.
Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major, K. 543 - 1788
The Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 543, was completed on 26 June 1788.

Composition and premiere

The Symphony No. 39 is the first of a set of three (his last symphonies) that Mozart composed in rapid succession during the summer of 1788. No. 40 was completed 25 July and No. 41 on 10 August. Around the same time, Mozart was writing his piano trios in E and C major, his sonate facile, and a violin sonatina. Mozart biographer Alfred Einstein has suggested that Mozart took Michael Haydn's Symphony No. 26, in the same key, as a model.

It seems to be impossible to determine the date of the premiere of the 39th Symphony on the basis of currently available evidence; in fact, it cannot be established whether the symphony was ever performed in the composer's lifetime. According to Deutsch (1965), around the time Mozart wrote the work, he was preparing to hold a series of "Concerts in the Casino", in a new casino in the Spiegelgasse owned by Philipp Otto. Mozart even sent a pair of tickets for this series to his friend Michael von Puchberg. But it seems impossible to determine whether the concert series was held, or was cancelled for lack of interest. In addition, in the period up to the end of his life, Mozart participated in various other concerts whose program included an unidentified symphony; these also could have been the occasion of the premiere of the 39th.

In modern times, the work is part of the core symphonic repertoire and is frequently performed and recorded.

Instrumentation and movements
The symphony is scored for flute, pairs of clarinets, bassoons, horns and trumpets, timpani and strings.

There are four movements:

1. Adagio, cut time – Allegro, 3/4
2. Andante con moto in A-flat major, 2/4
3. Menuetto: Trio, 3/4
4. Allegro, 2/4

The first movement opens with a majestic introduction with fanfares heard in the brass section. This is followed by an Allegro in sonata form, though while several features – the loud outburst following the soft opening, for instance – connect it with the galant school that influences the earliest of his symphonies. The independence of the winds and greater interplay of the parts in general, and the fact that the second theme group in those earlier symphonies was (to paraphrase Alfred Einstein) practically always completely trivial, which is not the case here, combine with the second group which contains several themes, including a particularly felicitous "walking theme". These are just a very few of the points that distinguish this movement from those works, from which it has more differences than similarities.

The slow movement, in abridged sonata form, i.e. no development section, starts quietly in the strings and expands into the rest of the orchestra. Quiet main material and energetic, somewhat agitated transitions characterize this movement.

The work has a very interesting minuet and trio. The trio is an Austrian folk dance called a "ländler" and features a clarinet solo. The forceful Menuetto is set off by the trio's unusual tint of the second clarinet playing arpeggios in its low (chalumeau) register. The melody for this particular folk dance derived from local drinking songs which were popular in Vienna during the late 18th century.

The finale is another sonata form whose main theme, like that of the later string quintet in D, is mostly a scale, here ascending and descending. The development section is dramatic; there is no coda, but both the exposition, and the development through the end of the recapitulation, are requested to be, and often are, repeated.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

W. A. Mozart - Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major - Harnoncourt
W. A. Mozart - Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major, K. 543 (1788):
1. Adagio, cut time -- Allegro
2. Andante con moto
3. Menuetto: Trio
4. Allegro

The Chamber Orchestra of Europe
Conductor - Nicolaus Harnoncourt
Grosser Musikvereinsaal Wien

Mozart - Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550 - 1788
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 40 in G minor, KV. 550, in 1788. It is sometimes referred to as the "Great G minor symphony," to distinguish it from the "Little G minor symphony," No. 25. The two are the only minor key symphonies Mozart wrote. The 40th Symphony was completed on 25 July 1788. The composition occupied an exceptionally productive period of just a few weeks in 1788, during which time he also completed the 39th and 41st symphonies (26 June and 10 August, respectively). The symphony is scored (in its revised version) for flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, and strings. Notably missing are trumpets and timpani.

The work is in four movements, in the usual arrangement (fast movement, slow movement, minuet, fast movement) for a classical-style symphony:
1. Molto allegro, 2/2
2. Andante, 6/8
3. Menuetto. Allegretto -- Trio, 3/4
4. Finale. Allegro assai, 2/2.
Every movement but the third is in sonata form; the minuet and trio are in the usual ternary form. This work has elicited varying interpretations from critics. Robert Schumann regarded it as possessing "Grecian lightness and grace". Donald Francis Tovey saw in it the character of opera buffa. Almost certainly, however, the most common perception today is that the symphony is tragic in tone and intensely emotional; for example, Charles Rosen (in The Classical Style) has called the symphony "a work of passion, violence, and grief."
Although interpretations differ, the symphony is unquestionably one of Mozart's most greatly admired works, and it is frequently performed and recorded. Ludwig van Beethoven knew the symphony well, copying out 29 measures from the score in one of his sketchbooks. It is thought that the opening theme of the last movement may have inspired Beethoven in composing the third movement of his Fifth Symphony.
Symphony No. 41 "Jupiter" in C major - 1788
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed his Symphony No. 41 in C major, K. 551, on 10 August 1788. It was the last symphony that he composed, and also the longest.

