Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Incompletely enlarged portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange
Mozart: Arias for soprano and orchestra - Les Arts Florissants
Mozart: Arias for soprano and orchestra

Quando avran fine omai / Padre, germani, addio! - KV 366
Vorrei spiegarvi, o Dio! - KV 418
Ah se in ciel, benigne stelle - KV 538
Giuse al fin - KV 492
Ridente la calma - KV 152

Laura Claycomb: soprano

Les Arts Florissants
Conducted by Jonathan Cohen

Cecilia Bartoli - Mozart Arias - Harnoncourt
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

1 Voi avete un cor fedele, K 217
2 Vado, ma dove?, K 583
3 Bella mia fiamma...Resta, o cara, K 528
4 Giunse alfin il momento..., K 492
5 Al desio di chi ch'adora, K 577
6 Un moto di gioia, K 579

Cecilia Bartoli, mezzo-soprano

Concentus musicus Wien
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor

Live recording. Graz, July 2001

Bastien und Bastienne - 1768
Bastien und Bastienne (Bastien and Bastienne), K. 50 (revised in 1964 to K. 46b) is a one-act singspiel, a comic opera, by Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus .

Bastien und Bastienne was one of Mozart's earliest operas, written in 1768 when he was only twelve years old. It was allegedly commissioned by Viennese physician and 'magnetist' Dr. Franz Mesmer (who himself would later be parodied in Così fan tutte) as a satire of the 'pastoral' genre then prevalent, and specifically as a parody of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The German libretto is by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern, Johann Heinrich Müller and Johann Andreas Schachtner, based on "Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne" by Justine Favart and Harny de Guerville (fr). After its supposed premiere in Mesmer's garden theater (that is only corroborated by an unverified account of Nissen), it was not revived again until 1890. It is not clear whether this piece was performed in Mozart's lifetime. The first known performance was on 2 October 1890 at Architektenhaus in Berlin.

The opera is written in both French and German manners. Many of the melodies are French in manner, but the Bastienne's first aria is true German lied. This melody is also used in Mozart's Trio in G for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 564. Another purely German lied is Bastienne's aria "I feel certain of his heart". Mozart utilizes the orchestra sparingly, with the exception of the reconciliation scene.

Mozart's overture uses the same opening theme as Beethoven's Symphony No. 3, the Eroica. It is doubtful that Beethoven was familiar with this then unpublished piece. A likely explanation is that both composers took the theme from another unknown source.

Although he was very young, Mozart already had excellent vocal writing skills and a knack for parody and whimsy which would reach full flower in his later works. Bastien und Bastienne is possibly the easiest to perform of Mozart's juvenile works.

Bastienne, a shepherdess, fears that her "dearest friend", Bastien, has forsaken her for another pretty face, and decides to go into the pasture to be comforted by her flock of lambs.

Before she can leave, however, she runs into Colas, the village soothsayer. Bastienne requests the help of his magical powers to help win back her Bastien. Colas (being a soothsayer) knows all about the problem, and comforts her with the knowledge that Bastien has not abandoned her, rather, he's merely been distracted lately by 'the lady of the manor'. His advice is to act coldly towards Bastien, which will make him come running back.

Bastien is heard approaching, so Bastienne hides herself. Bastien swaggers in, proclaiming how much he loves Bastienne. Colas informs him that Bastienne has a new lover. Bastien is shocked and asks the magician for help.

Colas opens his book of spells and recites a nonsense aria filled with random syllables and Latin quotations. Colas declares the spell a success and that Bastienne is in love with Bastien once more. Bastienne, however, decides to keep up the game a bit longer and spurns Bastien with great vehemence. Bastien threatens suicide, which Bastienne merely shrugs off.

Finally, the two decide that they have gone far enough and agree to reconcile. Colas joins them as they all sing a final trio in praise of the magician.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
W. A. Mozart - KV 50 (46b) - Bastien und Bastienne
Bastien und Bastienne (all dialogues omitted):
- Intrada (0:00)
- Aria (Bastienne) Mein liebster Freund hat mich verlassen
- Aria (Bastienne) Ich geh' jetzt auf die Weide
- Aria (Colas) Befraget mich ein zartes Kind
- Aria (Bastienne) Wenn mein Bastien einst im Scherze
- Aria (Bastienne) Würd' ich auch, wie manche Buhlerinnen
- Duetto (Colas, Bastienne) Auf den Rat, den ich gegeben
- Aria (Bastien) Großen Dank dir abzustatten
- Aria (Bastien) Geh'! du sagst mir eine Fabel
- Aria (Colas) Diggi, daggi, shurry, murry
- Aria (Bastien) Meiner Liebsten schöne Wangen
- Aria (Bastienne) Er war mir sonst treu und ergeben
- Duetto (Bastien, Bastienne) Geh hin!
- Duetto (Bastienne, Bastien) Geh! Herz von Flandern!
- Trio (Colas, Bastien, Bastienne) Kinder! Kinder!

Composed in 1768.

Performers: Dongkyu Choy (Bastien), tenor; Eva Kirchner (Bastienne), soprano; Thomas Müller De Vries (Colas), bass; Alpe Adria Ensemble, conducted by René Clemencic.

Lucio Silla - 1772
Lucio Silla (pronounced /ˈluːtʃoʊ ˈsɪlɒ/, Italian pronunciation: [ˈluːtʃo ˈsiːlla]), K. 135, is an Italian opera in three acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto was written by Giovanni de Gamerra.

It was first performed on 26 December 1772 at the Teatro Regio Ducal in Milan and was regarded as "a moderate success".

Handel's opera Silla (1713) covered the same subject. Other operas with the same title were also composed by Pasquale Anfossi (1774), and Johann Christian Bach (1776).

Performance history

The opera was given its first performance in the UK on 7 March 1967 at Camden Town Hall in London. Its US premiere followed in 1969 with a performance in Baltimore on 19 January. Lucio Silla is not often performed today, although it was given by the Santa Fe Opera in 2005  and in Warsaw in June 2011. It was performed by the Classical Opera Company in London on 8 March 2012, conducted by Ian Page. It is set to be performed in Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona on June 21-28, and July 1-7 2013. In 2013 it was also performed at the Mozartwoche Salzburg in January and the Salzburg Festival in summer.

The story concerns the Roman dictator Lucio Silla (Lucius Sulla) who lusts after Giunia, the daughter of his enemy Caius Marius. Giunia, on the other hand, loves the exiled senator Cecilio.

Act 1
Sc 1 A secluded spot on the banks of the Tiber; the exiled Senator Cecilio meets his friend Cinna who tells him his betrothed Giunia mourns his death, a lie by the dictator Silla so that he can win her for himself. Cinna advises Cecilio to meet Giunia by the tomb of her father (murdered hero Gaius Marius). Cecilio is filled with joy at the idea and Cinna shares his joy and predicts the freedom of Rome *aria: Vieni ov’ amor t’ inita. Sc 2 Cecilio excited at the prospect of meeting his betrothed sings of his love *aria: il tenero momento. Sc 3 Giunia’s apartments; Silla seeks the advice of his sister Celia on his approach with Giunia and she advises subtlety and kindness, aria* se lusinghiera speme. Sc 4 On Silla’ approach Giunia declares her love for Cecilio and her hate for Silla, her father’s enemy *aria: Dalla sponda tenebrosa. Sc 5 Alone, Silla, insulted, decides to behave as a tyrant *aria: il desìo di vendetta, e di morte. Sc 6 Cecilio waits by the tomb Sc 7 for Giunia who arrives *chorus and ariosa: Fuor di queste urne dolente.

Act 2
An archway decorated with military trophies; Silla is joined by Celia to whom he tells of his plans to wed Giunia and for Celia to wed her beloved Cinna on this day. Sc 3 Cinna restrains Cecilio who has his sword drawn trying to follow Silla, believing he has been instructed by the spirit of Gaius Marius to seek revenge. Cinna tells him to consider Giunia and his rage is controlled *aria: Quest’ improvviso trèmito. Giunia consults with Cinna who suggests she accepts Sills proposal and murder him in their wedding bed. Giunia refuses, stating that vengeance is for Heaven alone to consider and asks Cinna to go make sure Cecilio stays hidden from danger *aria: Ah se il crudel periglio. Sc 5 Cinna resolves to kill Silla himself *aria: Nel fortunato istante. Sc 6 Hanging gardens; Silla’s love for Giunia starts to bring out his compassion Sc 7 but Giunia’s hateful face angers him again and he threatens her with death but not to die alone *aria: D’ ogni pieta mi spoglio. Sc 8 Giunia with Cecilio worries about Silla’s words and they part Sc 9 Celia asks Giunia to accept Silla’s proposal for the sake of happiness saying she is also to be married to Cinna *aria: Quando sugl’ arsi campi. Sc 10 Giunia ponders her wretchedness. Sc 11 The Capitol; Silla asks the Senate and the people of Rome to reward him as a hero of Rome with the marriage to Giunia, Sc 12 when Cecilio appears and there is a confrontation *trio: Quell’ orgoglioso sdegno.