The work is nicknamed the Jupiter Symphony. This name stems not from Mozart but rather was likely coined by the impresario Johann Peter Salomon in an early arrangement for piano.


The symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns in C, two trumpets in C, timpani in C and G, and strings.

Composition and premiere
The 41st Symphony is the last of a set of three that Mozart composed in rapid succession during the summer of 1788. The 39th was completed on 26 June and the 40th on 25 July. Around the same time, Mozart was writing his piano trios in E and C major, his Sonata facile, and a violin sonatina.

It is not known whether the 41st Symphony was ever performed in the composer's lifetime. According to Otto Erich Deutsch, around this time Mozart was preparing to hold a series of "Concerts in the Casino" in a new casino in the Spiegelgasse owned by Philipp Otto. Mozart even sent a pair of tickets for this series to his friend Michael Puchberg. But it seems impossible to determine whether the concert series was held, or was cancelled for lack of interest.


The four movements are arranged in the traditional symphonic form of the Classical era:

1. Allegro vivace, 4/4
2. Andante cantabile, 3/4 in F major
3. Menuetto: Allegretto - Trio, 3/4
4. Molto allegro, 2/2

The sonata form first movement's main theme begins with contrasting motifs: a threefold tutti outburst on the fundamental tone (respectively, by an ascending motion leading in a triplet from the dominant tone underneath to the fundamental one), followed by a more lyrical response.

This exchange is heard twice and then followed by an extended series of fanfares. What follows is a transitional passage where the two contrasting motifs are expanded and developed. From there, the second theme group begins with a lyrical section in G major which ends suspended on a seventh chord and is followed by a stormy section in C minor. Following a full stop, the expositional coda begins which quotes Mozart's insertion aria "Un bacio di mano", K. 541 and then ends the exposition on a series of fanfares. The development begins with a modulation from G major to E flat major where the insertion-aria theme is then repeated and extensively developed. A false recapitulation then occurs where the movement's opening theme returns, but softly and in F major. The first theme group's final flourishes then are extensively developed against a chromatically falling bass followed by a restatement of the end of the insertion aria then leading to C major for the recapitulation. With the exception of the usual key transpositions and some expansion of the minor key sections, the recapitulation proceeds in a regular fashion.

The second movement, also in sonata form, is a sarabande of the French type in F major similar to those found in the keyboard suites of Johann Sebastian Bach.

The third movement is a Landler, a popular Austrian folk dance form. Midway through the movement there is the very bizarre progression in which sparse harmonic textures are presented by the woodwinds before the orchestra explodes into full brooded colour.

spa Finally, a remarkable characteristic of this symphony is the five-voice fugato (representing the five major themes) at the end of the fourth movement. But there are fugal sections throughout the movement either by developing one specific theme or by combining two or more themes together, as seen in the interplay between the woodwinds. The main theme consists of four notes:

Four additional themes are heard in the "Jupiter's" finale, which is in sonata form, and all five motifs are combined in the fugal coda.


In an article about the Jupiter Symphony, Sir George Grove wrote that "it is for the finale that Mozart has reserved all the resources of his science, and all the power, which no one seems to have possessed to the same degree with himself, of concealing that science, and making it the vehicle for music as pleasing as it is learned. Nowhere has he achieved more." Of the piece as a whole, he wrote that "It is the greatest orchestral work of the world which preceded the French Revolution."

The four-note theme is a common plainchant motif which can be traced back at least as far as Josquin des Prez's Missa Pange lingua from the sixteenth century. It was very popular with Mozart. It makes a brief appearance as early as his first symphony in 1764. Later, he used it in the Credo of an early Missa Brevis in F major, the first movement of his 33rd symphony and trio of the minuet of this symphony.

Scholars are certain Mozart studied Michael Haydn's Symphony No. 28 in C major, which also has a fugato in its finale. Charles Sherman speculates that Mozart also studied the younger Haydn's Symphony No. 39 in C major because he "often requested his father Leopold to send him the latest fugue that Haydn had written." The Michael Haydn No. 39, written only a few weeks before Mozart's, also has a fugato in the finale, the theme of which begins with two whole notes. Sherman has pointed out other similarities between the two almost perfectly contemporaneous works. The four-note motif is also the main theme of the contrapuntal finale of Michael's elder brother Joseph's Symphony No. 13 in D major (1764).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

W. A. Mozart - Symphony No. 41 "Jupiter" in C major (Harnoncourt)
W. A. Mozart - Symphony No. 41 "Jupiter" in C major, K. 551 (1788):
1. Allegro vivace, 4/4
2. Andante cantabile, 3/4 in F major
3. Menuetto: Allegretto - Trio, 3/4
4. Molto allegro, 2/2

The Chamber Orchestra of Europe
Conductor - Nicolaus Harnoncourt
Grosser Musikvereinsaal Wien

Piano concertos
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote 27 concertos for piano and orchestra. These works, many of which Mozart composed for himself to play in the Vienna concert series of 1784–86, held a special place for him; indeed, Mozart's father apparently interrupted him composing a "harpsichord concerto" at age 4. For a long time relatively neglected, they have come to be seen as containing some of his greatest achievements. Tovey championed them in his Essay on the Classical Concerto in 1903, and later came the famous books by Cuthbert Girdlestone and Arthur Hutchings in 1940 (originally published in French) and 1948, respectively. Hans Tischler published a structural and thematic analysis of the concertos in 1966, followed by the works by Charles Rosen, and Leeson and Robert Levin.[1] In recent years, two of the concertos have also been covered in the Cambridge Music Handbook series. The first complete edition was not until that of Richault from around 1850; and since then the scores and autographs have become widely available through the publications of, among others, Norton, Eulenberg and Dover.
Piano concertos


Early keyboard concertos were written by, among others, C. P. E. Bach, J. C. Bach, Soler, Wagenseil, Schobert, Vanhall and Haydn. Earlier still, in the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto by J. S. Bach, the keyboard part is elevated to the most prominent position among the instruments. These works, with their alternation of orchestral tuttis and passages for solo display, in turn owe their structure from the tradition of Baroque operatic arias, from which the first movements of Mozart's piano concertos inherited their basic ritornellic structure. A similar structure can also be seen in the violin concerti of, for example, Vivaldi, who established the form, along with the three-movement concerto structure, and Viotti, wherein the concerto is divided into six sections. The keyboard parts of the concertos were almost invariably based on material presented in the ritornelli, and it was probably J. C. Bach, whom Mozart admired, who introduced the structural innovation of allowing the keyboard to introduce new thematic material in its first entry.

Early Mozart concertos
Concertos Nos 1–4 (KV. 37, 39, 40 and 41) are orchestral and keyboard arrangements of sonata movements by other composers. The next three concertos (KV. 107/1, 2 and 3), which are not numbered, are arrangements of piano sonatas by J. C. Bach (Op 5. No. 2 in D major; Opus 5. No. 3 in G Major and Opus 5. No. 4 in E flat major, all composed by 1766). Based on handwriting analysis of the autographs they are believed to date from 1771–72. Concerto No. 5 (1773) KV. 175 was his first real effort in the genre, and one that proved popular at the time. Concerto No. 6, KV. 238 in B flat Major from 1776 is the first Mozart concerto proper to introduce new thematic material in the piano's first solo section. Concerto No. 7 for three pianos (KV. 242) and Concerto No. 8 (KV. 246) also date from 1776 and are generally not regarded as demonstrating much of an advance, although No. 7 is quite well known.

Nine months after No. 8, however, Mozart produced one of his early masterpieces, the "Jenamy" (formerly "Jeunehomme") concerto, No. 9, KV. 271. This work shows a decisive advance in organisation of the first movement, as well as demonstrating some irregular features, such as the dramatic interruption of the orchestral opening by the piano after only one and a half bars. The final concerto Mozart wrote before the end of his Salzburg period was the well-known concerto No. 10 for two pianos, KV. 365: the presence of the second piano disturbs the "normal" structure of piano-orchestra interaction.

Finally, a fragment of a concerto for piano and violin, KV. A056/315f exists that Mozart started in Mannheim in November 1778 for himself (piano) and Ignaz Fränzl (violin). The project was abandoned when the Elector, Charles Theodore moved the court and orchestra to Munich after succeeding to the Electorate of Bavaria in 1777, and Fränzl stayed behind.

Early Vienna concertos
About 18 months after he arrived in Vienna, in the Autumn of 1782, Mozart wrote a series of three concertos for his own use in subscription concerts. He did, however, write, in the spring of that year, a replacement rondo finale in D major, KV. 382 for No. 5, a work that proved very popular (on October 19, 1782 he completed another rondo, in A major, KV. 386, possibly intended as an alternative ending for KV. 414, No. 12). This group of three concertos was described by Mozart to his father in a famous letter:

These concertos [Nos. 11, 12, and 13] are a happy medium between what is too easy and too difficult; they are very brilliant, pleasing to the ear, and natural, without being vapid. There are passages here and there from which the connoisseurs alone can derive satisfaction; but these passages are written in such a way that the less learned cannot fail to be pleased, though without knowing why. . . . The golden mean of truth in all things is no longer either known or appreciated. In order to win applause one must write stuff which is so inane that a coachman could sing it, or so unintelligible that it pleases precisely because no sensible man can understand it.[3]

This passage points to an important principle about Mozart's concertos, that they were designed in the main to entertain the public rather than solely to satisfy some inner artistic urge.