Act 3
Sc 1 entrance to the dungeons; Cecilio has been imprisoned. Cinna and Celia has gained access and Cinna asks Celia to convince Cecilio to repent and forget his love. Cinna promises to marry Celia if she is successful, for which she is hopeful *aria: Strider sento la procella. Sc 2 Whilst Cecilio accepts his fate Cinna tells him not to worry, Silla’s heart over his head will bring about his own downfall *aria: De’ più superbi il core. Sc 3 Silla has allowed Giunia one last visit to Cecilio and they say their farewells *aria: pupille amate. Sc 4 Giunia alone with her thoughts of Cecilio’s impending death thinks of her own *aria: Frà I pensier più funesti di morte. Sc 5 Audience chamber; Before the Senators and the people of Rome, Silla, to everybody’s surprise, declares that he wishes Cecilio to live and marry Giunia. When questioned on his silence, Cinna declares his hatred of Silla and his intention of killing him. Silla issues his ‘punishment’ to Cinna that he should marry his beloved Celia. He further declares that he will step down as dictator and restore liberty to Rome. He explains that he has seen proof that innocence and a virtuous heart is triumphant over power and glory. The people of Rome celebrate liberty and the greatness of Silla.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mozart: Overture - 'Lucio Silla'
Mozart: Lucio Silla, K 135 (Arias)
Lucio Silla, K 135

Nikolaus Harnoncourt & Concentus Musicus Wien

Mezzosoprano: Cecilia Bartoli

I.- Il Tenero Momento
II.- Pupille Amate
lll.- D'Elisio In Sen M'Attendi
IV.- Cecilio, A Che T'Arresti / Quest'Improvviso Tremito

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Lucio Silla, KV 135
Lucio Silla, Dramma per musica in tre atti KV 135. Libretto, Giovanni de Gamerra.
Lucio Silla, Anthony Rolfe-Johnson. Giunia, Lella Cuberli. Cecilio, Ann Murray. Cinna, Britt-Marie Aruhn. Celia, Christine Barbaux. Aufidio, Ad van Baasbank. Orchestre et Choeurs du Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie, Sylvain Cambreling.
La Finta Giardiniera - 1775
La finta giardiniera ("The Pretend Garden-Girl"), K. 196, is an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart wrote it in Munich in January 1775 when he was 18 years old and it received its first performance on January 13 at the Salvatortheater in Munich. There is debate over the authorship of the libretto; the current belief is that it was written by Giuseppe Petrosellini.

In 1780 Mozart converted the opera into a German Singspiel called Die Gärtnerin aus Liebe (also Die verstellte Gärtnerin), which involved rewriting some of the music. Until a copy of the complete Italian version was found in the 1970s, the German translation was the only known complete score.

Summary: The story follows Count Belfiore and the Marchioness Violante Onesti, who were lovers before Belfiore stabbed Violante in a fit of rage. The story begins with the revived Violante and her servant Roberto disguised as "Sandrina" and "Nardo," and quietly working in the mansion of the town Podestà. Violante discovers that Belfiore has become engaged to Arminda, the niece of the Podestà, and when Belfiore confesses his lingering love for Violante, Arminda jealously conspires to abduct the other woman. When Violante is found, she and Belfiore lose their minds and believe themselves to be Greek gods. When they regain their senses Violante forgives the Count and they fly to each other's arms. Arminda returns to Cavalier Ramiro, her spurned suitor, and Roberto finds love with Serpetta, another servant of the Podestà.

Act I
A garden with a wide staircase leading to the mansion of the Podestà.

The Podestà, Cavalier Ramiro and Serpetta descend the staircase as Sandrina and Nardo work in the garden. Together they praise the lovely day, but their happiness is feigned ("Che lieto giorno"). Sandrina is wretched because Don Anchise, the Podestà, is in love with her. Nardo is frustrated by Serpetta, who teases him but refuses to respond to his affections. Ramiro is bitter after being tossed aside by Arminda, and, because she has set her own cap at the Podestà, Serpetta is angry at Sandrina. The Podestà attempts to console Ramiro, but Ramiro can think of none but Arminda ("Se l'augellin sen fugge"). When they are left alone, Don Anchise professes love to Sandrina ("Dentro il mio petto"). Sandrina refuses his advances as politely as possible and, when Serpetta rudely interrupts, makes her escape.

Arminda's betrothed, Count Belfiore, arrives and is swept off his feet by her beauty ("Che beltà"). Arminda is quick to let him know that she is someone to be reckoned with ("Si promette facilmente"), but the Count is not deterred. The Count then boasts of his deeds and ancestry to the Podestà, tracing his family tree to Scipio, Cato and Marcus Aurelius ("Da Scirocco"). Don Anchise responds with a mixture of awe and skepticism, not caring who this buffoon of a Count is as long as he marries his niece.

In the garden, Arminda sees Sandrina and casually mentions her engagement to Belfiore. Stunned, Sandrina faints. When the Count arrives, Arminda leaves him to watch over Sandrina and rushes off to fetch her smelling salts. Belfiore is shocked to find that the gardener's girl is none other than his lost Violante (Finale: "Numi! Che incanto è questo?"). Arminda returns and is surprised to come face to face with Ramiro. Sandrina awakens and finds herself looking directly into the eyes of Belfiore. The Podestà enters and demands an explanation, but no one knows quite what to say. Sandrina wavers but decides not to reveal herself as Violante, while Arminda suspects that she's being deceived. The Podestà blames everything on Serpetta, who in turn blames Sandrina, and Ramiro is only certain of the fact that Arminda still does not love him.

Act 2
A hall in the mansion of the Podestà.

Ramiro discovers Arminda and upbraids her for her inconstancy. When she refuses to listen, he departs, but not before promising revenge upon his rival. Belfiore enters in some distress, muttering that he has had no peace since he found Sandrina. Arminda overhears and confronts him, then leaves ("Vorrei punirti indegno"). Sandrina encounters Belfiore, and nearly betrays herself as Violante when she asks why he stabbed and deserted her. Belfiore is surprised by this outburst and once again sure that he has found his love, but Sandrina quickly reconstructs her disguise. She explains that she is not Violante, but that those were the Marchioness's dying words. Belfiore is nonetheless entranced, since "Sandrina" has the face of Violante, and he begins to serenade her ("Care pupille"). The Podestà interrupts them, and after mistakenly taking the Podestà's hand instead of Sandrina's, Belfiore retreats in embarrassment.

Alone with Sandrina, the Podestà again attempts to woo her. Ramiro interrupts, arriving from Milan with the news that Count Belfiore is wanted for the murder of Marchioness Violante Onesti. Don Anchise summons Belfiore for questioning and the Count, thoroughly baffled, implicates himself. Sandrina says she is Violante and the proceedings break up in confusion. The Count approaches Sandrina but she again denies him. She claims to have pretended to be the Marchioness to save him, and exits. Serpetta arrives moments later to tell the Podestà, Nardo and Ramiro that Sandrina has run away, when she has in fact been abducted by Arminda and Serpetta. The Podestà immediately organizes a search party.

A deserted, mountainous spot.

Abandoned in the wilderness, Sandrina is nearly frightened out of her wits (Crudeli, fermate!"). Small search parties composed of the Count and Nardo, Arminda, Serpetta, and the Podestà soon arrive (Finale: "Fra quest'ombra"). In the darkness the Podestà mistakes Arminda for Sandrina and she him for the Count, while the Count thinks Serpetta is Sandrina and she takes him for the Podestà. Nardo manages to find Sandrina by following her voice, and Ramiro then appears with footmen and torches. As the embarrassed and mismatched pairs separate, Belfiore and Sandrina find each other and lose their senses. They see themselves as the Greek gods Medusa and Alcides, and the astonished onlookers as forest nymphs. Oblivious of their surroundings, the two begin to dance.

Act 3
The courtyard.

Still believing they are gods from classical Greece, Sandrina and Belfiore pursue Nardo until he distracts them by pointing at the sky ("Mirate che contrasto"). They are entranced, and Nardo is able to make his escape. Sandrina and Belfiore leave, and Arminda and Ramiro enter with a harried Don Anchise. Arminda begs her uncle for permission to marry the Count, and Ramiro demands that the Podestà order Arminda to marry him. Don Anchise becomes confused and tells them to both do what they want, as long as they leave him alone ("Mio Padrone, io dir volevo"). After scorning Ramiro's affections yet again, Arminda leaves. Alone, Ramiro furiously swears he will never love another and that he'll die in misery, far from Arminda ("Va pure ad altri in braccio").

A garden.