These three concertos are all rather different from one another, and are relatively intimate works, despite the mock grandeur of the last one: indeed, arrangements exist for them for piano plus string quartet that lose little. No. 12, KV. 414 in A major, the second of the series, is particularly fine: it is often described as "Tyrolean"[citation needed], and stands some comparison with the later A major concerto, KV. 488. The last of these three, No. 13, KV. 415, is an ambitious, perhaps even overambitious work, that introduces the first, military theme in a canon in an impressive orchestral opening: many consider the last movement the best.[citation needed] Like KV 414, it is paralleled by a later concerto in the same key, No. 21, KV 467.

Major Vienna works

The next concerto, KV. 449 in E-flat major, ushers in a period of creativity that has certainly never been surpassed in piano concerto production. From February 1784 to March 1786, Mozart wrote no fewer than 11 masterpieces, with another (No. 25, KV. 503) to follow in December of 1786. The advance in technique and structure from the early Vienna examples is marked from the very first of this mature series. Written for his pupil Barbara Ployer to play, it (KV. 449) is the first instrumental work by Mozart that shows the strong influence of his operatic writing. KV. 450, the next, shows a reversion to an earlier, galant style. KV. 451 is a not very well known work (Hutchings appears not to have liked it particularly, although Girdlestone ranks it highly). The first movement is broadly "symphonic" in structure and marks a further advance in the interactions between piano and orchestra. Remarkably, Mozart records that he completed it only one week after the previous KV. 450.

The next three concertos, KV. 453, 456 and 459, can be considered to form a group, as they all share certain features, such as the same rhythm in the opening (heard also in KV. 415 and KV. 451). KV. 453 was written for Barbara Ployer, and is famous in particular for its last movement, although it is altogether a great work. The next concerto in B flat, KV. 456 was, for a long time, believed written for the blind pianist Maria Theresa von Paradis to play in Paris.[4] It is a short work, with a fine slow movement. Finally, KV. 459, no. 19, is sunny with an exhilarating finale.

1785 is marked by the contrasting pair KV. 466 (no. 20 in D minor) and KV. 467 (no. 21 in C major), again, remarkably, written within the same month. These two works, one, the first minor-key concerto Mozart wrote (both KV. 271 and 456 have a minor-key second movement) a dark and stormy work, and the other sunny, are among the most popular works Mozart produced. The final concerto of the year, KV. 482 (no. 22 in E-flat), is slightly less popular, possibly because it lacks the striking themes of the first two. Mozart did not write cadenzas for these concertos.

Mozart managed to write two more masterpieces in one month, March: The first was No. 23 in A major KV. 488, one of the most consistently popular of his concertos, notable particularly for its poignant slow movement in F-sharp minor, the only work he wrote in the key. He followed it with No. 24, KV. 491, which Hutchings regards as his finest effort. It is a dark and passionate work, made more striking by its classical restraint, and the final movement, a set of variations, is commonly called "sublime." The final work of the year, No. 25, KV. 503, is one of the most expansive of all classical concertos, rivaling no. 5 of Beethoven.

Later concertos
KV. 503 was the last of the regular series of concertos Mozart wrote for his subscription concerts. The next work, KV. 537, the "Coronation", completed in February 1788, has a mixed reputation and possibly is the revision of a smaller chamber concerto into a larger structure. Despite its structural problems, it remains popular. Two fragments of piano concertos, KV. 537a and KV. 537b, in D major and D minor respectively, were also probably begun in this month, although perhaps earlier. Finally, the last concerto, no. 27 (KV. 595) was the first work from the last year of Mozart's life: it represents a return to form for Mozart in the genre. Its texture is sparse, intimate and even elegiac.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Piano concertos
Piano Concerto No.9 K 271
1 I Allegro 0:02
2 II Andantino 10:04
3 III Rondo 21:12

Piano Concerto No.17 K 453
4 I Allegro 32:48
5 II Andante 44:42
6 III Allegretto 54:49

Piano Concerto No.20 K 466
7 I Allegro 1:02:50
8 II Romance 1:16:40
9 III Rondo 1:27:28

Piano Concerto No. 21 K 467
10 I Allegro maestoso 1:34:51
11 II Andante 1:49:20
12 III Allegro vivace 1:56:58