No longer delusional, the Count and Sandrina awaken after having slept a discreet distance from one another ("Dove mai son?"). Belfiore makes a final appeal, to which Sandrina admits she is Violante but claims that she loves him no more. The Count is saddened but agrees to leave her. They begin to part, but falter in a matter of minutes and fall into each other's arms ("Tu mi lasci?"). Arminda returns to Ramiro, and Serpetta gives way to Nardo's suit. Left alone, the Podestà accepts his fate philosophically. Perhaps, he says, he will find another Sandrina (Finale: "Viva pur la giardiniera").

Mozart - La Finta Giardiniera - Spering
La Finta Giardiniera, K 196

Colin Balzer, Il Podestà
Layla Claire, Sandrina
Julian Pregardien, Il Contino Belfiore
Ana Maria Labin, Arminda
Julie Robard-Gendre, Don Ramiro
Sabine Devieilhe, Serpetta
John Chest, Nardo

Le Cercle de l'Harmonie
Andreas Spering, conductor

Live recording. Aix-en-Provence, July 2012

Mozart La Finta Giardiniera Part 1 Overture
La Finta Giardiniera
Salzburg Mozart Festival (M22)
Ivor Bolton - Conductor
Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg

Veronique Gens - Arminda
Don Anchise - John Graham-Hall
Violante/Sandrina - Alexandra Reinprecht
Belfiore - John Mark Ainsley
Ramiro - Ruxandra Donose
Sepetta- Adriana Kucerova
Roberto - Markus Werba
Stage Director Doris Dorrie

Mozart - Missa Brevis in C, K. 259 [complete] (Organ Solo Mass) - 1776
Credo Mass in C major, K. 257 - 1776

The Credo Mass in C major, K. 257, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, probably in 1776. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini (high trumpets), 3 trombones colla parte and basso continuo.

The Credo Mass has been classified as either a missa solemnis, a missa brevis or a missa brevis et solemnis – its performance time of approximately 25 minutes makes it difficult to categorise in a definitive manner. Its name derives from the long setting of the Credo, in which the word "Credo" is repeatedly sung in a two-note motif. It thus joins a tradition of so-called "Credo Masses", including Mozart's own Kleine Credo Messe (K. 192) and Beethoven's later Missa solemnis. The first performance was in Salzburg in November 1776. This is one of three masses Mozart composed in November and December 1776, all set in C major, including the Piccolominimesse (K. 258) and the Organ Solo Mass (K. 259).

The work consists of six movements.

"Kyrie" Andante maestoso, C major, 3/4
"Kyrie eleison..." Allegro, C major, common time
"Gloria" Allegro assai, C major, common time
"Credo" Molto allegro, C major, 3/4
"Et incarnatus est..." Andante, C major, 6/8
"[Credo, credo...] Et resurrexit..." Molto allegro, C major, 3/4
"Sanctus" Allegretto, C major, common time
"Hosanna in excelsis..." Molto allegro, C major, common time
"Benedictus" Allegro, F major, common time
"Hosanna in excelsis..." Molto allegro, C major, common time
"Agnus Dei" Andante maestoso, C major, 3/4
"Dona nobis pacem..." Allegro vivace, C major, common time

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mozart - Missa in C, K. 257 [complete] (Credo Mass)
Haffner Serenade in D major - 1776
Serenade for orchestra in D major, K. 250 (248b), popularly known as the Haffner Serenade, is a serenade by Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus  named for the Haffner family.
Mozart's friend and contemporary Sigmund Haffner the Younger commissioned the serenade to be used in the course of the festivities before the wedding of his sister Marie Elisabeth Haffner and her intended, Franz Xaver Spaeth. The Serenade was first played on 21 July 1776, on the eve of the wedding. It is in eight movements:

I. Allegro maestoso - Allegro molto
II. Andante
III. Menuetto
IV. Rondeau: Allegro
V. Menuetto galante
VI. Andante
VII. Menuetto
VIII. Adagio - Allegro assai
The second, third and fourth movements feature prominent violin solos. Indeed, the rondeau (the fourth movement) has been arranged for solo violin and used as a popular virtuoso piece.

It is assumed that the Marcia K. 249 was intended as entrance and exit music together with this Serenade.

A typical performance lasts approximately 55 minutes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mozart - Serenata Nº 7 en Re mayor, 'Haffner', K250
Serenata para orquesta Nº 7 en Re mayor, "Haffner", K. 250
1. Allegro maestoso - Allegro molto (7'02)
2. Andante (10'18)
3. Menuetto (3'47)
4. Rondeau: Allegro (9'02)
5. Menuetto galante (5'39)
6. Andante (7'48)
7. Menuetto (5'07)
8. Adagio - Allegro assai (6'09)
Symphonie-orchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks,
Sir Colin Davis.
W. A. Mozart - KV 250 (248b) - Haffner Serenade in D major
The serenade is set in 8 movements:
1. Allegro maestoso - Allegro molto (0:00)
2. Andante (9:45)
3. Menuetto (19:29)
4. Rondo: Allegro (23:12)
5. Menuetto galante (32:25)
6. Andante (37:50)
7. Menuetto (46:29)
8. Adagio - Allegro assai (51:41)

Composed in Salzburg as a commission from Sigmund Haffner and first performed on July 20, the day before the wedding of Marie Elisabeth Haffner to Franz Xaver Spath.

Performers: The Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra, conducted by Ton Koopman.

Ballet "Les petits riens" - 1778
W. A. Mozart - KV 299b - Ballet "Les petits riens" - 1778
The ballet is comprised of an overture and a suite of 20 dances. Some of these numbers were never recorded because of a doubtful authenticity.
- Ouverture: Allegro (0:00)
- No. 1 (-) Never recorded.
- No. 2 (-) Never recorded.
- No. 3 (-) Never recorded.
- No. 4 (-) Never recorded.
- No. 5 - Agité (3:13)
- No. 6 - Menuet. Never recorded.
- No. 7 - Largo - Presto (3:57)
- No. 8 - Vivo (5:38)
- No. 9 - Andantino (6:46)
- No. 10 - Allegro (7:59)
- No. 11 - Larghetto (8:11)
- No. 12 - Gavotte: Allegro (9:24)
- No. 13 - Adagio (10:43)
- No. 14 (-) (11:41)
- No. 15 - Gavotte gracieuse (13:11)
- No. 16 - Pantomime (14:25)
- No. 17 - Passepied (16:31)
- No. 18 - Gavotte (17:04)
- No. 19 - Andante (19:34)
- No. 20 - Gigue. Never recorded.

Composed in Paris and performed with Piccinni's opera "Le finte gemelle" on June 11, 1778

Performers: Budapest Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Laszlo Csanyi & The Academy of St Martin in the Fields, conducted by Sir Neville Marriner.

"Idomeneo, re di Creta" - 1781
Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante (Italian for Idomeneo, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian language opera seria by Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus. The libretto was adapted by Giambattista Varesco from a French text by Antoine Danchet, which had been set to music by André Campra as Idoménée in 1712. Mozart and Varesco were commissioned in 1780 by Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria for a court carnival. He probably chose the subject, though it might have been Mozart.


The libretto clearly draws inspiration from Metastasio in its overall layout, the type of character development, and the highly poetic language used in the various numbers and the secco and stromentato recitatives. The style of the choruses, marches, and ballets is very French, and the shipwreck scene towards the end of act I is almost identical to the structure and dramatic working-out of a similar scene in Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride. The sacrifice and oracle scenes are similar to Gluck's Iphigénie en Aulide and Alceste.

Kurt Kramer has suggested that Varesco was familiar with Calzabigi and therefore the work of Gluck, especially the latter's Alceste; much of what we see in Varesco's most dramatic passages is the latest French style, mediated by Calzabigi. It is thanks to Mozart, though, that this mixture of French styles (apart from a few choruses) moves away from Gluck and France and returns to its more Italian (opera seria) roots; the singers were all trained in the classical Italian style, after all, and the recitatives are all classically Italian.

Performance history
It was first performed at the Cuvilliés Theatre of the Munich Residenz on 29 January 1781, under the baton of its 25-year-old composer. Idomeneo was Mozart's first mature opera. With it he demonstrated a mastery of orchestral color, accompanied recitatives, and melodic line. Dramatically, it adheres to the traditions of opera seria, making formal use of choruses and unfolding more as a sequence of sets than as a well-developed plot. Mozart fought with the librettist, the court chaplain Varesco, making large cuts and changes, even down to specific words and vowels disliked by the singers (too many "i"s in "rinvigorir", which in Italian is pronounced as in bee). Idomeneo was performed three times in Munich. Later in 1781 Mozart considered (but did not put into effect) revisions that would have brought the work closer into line with Gluck's style; this would have meant a bass Idomeneo and a tenor Idamante.

A concert performance was given in 1786 at the Palais Auersperg in Vienna. For this, Mozart wrote some new music, made some cuts, and changed Idamante from a castrato to a tenor.

The British premiere was given by the amateur Glasgow Grand Opera Society in 1934.

Today Idomeneo is part of the standard operatic repertoire. There are several recordings of it (see below), and it is regularly performed.

In 2006 there was a controversy over the cancelling of a 2003 production directed by Hans Neuenfels at the Deutsche Oper Berlin (see 2006 Idomeneo controversy).

Richard Strauss version
The approach of the 150th anniversary of Idomeneo's premiere placed some major European opera houses in a quandary: commemorative performances of so magnificent and historically important a score seemed obligatory, but, at the same time, how dared they mount an opera that 1930/31 audiences were bound to reject as hopelessly unstageworthy? The solution hit on in Munich and Vienna was to have Idomeneo adapted for modern tastes, but to show due reverence to Mozart's genius by entrusting the adaptations to famous twentieth-century opera composers with impeccable credentials as Mozarteans. Thus Munich commissioned an Idomeneo revision from Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, performed in 1931, and the same year the Vienna State Opera presented a distinctively interventionist version of the score by Richard Strauss.

For his adaptation of Idomeneo, Strauss employed a German libretto by Lothar Wallerstein (de) that was partially a translation of the original Italian libretto, but with some changes to reflect the rearranging of the music. Strauss replaced about 1/3 of Mozart's score with some of his own music (even introducing the "Fall of Troy" motif from his own 1928 opera Die ägyptische Helena), and rearranged much of the music left behind. For example, Ilia's opening aria "Padre, germani, addio!" is mostly intact with a few changes to the long introductory recitative, but when Idamante (specifically written to be sung by a tenor in this version) enters, he sings Mozart's "Non temer amato bene", K. 490, (which was added to Mozart's original revision of Idomeneo) instead of "Non ho colpa". A few major changes to the plot were made as well, such as changing princess Elettra to priestess Ismene. Critics have noted that Strauss's additions contain an interesting blend of the classical style of composition and Strauss's own characteristic sound. In 1984, New York's Mostly Mozart Festival presented Strauss's version with Jerry Hadley in the title role, Delores Ziegler as Idamante, and Alessandra Marc as Ismene.


Act 1

Island of Crete, shortly after the Trojan War. Ilia, daughter of the defeated Trojan King Priam, was taken to Crete after the war. She loves Prince Idamante, son of Idomeneo, but she hesitates to acknowledge her love. Idamante frees the Trojan prisoners in a gesture of good will. He tells Ilia, who is rejecting his love, that it is not his fault that their fathers were enemies. Trojans and Cretans together welcome the return of peace, but Electra, daughter of the Greek King Agamemnon, is jealous of Ilia and does not approve of Idamante's clemency toward the enemy prisoners. Arbace, the king's confidant, brings news that Idomeneo has been lost at sea while returning to Crete from Troy. Electra, fearing that Ilia, a Trojan, soon will be Queen of Crete, feels the furies of Hades tormenting her.

Idomeneo is saved by Neptune (god of the sea) and is washed up on a Cretan beach. There he recalls the vow he made to Neptune: to sacrifice, if he should arrive safely on land, the first living creature he should meet. Idamante approaches him, but because the two have not seen each other for a long time, recognition is difficult. When Idomeneo finally realizes the youth that he must sacrifice for the sake of his vow is his own child, he orders Idamante never to seek him out again. Grief-stricken by his father's rejection, Idamante runs off. Cretan troops disembarking from Idomeneo's ship are met by their wives, and all praise Neptune.

Act 2
At the king's palace, Idomeneo seeks counsel from Arbace, who says another victim could be sacrificed if Idamante were sent into exile. Idomeneo orders his son to escort Electra to her home, Argos. Idomeneo's kind words to Ilia move her to declare that since she has lost everything, he will be her father and Crete her country. As she leaves, Idomeneo realizes that sending Idamante into exile has cost Ilia her happiness as well as his own. Electra welcomes the idea of going to Argos with Idamante.

At the port of Sidon (a fictional city of Crete), Idomeneo bids his son farewell and urges him to learn the art of ruling while he is away. Before the ship can sail, however, a storm breaks out, and a sea serpent appears. Recognizing it as a messenger from Neptune, the king offers himself as atonement for having violated his vow to the god.

Act 3
In the royal garden, Ilia asks the breezes to carry her love to Idamante, who appears, explaining that he must go to fight the serpent. When he says he would rather die than suffer the torments of his rejected love, Ilia confesses her love. They are surprised by Electra and Idomeneo. When Idamante asks his father why he sends him away, Idomeneo can only reply that the youth must leave. Ilia asks for consolation from Electra, who is preoccupied with revenge. Arbace comes with news that the people, led by the High Priest of Neptune, are clamoring for Idomeneo. The High Priest tells the king of the destruction caused by Neptune's monster, urging Idomeneo to reveal the name of the person whose sacrifice is demanded by the god. When the king confesses that his own son is the victim, the populace is horrified.

Outside the temple, the king and High Priest join Neptune's priests in prayer that the god may be appeased. Arbace brings news that Idamante has killed the monster. As Idomeneo fears new reprisals from Neptune, Idamante enters in sacrificial robes, saying he understands his father's torment and is ready to die. After an agonizing farewell, Idomeneo is about to sacrifice his son when Ilia intervenes, offering her own life instead. The Voice of Neptune is heard. Idomeneo must yield the throne to Ilia and Idamante. Everyone is relieved except Electra, who longs for her own death. Idomeneo presents Idamante and his bride as the new rulers. The people call upon the god of love and marriage to bless the royal pair and bring peace.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
W. A. Mozart - Idomeneo Re di Creta
Ileana Cotrubas;
Frederica von Staden;
Luciano Pavarotti;
John Alexander;
Hidegard Behrens;
Dtor. James Levine

An illustration of the women's quarters in a Seraglio.
"The Abduction from the Seraglio" - 1782

Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an opera Singspiel in three acts by Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus . The German libretto is by Christoph Friedrich Bretzner with adaptations by Gottlieb Stephanie. The plot concerns the attempt of the hero Belmonte, assisted by his servant Pedrillo, to rescue his beloved Konstanze from the seraglio of the Pasha Selim.

The company that first sponsored the opera was the Nationalsingspiel ("national Singspiel"), a pet project (1778–1783) of the Austrian emperor Joseph II. The Emperor had set up the company to perform works in the German language (Italian opera was already popular in Vienna). This project was ultimately given up as a failure, but along the way it produced a number of successes, mostly a series of translated works. Mozart's opera emerged as its outstanding original success.

The inspector of the Nationalsingspiel was Gottlieb Stephanie. When the 25-year-old Mozart arrived in Vienna in 1781, seeking professional opportunity, one of the first tasks to which he addressed himself was to become acquainted with Stephanie and lobby him for an opera commission. To this end, he brought a copy of his earlier opera Zaide and showed it to Stephanie, who was duly impressed. Mozart also made a strong impression on the manager of the theater, Count Franz Xaver Orsini-Rosenberg, when in the home of Mozart's friend and patroness Maria Wilhelmine Thun the Count heard him play excerpts from his opera Idomeneo, premiered with great success the previous year in Munich. With this backing, it was agreed that Stephanie would find appropriate material and prepare a libretto for Mozart. Stephanie complied by first pirating and then altering Belmont und Constanze, oder Die Entführung aus dem Serail, an earlier work by Bretzner, who later complained loudly and publicly about the theft.

Mozart received the libretto from Stephanie on 29 July 1781. He had few opportunities to compose professionally during the summer and he set to work on the libretto at a very rapid pace, finishing three major numbers in just two days. A letter to his father Leopold indicates he was very excited about the prospect of having his opera performed in Vienna, and worked enthusiastically on his project.

At first Mozart thought he needed to finish his opera in only two months, because tentative plans were made to perform it at the September visit of the Russian Grand Duke Paul (son of Catherine the Great and heir to the Russian throne). However, it was ultimately decided to perform operas by Gluck instead, giving Mozart more time.

It was around this time that Mozart articulated his views about the role of the composer and the librettist in the preparation of an opera. He wrote to his father (13 October 1781):

I would say that in an opera the poetry must be altogether the obedient daughter of the music. Why are Italian comic operas popular everywhere – in spite of the miserable libretti? … Because the music reigns supreme, and when one listens to it all else is forgotten. An opera is sure of success when the plot is well worked out, the words written solely for the music and not shoved in here and there to suit some miserable rhyme ... The best thing of all is when a good composer, who understands the stage and is talented enough to make sound suggestions, meets an able poet, that true phoenix; in that case, no fears need be entertained as to the applause – even of the ignorant.