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 1 in F major, KV 37
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 1 in F major, KV 37
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 2 in B flat major, KV 39
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 2 in B flat major, KV 39
I. Allegro spiritoso
II. Andante staccato
III. Molto allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 3 in D major, KV 40
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 3 in D major, KV 40
I. Allegro maestoso
II. Andante
III. Presto
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major, KV 41
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major, KV 41
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Molto allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 5 in D major, KV 175

Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 5 in D major, KV 175
I. Allegro
II. Andante ma un poco adagio
III. Allegro

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 6 in B flat major, KV 238
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 6 in B flat major, KV 238
I. Allegro aperto
II. Andante un poco adagio
III. Rondeau, allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 8 in C major, KV 246
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 8 in C major, KV 246
I. Allegro aperto
II. Andante
III. Tempo di menuetto
Mitsuko Uchida - W.A. Mozart - Piano Concerto No.9 in E flat Major K. 271 "Jeunehomme"
Piano Concerto No.9 in E flat Major K. 271
Mitsuko Uchida - Piano
Jeffrey Tate - Conductor

Dame Mitsuko Uchida DBE (内田光子), born December 20, 1948, is a Japanese naturalized-British classical pianist generally regarded as one of the finest of her era. She has appeared with most of the world's foremost orchestras, recorded a wide repertory with major labels, won numerous awards and honors (including Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2009), and serves as co-director of the Marlboro Music School and Festival. In recent years, she has also conducted major orchestras.

Born in Atami, a seaside town close to Tokyo, Japan, Uchida moved to Vienna, Austria, with her diplomat parents when she was 12 years old, after her father was named the Japanese ambassador to Austria. She enrolled at the Vienna Academy of Music to study with Richard Hauser, and later Wilhelm Kempff and Stefan Askenase, and remained in Vienna to study when her father was transferred back to Japan after five years. She gave her first Viennese recital at the age of 14 at the Vienna Musikverein. She also studied with Maria Curcio, the last and favourite pupil of Artur Schnabel.

In 1969 she won the first prize in the Beethoven Competition in Vienna and in 1970 the second prize in the International Chopin Piano Competition. In 1975, she won second prize in the Leeds Piano Competition.

In 1998 Uchida was the Music Director of the Ojai Music Festival in conjunction with conductor and violinist, David Zinman.

She is an acclaimed interpreter of the works of Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Debussy and Schoenberg. She has recorded all of Mozart's piano sonatas (a project that won the Gramophone Award), and concerti, the latter with the English Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Jeffrey Tate. Her recording of the Schoenberg Piano Concerto with Pierre Boulez won another Gramophone Award. She is further noted for her recordings of Beethoven's complete piano concerti with Kurt Sanderling conducting, Beethoven's late piano sonatas, and a Schubert piano cycle. She is distinguished as an interpreter of the works of the Second Viennese School. Her 2009 recording of the Mozart Piano Concertos nos. 23 and 24, in which she conducted the Cleveland Orchestra as well as playing the solo part, won the Grammy Award.

From 2002 to 2007 she served as artist-in-residence for the Cleveland Orchestra, where she led performances of all of Mozart's solo piano concertos. She has also conducted the English Chamber Orchestra, among others, from the keyboard. In 2010, she was artist-in-residence for the Berlin Philharmonic. She is one two Artistic Directors of the Marlboro Music School and Festival, along with fellow pianist Richard Goode. She is also a trustee of the Borletti-Buitoni Trust, an organization established to help young artists develop and sustain international careers.[5] In May 2012, the Royal Philharmonic Society announced that she would be honored with their Gold Medal (she received the society's annual Music Award in 2003); previous recipients have included Johannes Brahms (1877), Frederick Delius and Sir Edward Elgar (1925), Richard Strauss (1936), Igor Stravinsky (1954), Benjamin Britten and Leonard Bernstein (1987).

Uchida currently resides in London. Her long-standing partner, Sir Robert Cooper, currently works for the European Union in Brussels