It would seem that something along these lines did happen—that is, Mozart decided to play a major role in the shaping of the libretto, insisting that Stephanie make changes for dramatic and musical effect. On 26 September Mozart wrote:

Now comes the rub! The first act was finished more than three weeks ago, as was also one aria in act 2 and the drunken duet ["Vivat Bacchus", act 2] ... But I cannot compose any more, because the whole story is being altered – and, to tell the truth, at my own request. At the beginning of act 3 there is a charming quintet or rather finale, but I would prefer to have it at the end of act 2. In order to make this practicable, great changes must be made, in fact an entirely new plot must be introduced – and Stephanie is up to his neck in other work. So we must have a little patience.

Mozart was evidently quite pleased to have in Stephanie a librettist who would listen to him. The September 26 letter also says:

Everyone abuses Stephanie. It may be the case he is only friendly to my face. But after all he is preparing the libretto for me – and, what is more, exactly as I want it – and by Heaven, I don't ask anything more of him.

With the delays for rewriting, the composition took several more months. The premiere took place on 16 July 1782, at the Burgtheater in Vienna.


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (center) attended a performance of his own opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail while visiting Berlin in 1789. Franz Frankenberg performed the role of Osmin, Friedrich Ernst Wilhelm Greibe played Pedrillo.
The work is lighthearted and frequently comic, with little of the deep character exploration or darker feelings found in Mozart's later operas. Along with other contemporary works, such as Giovanni Paolo Marana's Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy and Montesquieu's Persian Letters, the opera was inspired by a contemporary interest in the perceived "exotic" culture of the Ottoman Empire, a nation which had only recently ceased to be a military threat to the Austrian Empire. Mozart's opera includes a Westernized version of Turkish music, based very loosely on the Turkish Janissary band music that he had employed in earlier work. Like most comedies of the time, it incorporates many elements of plot and characterization established by the popular Commedia dell'arte.

Certain aspects of the opera conform to an eighteenth century European view of orientalism. The Pasha's titular harem, for example, reprised themes of sexual libertinage. And the comically sinister overseer, Osmin, is a send-up of earlier stereotypes of Turkish despotism. However, the opera also defies the stereotyped expectations of a despotic Turkish culture, since its climax hinges around a selfless act of forgiveness on the part of the Pasha.

The music includes some of the composer's most spectacular and difficult arias. Osmin's act 3 aria "O, wie will ich triumphieren" includes characteristic 18th century coloratura passage work, and twice goes down to a low D (D2), one of the lowest notes demanded of any voice in opera. Perhaps the most famous aria in the opera is the long and elaborate "Martern aller Arten" ("Tortures of all kinds") for Konstanze, an outstanding challenge for sopranos. Konstanze sings in a kind of sinfonia concertante with four solo players from the orchestra; the strikingly long orchestral introduction, without stage action, also poses problems for stage directors.

The virtuosity of these roles is perhaps attributable to the fact that when he took up the task of composing the opera, Mozart already knew the outstanding reputations of the singers for whom he was writing, and he tailored the arias to their strengths. The first Osmin was Ludwig Fischer, a bass noted for his wide range and skill in leaping over large intervals with ease. Similarly, Mozart wrote of the first Konstanze, Caterina Cavalieri, "I have sacrificed Konstanze's aria a little to the flexible throat of Mlle. Cavalieri."

The opera was a huge success. The first two performances brought in the large sum of 1200 florins, three times what Mozart's salary had been for his old job in Salzburg. The work was repeatedly performed in Vienna during Mozart's lifetime,[16] and throughout German-speaking Europe. In 1787, Goethe wrote (concerning his own efforts as a librettist):

All our endeavour ... to confine ourselves to what is simple and limited was lost when Mozart appeared. Die Entführung aus dem Serail conquered all, and our own carefully written piece has never been so much as mentioned in theater circles.

Although the opera greatly raised Mozart's standing with the public as a composer, it did not make him rich: he was paid a flat fee of 100 Imperial ducats (about 450 florins) for his work, and made no profits from the many subsequent performances.

The opera reached Paris in November 1801, when Frédéric Blasius conducted Ellmenreich's company in performances at the Théâtre de la Gaîté.

The opera continues to be frequently performed today. As of January 2012, at least 52 complete recordings were in circulation: 18 videos, 17 studio audio recordings, and at least 17 live audio recordings.

The "too many notes" tale
The complexity of Mozart's work, noted early on by Goethe, also plays a role in a well-known tale about the opera. In the version from Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes, the story goes like this:

The Emperor Joseph II commissioned the creation of The Abduction from the Seraglio, but when he heard it, he complained to Mozart, 'That is too fine for my ears – there are too many notes.' Mozart replied, 'There are just as many notes as there should be.'"

The anecdote originally appeared in an early biography of Mozart by Franz Xaver Niemetschek. Its authenticity is not accepted by all scholars.

The anecdote, which is often repeated, may have unfairly given the Emperor a bad reputation, concerning both his own musical abilities and his appreciation and support of Mozart. For defense of Joseph from such criticisms, see Beales (2006). Branscombe (2006) mitigates the story's implications with a different translation of the German word "gewaltig", rendering it as "very many" rather than "too many".



Act 1

Belmonte enters, looking for his betrothed, Konstanze, who with her English servant Blonde has fallen into the hands of pirates and been sold to the Pasha Selim (Aria: "Hier soll ich dich denn sehen" – "Here surely I must find her"). Osmin, the Pasha's bad-tempered servant, comes to pluck figs in the garden and completely ignores Belmonte's questions (Aria: "Wer ein Liebchen hat gefunden" – "You may think, you've found a maiden"). Belmonte tries to obtain news of his servant, Pedrillo, who has been captured with the women and is serving as a servant in the Pasha's palace. Osmin replies with insults and abuse (Duet: "Verwünscht seist du samt deinem Liede!" – "The devil take you and your song, sir"). Belmonte leaves in disgust. Pedrillo enters and Osmin rages at him, vowing to get him tortured and killed in many different ways (Aria: "Solche hergelaufne Laffen" – "These young men who go a-spying"). Osmin leaves and Belmonte enters and happily reunites with Pedrillo. Together they resolve to rescue Konstanze and Pedrillo's fiancée, Blonde, who is Konstanze's servant (Aria: "Konstanze, Konstanze, dich wiederzusehen … O wie ängstlich" – "Konstanze, Konstanze, to see thee again … Oh what trembling").

Accompanied by a chorus of Janissaries ("Singt dem großen Bassa Lieder" – "Sing to the mighty Pasha Selim") the Pasha Selim appears with Konstanze, for whose love he strives in vain (Aria of Konstanze: "Ach ich liebte" – "How I loved him"). Pedrillo tricks the Pasha into hiring Belmonte as an architect. When Belmonte and Pedrillo try to enter the palace, Osmin bars their way, but they hurry past him anyway (Terzett: "Marsch! Trollt euch fort!" – "March! March! March!").

Act 2
Blonde repulses the rough lovemaking attempts of Osmin (Aria: "Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln" – "With smiles and kind caresses"), and threatens to scratch out his eyes. After a duet ("Ich gehe, doch rate ich dir" – "I'm going, but mark what I say"), Osmin departs. Konstanze greets Blonde in distress (Aria: "Welcher Wechsel herrscht in meiner Seele … Traurigkeit ward mir zum Lose" – "Oh what sorrow overwhelms my spirit … Endless grief tortures my spirit"), informing her that Selim demands her love and threatens to use force (Aria: "Martern aller Arten" – "Tortures unrelenting.")

When she has gone, Pedrillo comes to Blonde, who is his sweetheart, and informs her that Belmonte has come and is planning to rescue them. Blonde is filled with joy. (Aria: "Welche Wonne, welche Lust" – "Oh, the happy, happy day"). Pedrillo invites Osmin to drink, hoping that he will become intoxicated (Aria: "Frisch zum Kampfe" – "Now Pedrillo, now for battle!"; Duet: "Vivat Bacchus! Bacchus lebe!" – "'Here's to Bacchus, long live Bacchus"). When Osmin has drunk himself into a stupor, the two couples reunite (Quartet, Belmonte, Konstanze, Pedrillo, Blonde: "Ach Belmonte! Ach, mein Leben" – "Ah, Belmonte, ah my dear one!"). Belmonte and Pedrillo both question anxiously whether their respective fiancees have remained faithful during their forced separation; to their delight the women respond with indignation and dismay. They forgive the offensive questions and the curtain falls.

Act 3
Belmonte and Pedrillo come to the garden with ladders (Aria, Belmonte: "Ich baue ganz auf deine Stärke" – "Love, only love, can now direct me"; Romanze, Pedrillo: "In Mohrenland gefangen war" – "In Moorish lands a maiden fair"). However, they and the women are caught by Osmin, who rouses the castle (Aria: "Ha, wie will ich triumphieren" – "My triumphant hour's approaching"). Belmonte pleads for their lives and tells Selim Pasha that his father is a Spanish Grandee and Governor of Oran, named Lostados, who will pay a generous ransom. Unfortunately, Pasha Selim and Lostados are long-standing enemies. The Pasha rejoices in the opportunity to kill his enemy's son. He leaves Belmonte and Konstanze to bid each other a last farewell (Duet: "Welch ein Geschick! O Qual der Seele" – "What dreadful fate conspires against us"), but when he returns, he decides he can make a better point against Lostados by releasing Belmonte and his friends. All are set at liberty – much to the dismay of Osmin, who would prefer to see them all brutally executed (Finale: "Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen" – "Your noble mercy passes measure").

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mozart - Die Entfuhrung Aus Dem Serail (Damrau - Peretyatko / Bolton) / Liceu [2010]
Great Mass in C minor - 1783
The Great Mass in C minor (German: Große Messe in c-Moll), K. 427 (K. 417a), is a musical setting of the Mass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Mass was composed in 1782 and 1783 in Vienna. The large-scale work, set for two soprano soloists, a tenor and a bass, double chorus and large orchestra, remained unfinished.

Composition and first performance

The work was composed during 1782/83. In a letter to his father Leopold dated 4 January 1783, Mozart mentioned a vow he had made to write a Mass when he would bring his then fiancée Constanze as his wife to Salzburg; Constanze then sang the "Et incarnatus est" at its premiere.

The first performance took place in Salzburg on 26 October 1783. Mozart had moved to Vienna in 1781, but was paying a visit to his home town in the company of Constanze, who had not yet met his father or his sister (Nannerl).

The performance consisted of the Kyrie, Gloria and Sanctus and took place in the Church of St. Peter's Abbey in the natural context of a Roman Catholic Mass. The performers were members of the "Hofmusik", that is the musicians employed at the court of Salzburg's ruler, Prince-Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo and thus Mozart's former colleagues. There was a rehearsal in the nearby Kapellhaus on 23 October 1783.

Fragmentary status
The work is incomplete, missing all of the Credo following the aria "Et incarnatus est" (the orchestration of the Credo is also incomplete) and all of the Agnus Dei. The Sanctus is partially lost and requires editorial reconstruction. There is a good deal of speculation concerning why the work was left unfinished. Given the absolute necessity of a complete text for liturgical use, it is likely that Mozart spliced in movements from his earlier Masses for the premiere, although Richard Maunder has noted that the surviving parts (including an organ part) contain only the completed movements. For purposes of modern performances, the editions and completions available are those by H. C. Robbins Landon (Eulenburg), Helmut Eder (Bärenreiter), Richard Maunder (Oxford University Press), Philip Wilby (Novello), Robert Levin (Carus-Verlag) and Benjamin-Gunnar Cohrs (Musikproduktion Höflich). Robert Xavier Rodriguez has also completed the Agnus Dei.

Mozart later reused the music from the Kyrie and Gloria, almost without changes except for the text, in the cantata Davidde penitente, K. 469.


Autograph of two of the pages of the Mass ("Kyrie")

Larger version of page 1 (recto) and page 2 (verso)


Kyrie (Andante moderato: Chorus and Soprano)
Gloria in excelsis Deo (Allegro vivace: Chorus)
Laudamus te (Allegro aperto: Soprano II)
Gratias agimus tibi (Adagio: Chorus)
Domine Deus (Allegro moderato: Sopranos I and II)
Qui tollis (Largo: Double choir)
Quoniam tu solus (Allegro: Sopranos I and II, Tenor)
Jesu Christe (Adagio: Chorus) – Cum Sancto Spiritu (Chorus)
Credo in unum Deum (Allegro maestoso: Chorus)
Et incarnatus est (Andante: Soprano I)
Sanctus (Largo: Double choir)
Benedictus qui venit (Allegro comodo: Quartet and Double chorus)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mozart - Missa in C minor, K. 427 / K. 417a [complete] (Great Mass)
The Great Mass in C minor (German: Große Messe in c-Moll), K. 427 (K. 417a), is a musical setting of the Mass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The mass in C minor was composed in 1782 and 1783 in Vienna. The large-scale work, set for two soprano soloists, a tenor and a bass, double chorus and large orchestra, remained unfinished. The work was composed during 1782-83. In a letter to his father Leopold dated 14 January 1783, Mozart alluded to a vow he had made "in the depth of his heart" to write a work of thanksgiving for the recovery from illness of his (then) fiancée Constanze, also mentioning that the work was already half-finished. The Kyrie, Gloria and Sanctus were first performed in the Church of St. Peter's Abbey in Salzburg on 26 October 1783. The premiere took place in a Roman Catholic Mass, and the performers were members of the "Hofmusik", that is the musicians employed at the court of Salzburg's ruler, Prince-Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo. Mozart's wife Constanze was the soloist for the first soprano at the premiere. There was a rehearsal in the nearby Kapellhaus on 23 October 1783. The work is incomplete, missing all of the Credo following the aria "Et incarnatus est" (the orchestration of the Credo is also incomplete) and all of the Agnus Dei. The Sanctus is partially lost and requires editorial reconstruction. There is a good deal of speculation concerning why the work was left unfinished. Given the absolute necessity of a complete text for liturgical use, it is likely that Mozart spliced in movements from his earlier Masses for the premiere. For purposes of modern performances, the editions and completions available are those by H. C. Robbins Landon (Eulenburg), Helmut Eder (Bärenreiter), Richard Maunder (Oxford University Press), Philip Wilby (Novello) and Robert Levin (Carus-Verlag). A new completion of the Credo and Agnus Dei based solely on original sources was prepared by Benjamin-Gunnar Cohrs in 2010 (Musikproduktion Höflich). Robert Xavier Rodriguez has also completed the Agnus Dei. Mozart later reused the music from the Kyrie and Gloria, almost without changes except for the text, in the cantata Davidde penitente, K. 469. The work embodies pomp and solemnity associated with the Salzburg traditions of the time, but it also anticipates the symphonic masses of Joseph Haydn in its solo-choral sharing. The mass shows the influence of Bach and Handel, whose music Mozart was studying at this time (e.g. Gottfried van Swieten). The mass is included in the soundtrack for the Academy Award-nominated animated feature The Triplets of Belleville for a scene when the characters are at sea. It uses the opening Kyrie movement, and evokes the distressed state of the characters, while capturing the turmoil of a storm at sea. It is also used in A Man Escaped. It occurs throughout the Channel 4 drama A Very British Coup; the Credo was used as the theme music.
Parts of the Kyrie are used in two separate scenes in the 1984 film Amadeus. Qui tollis is also used in a deleted scene that was included in the director's cut DVD.
-Kyrie (Andante moderato: Chorus and Soprano)
_Gloria in excelsis Deo (Allegro vivace: Chorus)
_Laudamus te (Allegro aperto: Soprano II)
_Gratias agimus tibi (Adagio: Chorus)
_Domine Deus (Allegro moderato: Sopranos I and II)
_Qui tollis (Largo: Double choir)
_Quoniam tu solus (Allegro: Sopranos I and II, Tenor)
_Jesu Christe (Adagio: Chorus) -- Cum Sancto Spiritu (Chorus)
_Credo in unum Deum (Allegro maestoso: Chorus)
_Et incarnatus est (Andante: Soprano I)
-Sanctus (Largo: Double choir)
-Benedictus qui venit (Allegro comodo: Quartet and Double chorus)
Six "Haydn" String Quartets - 1785
The "Haydn" Quartets by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a set of six string quartets published in 1785 in Vienna, dedicated to the composer Joseph Haydn. They are considered to be the pinnacle of Classical string quartet writing, containing some of Mozart's most memorable melodic writing and refined compositional thought.

The six quartets

String Quartet No. 14 in G major, ("Spring"), K. 387 (1782)
String Quartet No. 15 in D minor, K. 421 (1783)
String Quartet No. 16 in E-flat major, K. 428 (1783)
String Quartet No. 17 in B flat major ("Hunt"), K. 458 (1784)
String Quartet No. 18 in A major, K. 464 (1785)
String Quartet No. 19 in C major ("Dissonance"), K. 465 (1785)

The quartets were published in a set in Vienna, 1785. Dates of composition are shown in parentheses above.

Historical background
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed 23 string quartets. The six "Haydn" Quartets were written in Vienna during the years 1782 to 1785. They are dedicated to the composer Joseph Haydn, who is considered the creator of the modern string quartet. Haydn had recently completed his influential "Opus 33" set of quartets in 1781, the year that Mozart arrived in Vienna. Mozart studied Haydn's string quartets and began composing this set of six, which were published in 1785. During this time, Haydn and Mozart had become friends, and sometimes played quartets together in Mozart's apartment, with Mozart playing the viola, and Haydn playing violin.

Haydn first heard the quartets at two gatherings at Mozart's home, 15 January and 12 February 1785 (on these occasions he apparently just listened, rather than playing a part himself). After hearing them all, Haydn made a now-famous remark to Mozart's father Leopold, who was visiting from Salzburg: "Before God, and as an honest man, I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name. He has taste, and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition." The comment was preserved in a letter Leopold wrote 16 February to his daughter Nannerl.