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 12 in A major, KV 414
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 12 in A major, KV 414
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Rondeau, allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 13 in C major, KV 415
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 13 in C major, KV 415
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Allegro
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 14 in E flat major, KV 449
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 14 in E flat major, KV 449
I. Allegro vivace
II. Andantino
III. Allegro ma non troppo
Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 15 in B flat, K. 450
The Piano Concerto No. 15 in B flat Major, KV. 450 is a concertante work for piano, or pianoforte, and orchestra by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart composed the concerto for performance at a series of concerts at the Vienna venues of the Trattnerhof and the Burgtheater in the first quarter of 1784, where he was himself the soloist in March 1784. In a letter to his father, Mozart compared this concerto with the 16th concerto in D:
"I consider them both to be concertos which make one sweat; but the B flat one beats the one in D for difficulty." Indeed, many pianists consider this to be the most difficult of all of Mozart's piano concertos. The concerto is primarily difficult from its many quick scale patterns which must be played perfectly and also from its many fast chord patterns moving up and down. Beginning with this concerto, Mozart began to use the term "grand" to describe his concerti such as K.450 which feature a prominent and required wind section for the ensemble. The work is orchestrated for solo piano, flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, and strings. The concerto is in three movements:
1. Allegro
2. Andante in E-flat major
3. Allegro
Diana McVeigh has commented on the division of musical themes in the concerto's first movement, in the context of the relationship between soloist and orchestra. The finale follows the even rondo form. Simon Keefe has noted contemporary comments from Mozart's era on how the woodwind writing in this concerto showed a "newly intricate and sophisticated" character compared to Mozart's prior keyboard concerti. Keefe has also analysed the character of the dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra in the concerto's first movement. Elaine Sisman has postulated that Mozart modeled the slow movement on a theme-and-variations movement from the Symphony No. 75 of Joseph Haydn.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 16 in D major, KV 451
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 16 in D major, KV 451
I. Allegro assai
II. Andante
III. Rondo, allegro di molto
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major, KV 453
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major, KV 453
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Allegretto, presto
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 18 in B flat major, KV 456
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 18 in B flat major, KV 456
I. Allegro vivace
II. Andante un poco sostenuto
III. Allegro vivace
Mozart - Concierto para piano Nº 19, K459. Radu Lupu, piano
Concierto para piano Nº 19 en Fa mayor K459.
(11 de diciembre de 1784)
1. Allegro
2. Allegretto en do mayor.
3. Allegro assai
Radu Lupu, piano
Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie
David Zinman, director
Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466
The Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1785. The first performance took place at the Mehlgrube Casino in Vienna on February 11, 1785, with the composer as the soloist. A few days after the first performance, the composer's father, Leopold, visiting in Vienna, wrote to his daughter Nannerl about her brother's recent success: "[I heard] an excellent new piano concerto by Wolfgang, on which the copyist was still at work when we got there, and your brother didn't even have time to play through the rondo because he had to oversee the copying operation." It is written in the key of D minor. Other works by the composer in that key include the Fantasia K. 397 for piano, Requiem, a Kyrie, and parts of the dark opera Don Giovanni. It is the first of two concertos written in a minor key (No. 24 being the other).
The young Ludwig van Beethoven admired this concerto and kept it in his repertoire. Famed conductor Daniel Barenboim contends that this concerto was Joseph Stalin's favorite piece of music. Cadenzas for this popular concerto written by famous composers include Beethoven (WoO 58), Johannes Brahms (WoO 16), Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Feruccio Busoni and Clara Schumann. The concerto is scored for solo piano, flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. As is typical with concertos, it is in three movements:
1. Allegro
2. Romanze
3. Allegro assai
The first movement starts off the concerto in the dark tonic key of D minor with the strings restlessly but quietly building up to a full forte. The theme is quickly taken up by the piano soloist and developed throughout the long movement. A slightly brighter mood exists in the second theme, but it never becomes jubilant. The timpani further heightens the tension in the coda before the cadenza. The movement ends on a quiet note. The 'Romanze' second movement is a five-part rondo (ABACA) with a coda that begins brightly with a strong B-flat major melody. The second episode (part C) is galloping section in the relative minor key of G minor which greatly contrasts the peaceful mood of the rest of the movement. The final movement, a rondo, begins with the solo piano rippling upward in the home key before the full orchestra replies with a furious section. (This piano "rippling" is known as the Mannheim Rocket and is a string of eighth notes (d-f-a-d-f) followed by a quarter note (a). A second melody is touched upon by the piano where the mood is still dark but strangely restless. A contrasting cheerful melody in F major ushers in not soon after, introduced by the orchestra before the solo piano rounds off the lively theme. A series of sharp piano chords snaps the bright melody and then begin passages in D minor on solo piano again, taken up by full orchestra. Several modulations of the second theme (in A minor and G minor) follow. Thereafter follows the same format as above, with a momentary pause for introducing the customary cadenza. After the cadenza, the mood clears considerably and the bright happy melody is taken up this time by the winds. The solo piano repeats the theme before a full orchestral passage develops the passage and thereby rounding up the concerto with a jubilant D major finish.
Mozart - Piano Concerto No.21 In C, K 467 - Derek Han; Paul Freeman; Philharmonia Orchestra
Uploaded on Feb 23, 2012
00:00 - Allegro Maestoso
14:39 - Andante
21:27 - Allegro Vivace Assai

Piano: Derek Han
Conductor: Paul Freeman
Philharmonia Orchestra

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 22 in E flat major, K. 482 3rd Movement
The Piano Concerto No. 22 in E flat major, K. 482, is a concertante work for piano, or pianoforte, and orchestra by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart composed the concerto in December of 1785.
This is the first piano concerto of Mozart's to include clarinets in its scoring. It has the following three movements:
1. Allegro
2. Andante
3. Allegro
Roger Kamien and Naphtali Wagner have analysed in detail Mozart's use of bridge themes in the exposition of the concerto's first movement. Simon Keefe has analysed the character of the dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra in the concerto's first movement. The slow second movement in C minor recalls similar slow C minor movements in other Mozart E-flat major concertos such as K.271 and K.364. Mozart's father, in a famous letter to Maria ("Nannerl"), expressed surprise that a call was made for the slow movement ("a rather unusual occurrence!") to be repeated. In the rondo finale, the main theme resembles that of Mozart's third horn concerto (K.447). Adena Portowitz has noted similar features between the finale of the K.271 and K.482 concerti. In another similarity to K.271, the finale is interrupted by a lengthy and slow minuet episode before returning to the main theme for a lively finish (also recalling Count Almaviva's adagio pleadings for forgiveness leading to a buffa conclusion in Le Nozze di Figaro- a work that Mozart was working on at this time).The treatment is different here (variations in the ninth, an episode only, here). M. S. Cole has noted that the concerto's finale marks Mozart's last use of potpourri in his compositions.
Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 23 in A, K. 488
The Piano Concerto No. 23 in A major (K. 488) is a musical composition for piano and orchestra written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. It was finished, according to Mozart's own catalogue, on March 2, 1786, around the time of the premiere of his opera, The Marriage of Figaro. It was one of three subscription concerts given that spring and was probably played by Mozart himself at one of these. The concerto is scored for piano solo and an orchestra consisting of one flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns and strings. In Mozart's later works the wind instruments are equal to the stringed instruments, and this is also the case in this concerto. It has three movements:
1. Allegro in A major and common time.
2. Adagio in F-sharp minor and 6/8 time (in later editions, the tempo is listed as Andante).
3. Allegro assai in A and alla breve (in later editions, the tempo is listed as Presto). In Rondo form.
The first movement is mostly sunny and positive with the occasional melancholic touches typical of Mozart pieces in A major and is in sonata form. The piece begins with a double exposition, the first played by the orchestra, and the second when the piano joins in. The first exposition is static from a tonal point of view and is quite concise, the third theme is not yet revealed. The second exposition includes the soloist and is modulatory. It is also includes the third previously unheard third theme. The second exposition is ornamented as opposed to the first exposition which is not. The second theme has harmonic tension. This is expressed by dissonances that are played on the beat, and then solved by an interval of a second going downwards. This is also expressed in the use of chromatics in the melody and bass lines which is a cause for harmonic tension, as the listeners anticipate the arrival of the tonic.
The second, slow movement, in ternary form, is melancholic and somewhat operatic in tone. The piano begins alone with a theme characterized by unusually wide leaps. This is the only movement by Mozart in F sharp minor. The dynamics are soft throughout most of the piece. The middle of the movement contains a brighter section in A major announced by flute and clarinet that Mozart would later use to introduce the trio "Ah! taci ingiusto core!" in his opera Don Giovanni. The third movement is a vigorous and cheerful rondo, shaded by moves into other keys as is the opening movement (to C major from E minor and back during the secondary theme in this case, for instance) and with a central section whose opening in F sharp minor is interrupted by a clarinet tune in D major, an intrusion that reminds us, notes Girdlestone, that instrumental music at the time was informed by opera buffa and its sudden changes of point of view as well as of scene.
Mozart, Concierto para piano Nº 24, K491. André Previn, piano
Concierto para piano Nº 24 en do menor, K491