The dedication

Mozart's published dedication page (1 Sept. 1785):

To my dear friend Haydn,
A father who had resolved to send his children out into the great world took it to be his duty to confide them to the protection and guidance of a very celebrated Man, especially when the latter by good fortune was at the same time his best Friend. Here they are then, O great Man and dearest Friend, these six children of mine. They are, it is true, the fruit of a long and laborious endeavor, yet the hope inspired in me by several Friends that it may be at least partly compensated encourages me, and I flatter myself that this offspring will serve to afford me solace one day. You, yourself, dearest friend, told me of your satisfaction with them during your last Visit to this Capital. It is this indulgence above all which urges me to commend them to you and encourages me to hope that they will not seem to you altogether unworthy of your favour. May it therefore please you to receive them kindly and to be their Father, Guide and Friend! From this moment I resign to you all my rights in them, begging you however to look indulgently upon the defects which the partiality of a Father's eye may have concealed from me, and in spite of them to continue in your generous Friendship for him who so greatly values it, in expectation of which I am, with all of my Heart, my dearest Friend, your most Sincere Friend,
W.A. Mozart

Form and content
The Classical string quartet form was created by Joseph Haydn in the late 1750s. He is described as the "father" of the string quartet because in his total of sixty-eight quartets he developed this genre into its first maturity. The string quartet features four parts for two violins, viola and cello. Its function was designed for private or semi-private performances in the aristocratic salon or middle-class parlor.

The form of the "Haydn" Quartets follows the standard set by Haydn in the 1770s. At this time, the quartet began to consistently have four movements, like the symphony form. The basic form of the six "Haydn" Quartets is as follows, with the second and third movements interchangeable in different works:

-First movement: Allegro in sonata form
-Second movement: Adagio or Andante in sonata form
-Third movement: Minuetto and Trio
-Fourth movement: Allegro in sonata, rondo, or variation form

The slow movement of these works, found in either the second or third movements, are highlighted as the "emotional center" of each quartet. They feature rich cantabile melodic writing with thematic multiplicity and embellishment that displays a departure from the Haydnesque mode.

The quartets also feature a wide range of emotional content from the Sturm und Drang of No. 15 in D minor, to the tonal mysteriousness of the openings of No. 16 in E-flat major, and No. 19 in C major, the "Dissonance", and then to the opera buffa styled light-heartedness in the finale of No. 17 in B-flat major, the "Hunt".

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Mozart - String Quartet No. 14 in G, K. 387 [complete] (Spring)
Mozart - String Quartet No. 15 in D minor, K. 421 / K. 417b [complete]
W. A. Mozart - KV 428 (421b) - String Quartet No. 16 in E flat major
Mozart - String Quartet No. 17 in B flat, K. 458 [complete] (Hunt)
W. A. Mozart - KV 464 - String Quartet No. 18 in A major
Mozart-String Quartet in C Major KV 465 No. 19  ("dissonant") (Complete)
Uploaded on Jan 6, 2012
Budapest String Quartet (Joseph Roisman, Alexander Schneider:
violin, Boris Kroyt: viola, Mischa Schneider: cello)-1953-Adagio,
allegro-Andante cantabile-Menuetto: allegretto-Molto alleg
"The Marriage of Figaro" - 1786
The Marriage of Figaro, Italian Le nozze di Figaro, comic opera in four acts by Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte), which premiered in Vienna at the Burgtheater on May 1, 1786. Based on Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais’s 1784 play Le Mariage de Figaro, Mozart’s work remains a favourite in the operatic repertoire.

Background and context
In 1782, as Mozart was making his way as a composer in Vienna, Count Orsini-Rosenberg, director of the Burgtheater (the imperial theatre), invited him to write an opera buffa. The young composer was in favour at the court of Emperor Joseph II, but he had stiff competition in established local composers, including Antonio Salieri, Vicente Martín y Soler, and Giovanni Paisiello. Mozart was hoping for greater fame and financial security, and in his choice of material he was influenced by the unprecedented success in Vienna of Paisiello’s Il barbiere di Siviglia (1783), which was based on Beaumarchais’s earlier play Le Barbier de Séville (1775; The Barber of Seville). That work would later also become the basis of Italian composer Gioachino Rossini’s The Barber of Seville (1816). Beaumarchais’s sequel had been translated into German. Performances of the play were planned in Vienna, but the emperor refused permission to stage the work, allowing only its publication. (Joseph had heard from his sister Marie Antoinette about the troubles the play had caused in Paris.) Da Ponte, one of the poets of the imperial court, removed political content and faithfully translated the rest into Italian—the appropriate language for the opera buffa that Mozart intended to compose. The emperor allowed the project to go forward without objection. With Mozart’s masterpiece of a score, the result was a witty yet profound tale of love, betrayal, and forgiveness.

The Marriage of Figaro was in some ways an instant success. Its bubbling overture, its brilliantly crafted arias—which give insights into the personalities of the characters who sing them—and its lively and intricate ensemble scenes won the hearts of nearly all who witnessed it. Encores became so numerous that after the work’s third performance the emperor declared that, to keep the evening to a reasonable length, only numbers written for a single voice could be repeated in any opera. (As it turned out, this edict may not have been enforced.)

Partisans of Mozart’s rivals did their best to spoil the early performances. Orsini-Rosenberg had favoured another librettist over Da Ponte, and he was not inclined to make the production go smoothly. Late in the summer, one local reviewer remarked upon “the unruly mob in the gallery” that was still determined to disrupt the performances with noise. Yet, the journalist added, the opera “contains so many beauties, and such a richness of thought as can proceed only from the born genius.”

The opera was performed only nine times during 1786 in Vienna, perhaps because Martín y Soler’s Una cosa rara (also set to a libretto by Da Ponte) came on the scene and essentially pushed the Mozart work aside. The Marriage of Figaro made a more durable impression in its next performances, in Prague later in 1786. In January 1787 Mozart and an entourage including his family traveled to Prague by invitation to attend the opera and spend time with local music lovers and patrons; he conducted at least one performance himself. Encouraged by the opera’s favourable reception, the theatre’s director asked Mozart to write something new specifically for Prague. That work would be the opera Don Giovanni.

Betsy Schwarm

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cast and vocal parts
Count Almaviva, a nobleman (baritone)
Countess Rosina, the count’s wife (soprano)
Figaro, the count’s valet (baritone)
Susanna, the countess’s maid and Figaro’s betrothed (soprano)
Cherubino, a page (mezzo-soprano)
Doctor Bartolo, a physician (bass)
Marcellina, Bartolo’s housekeeper (mezzo-soprano)
Don Basilio, a music master (tenor)
Antonio, a gardener (bass)
Barbarina, Antonio’s daughter (soprano)
Don Curzio, a lawyer (tenor)
Villagers, peasants, servants, wedding guests

Setting and story summary

The Marriage of Figaro is set in Count Almaviva’s castle near Seville (now Sevilla), Spain, in the late 18th century.

Act 1: Cherubino hides behind Susanna's chair as the Count arrives.


Act I

Count Almaviva’s castle, in an empty room where Figaro and Susanna will live after their marriage.

Figaro is measuring a space for his nuptial bed while his fiancée, Susanna, tries on her bridal hat. She does not like their new bedroom. Her objection confounds Figaro, for the room is conveniently close to the bedrooms of the Count and Countess whom they serve. But Susanna warns Figaro that it is all too convenient and close for the Count, who is plotting with her music master, Don Basilio, to seduce her. The Countess rings for her, and Susanna leaves. Alone, Figaro vows revenge (“Se vuol ballare, signor Contino”) and storms off in a rage.

Dr. Bartolo enters with his housekeeper, Marcellina. Figaro had once promised to marry her, and Bartolo promises her that he will find a way to hold Figaro to his promise. Bartolo would love to take revenge on Figaro for having earlier foiled his plan to marry Rosina (now the Countess). Bartolo leaves to put his scheme into effect. Susanna returns, and Marcellina jealously spars with her, then leaves in a huff. The teenaged page Cherubino comes in. He tells Susanna that he is in love with the Countess, but the Count has caught him with young Barbarina (Susanna’s cousin and daughter of the gardener Antonio). Cherubino cannot contain his romantic desires (“Non so più cosa son, cosa faccio”).