(24 de marzo de 1786)
1. Allegro, en do menor.
2. Larghetto, en Mi bemol mayor.
3. Allegretto con variazioni, en do menor.
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
André Previn, piano y director
Mozart | Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major, "Coronation"
Published on Dec 26, 2013
Español: Concierto para Piano nº26 en Re mayor, K 537,
1st Movement (Allegro)
2nd Movement (Larghetto)
3rd Movement (Allegretto)
Work: Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major, K 537, "Coronation"
Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Orchestra: Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie
Conductor: Gerd Albrecht
Soloist: Homero Francesh
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 27 in B flat major, KV 595
Derek Han, piano. Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Freeman.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Concerto No. 27 in B flat major, KV 595
I. Allegro
II. Larghetto
III. Rondo, allegro
Mozart - Piano Sonatas (COMPLETE) - Classical Music (Música Clásica) HD
1. Sonata in C, K279
2. Sonata in F, K280
3. Sonata in B flat, K281
4. Sonata in E flat, K282
5. Sonata in G, K283
6. Sonata in D, K284 "Durnitz"
7. Sonata in C, K309
8. Sonata in A minor, K310
9. Sonata in D, K311
10. Sonata in C, K330
11. Sonata in A, K331
12. Sonata in F, K332
13. Sonata in B flat, K333
14. Fantasia in C minor, K475
15. Sonata in C minor, K457
16. Sonata in C, K545 "fur Anfanger"
17. Sonata in B flat, K570
18. Sonata in D, K576
19. Sonata in F, K533 & 494
Mozart - Violin Sonatas (COMPLETE / PART I) - Classical Music (Música Clásica) HD
1. Sonata in F "for beginners", K547
2. Andante & Allegretto in C, K404
3. Andante in A & Fugue in A minor, K402
4. Sonata in C, K403
5. Adagio in C minor, K396
6. Allegro in B flat, K372
7. 12 Variations in G, K359 on "La Bergère Célimère"
8. Sonata in C,46d
9. Sonata in F, K46e
10. Sonata in C, K6
11. Sonata in D, K7
12. Sonata in B flat, K8
13. Sonata in G, K9
14. Sonata in B flat, K10
15. Sonata in G, Ku
16. Sonata in A, K12
17. Sonata in F, K13
18. Sonata in C, K14
19, Sonata in B flat, K15
20. Sonata in E flat, K26
21. Sonata in G, K27
22. Sonata in C, K28
23. Sonata in D, K29
24. Sonata in F, K30
25. Sonata in B flat, K31
26. Sonata in C, K296
27. Sonata in G, K301
28. Sonata in E flat, K302
29. Sonata in C, K303
30. Sonata in E minor, K304
Mozart - Violin Sonatas (COMPLETE / PART II) - Classical Music (Música Clásica) HD
1. Sonata in A, K305
2. Sonata in D, K306
3. Six Variations in G minor, K360
4. Sonata in F, K376
5. Sonata in F, K377
6. Sonata in B flat, K378
7. Sonata in G, K379
8. Sonata in E flat, K380
9. Sonata in B flat, K454
10. Sonata in E flat, K 481
11. Sonata in A, K526
Violin Concertos (COMPLETE) - Mozart - HD Classical Music for studying (Música Clásica)
1. Violin Concerto in B flat, K207
2. Violin Concerto in D, K211
3. Violin Concerto in G, K216
4. Adagio for Violin & Orchestra in E, K261
5. Violin Concerto in D, K218
6. Violin Concerto in A, K219
7. Rondo for Violin & Orchestra in B flat, K269/261a
8. Rondo for Violin & Orchestra in C, K373
9. Violin Concerto in D, K271a/271i
10. Concertone for 2 Violins & Orchestra in C, K190/186E
11. Sinfonia concertante in E flat, K364/320d
12. Concerto for Violin, Piano & Orchestra in D, K App.56/K315f
13. Sinfonia concertante in A, K App.104/320e
Mozart - Wind Concertos (COMPLETE) - HD Classical Music (Flute Music)
1. Concerto for Flute, Harp & Orchestra in C, K299/297c (0:00)
2. Flute Concerto in G, K313/285c
3. Andante for Flute & Orchestra in C, K315/285e
4. Clarinet Concerto in A, K622 (57:49)
5. Bassoon Concerto in B flat, K191
6. Horn Concerto in D, K386b (K412 & K514) (1:43:31)
7. Horn Concerto in E flat, K417
8. Horn Concerto in E flat, K447
9. Horn Concerto in E flat, K495
10. Rondo for Horn & Orchestra in E flat, K371
11. Sinfonia Concertante in E flat, KApp.9/297B (2:44:16)
12. Oboe Concerto in C, K(314)/271k
13. Flute Concerto in D, K314/285d (3:32:42)
14. Sinfonia concertante in E flat, KApp.C14.01/K297b
Mozart - Quintets, Quartets & Trios with Piano - HD Classical Music (Piano Music)
1. Quintet in E flat, K452 for piano, oboe, clarinet, horn & bassoon
2. Trio in E flat, K498 for piano, clarinet & viola "Kegelstatt"
3. Adagio in C minor & Rondo in C, K617 for glass harmonica, flute, oboe, viola & cello.
4. Adagio in C, K617a for glass harmonica
5. Piano Quartet in G minor, K478 (1:06:02)
6. Piano Quartet in E flat, K493
7. Piano Trio (Divertimento) in B flat, K254 (2:07:10)
8. Piano Trio in G, K496
9. Piano Trio in B flat, K502 (2:55:09)
10. Piano Trio in E, K542
11. Piano Trio in C, K548 (3:37:57)
12. Piano Trio in G, K564
13. Piano Trio in D minor, K442
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