Cherubino hides behind a chair when the Count arrives to beg Susanna for a tryst before he goes to London with Figaro on diplomatic business. But his wooing is interrupted by the arrival of Don Basilio, and the Count seeks a hiding place. He heads for the chair that conceals Cherubino, forcing the boy to jump into the seat. Susanna hastily covers him with a cloth. When the jealous Count hears Basilio gossip about Cherubino and the Countess, he reveals himself. Basilio naturally concludes that the Count and Susanna are in a relationship. This is all too much for Susanna, who begins to faint. The Count and Basilio rush to her aid and try to get her into the chair where Cherubino is concealed, but she revives and orders them away. The Count vows to make Cherubino leave the castle. When Susanna expresses sympathy for the boy, the Count tells her that Cherubino has been caught with a woman before. Recalling how he found the page hiding under a tablecloth in Barbarina’s room, he lifts the cloth that conceals Cherubino. The Count accuses Susanna of dallying with the boy.

Their argument is interrupted by the arrival of Figaro and a group of peasants. Figaro leads them in singing the Count’s praises for having abolished the feudal droit du seigneur, the right of the lord of the manor to sleep with his servant’s bride on her wedding night. Figaro invites the Count to place the bridal veil on Susanna as a symbol of his blessing on their marriage, which is to take place later that day. The Count is forced to agree, but he privately vows to help Marcellina marry Figaro instead. He also gets Cherubino out of the way by drafting him into his regiment. Figaro teases the boy, who now must trade his pursuit of women for the “glories” of war (“Non più andrai, farfallone amoroso”).


Act II

The Countess’s boudoir.

The Countess bemoans the Count’s infidelity (“Porgi, amor”). Susanna has told her about the Count’s plan to seduce her. Figaro arrives. He knows that the Count is plotting to help Marcellina. He has his own plan: through Basilio, he will send the Count an anonymous note about the Countess’s “lover.” This is sure to drive him to distraction. Meanwhile, Cherubino, disguised as Susanna, will meet the Count in the garden. The Countess can then surprise and embarrass him. Figaro goes off to get the boy.

Cherubino arrives and, at Susanna’s urging, sings the Countess a love song that he wrote for her (“Voi che sapete”). He shows the Countess the regimental commission he had just gotten from Basilio. She and Susanna realize that the commission has no seal on it. Figaro has told Cherubino of the plan to deceive the Count, and Susanna begins to dress the uncomfortable boy as a woman. When she goes into another room to find some ribbon, he declares his love for the Countess. At that moment, the suspicious Count bangs on the door, and Cherubino dives into the closet.

The Count demands to know who was with the Countess, and she tells him it was Susanna, who has gone into another room. The Count shows his wife the anonymous letter that Figaro had written about her “lover.” A noise from the closet obliges the Countess to say that Susanna is in there, not in the other room. Susanna reenters the room, unseen by the Count and Countess, and realizes that there is a problem, so she hides behind a screen. As Cherubino cowers, terrified, in the closet, the Count orders “Susanna” out, but the Countess insists that the door remain closed. The Count is convinced that the Countess is hiding a lover in there. As they argue, they warn each other not to go too far and create a scandal. Susanna remains behind her screen, horrified by the situation. The Countess absolutely refuses to open the closet, so the Count brings her with him to look for something with which to break the closet open. He locks the door behind them. Susanna lets Cherubino out of the closet. In a panic, he escapes through the window, and Susanna hides in the closet.

When the Count and Countess return, she finally admits that Cherubino is in the closet, claiming that it was just a joke. He does not believe her protestations of innocence and threatens to kill Cherubino. Drawing his sword, he flings open the closet door. They are both astonished to find Susanna. The Count, abashed, is forced to beg his wife’s forgiveness. She and Susanna explain that the episode with the closet, and the anonymous note, were all a prank. Figaro arrives to announce that the wedding is about to begin. Questioned by the Count, he denies writing the anonymous note, to the consternation of Susanna and the Countess. The Count is anxious for Marcellina’s arrival so that he can stop the wedding.

Antonio, the gardener, barges in, complaining that someone has jumped from the Countess’s balcony onto his flower garden. Susanna and the Countess caution Figaro, who had seen Cherubino jump. Figaro claims that he himself leapt from the balcony. But Antonio claims he saw a boy, someone half Figaro’s size. The Count immediately realizes that the fugitive was Cherubino. Figaro, sticking to his story, says such optical illusions are common and that Cherubino was on his way to Seville. Figaro explains that he was hiding in the closet waiting for Susanna. After hearing the Count’s shouts, he decided to escape by jumping, and he has injured his foot in the process. He suddenly develops a limp in order to prove his story. But Antonio produces Cherubino’s military commission, which he found in the garden. Figaro, confounded, throws the gardener out. Prompted by the women, Figaro triumphantly explains that the page gave the paper to him because it lacks a seal. Marcellina, Bartolo, and Basilio arrive to demand justice, claiming that Figaro had entered into a contract to marry Marcellina in exchange for a loan. The Count agrees to judge the case, to the joy of Marcellina and the consternation of Figaro.



An elegantly decorated room in the castle where the wedding will take place.

Alone, the Count ponders the confusing situation. Unseen by the Count, the Countess urges a reluctant Susanna to go ahead with Figaro’s plan and tell the Count that she will meet him in the garden later. Because Cherubino is gone, the Countess will impersonate Susanna. The Countess leaves. Susanna overhears the Count talking to himself about Figaro marrying Marcellina. Emboldened, she approaches him, claiming that she has come to get some smelling salts for the Countess, who is having a fainting fit. He tells her that she should keep the salts for herself because she is about to lose her intended husband. She counters that she will repay Marcellina’s loan with the dowry the Count had promised her. But the Count claims he cannot remember any such promise. She has no choice but to flirt with him, and they agree to meet in the garden at night. But as she is leaving, she runs into Figaro, and the Count overhears her saying that they have “won the case.” Enraged, the Count threatens to punish them for their betrayal (“Vedrò mentr’io sospiro”).

The judge Don Curzio arrives with Marcellina and Bartolo. He announces that Figaro must marry Marcellina or repay the loan. Figaro claims that he is of noble birth and cannot marry without his relatives’ consent. When the Count asks who they are, Figaro replies that he was stolen as an infant but hopes to find his parents within 10 years. Bartolo demands proof of his claim, so Figaro shows him a birthmark on his arm—a birthmark that reveals that he is the love child of Marcellina and Bartolo. The reunited family embrace as the frustrated Count rails against fate. Meanwhile, Susanna, unaware of this development, arrives with the money to pay Marcellina, only to be enraged by the sight of Figaro and his mother fondly embracing. But peace reigns when all is explained to her. The Count storms off with Don Curzio. Bartolo proposes marriage to Marcellina. Marcellina tears up Figaro’s debt. Bartolo gives Figaro and Susanna a dowry, and Susanna adds to it the money she had come in with. The four, chuckling at the Count’s frustration, go off to plan a double wedding.

The Countess enters, wondering if the plan to catch the Count will work and recalling sadly the loss of their love (“Dove sono”). After she leaves, Antonio and the Count arrive. Antonio tells the Count that he knows that Cherubino is still in the vicinity, because he found at his house the women’s clothing that Cherubino had been wearing. They run off to look for him. The Countess returns with Susanna, and the two concoct a note, from Susanna to the Count, asking for a meeting in the garden. They seal the note with a pin, which the Count is to return if he agrees to meet her.

Barbarina and some peasant girls, including Cherubino in disguise, come to serenade the Countess. Antonio and the Count return to unmask Cherubino, to the consternation of the Countess. The Count threatens to punish the boy, but Barbarina persuades the Count—who had once, with kisses, promised her anything she wanted—to let her marry Cherubino.

Figaro arrives, eager for the wedding preparations to begin. The Count begins to cross-examine him again, and Antonio produces Cherubino as proof that they have caught Figaro lying. But Figaro cleverly claims that it is possible that both he and Cherubino had jumped into the garden. The wedding march begins, and everyone goes off to get ready, leaving the Count and Countess alone. She refuses to discuss her confusion about Cherubino with him. The wedding party returns in procession, singing another paean to the abolition of the feudal right to sleep with the bride. Susanna slips the sealed note to the Count. As the couples dance the fandango, the Count opens the note, pricks his finger on the pin, and drops it. Figaro watches him with great amusement, believing the note to be from some unknown lady. The Count finds the pin, thrilled at the prospect of meeting Susanna later, and invites everyone to a magnificent wedding banquet.


Act IV

The castle garden.

Barbarina, terribly upset, is searching the garden for something that she has lost (“L’ho perduta, me meschina!”). When Figaro arrives with Marcellina and asks the weeping girl what is wrong, she replies that she has lost the pin that the Count gave her to deliver to Susanna as a token of their tryst. Angry, but pretending that he already knows all about it, he plucks a pin from Marcellina’s dress and gives it to Barbarina, who goes off to give it to Susanna. Figaro collapses into his mother’s arms. She advises him to stay calm, but rage overtakes him and he vows to avenge all deceived husbands. Marcellina, afraid for Susanna, leaves to warn her. Figaro then enlists Basilio and Bartolo to help trap the lovers. Alone again, he denounces the perfidy of women (“Aprite un po’ quegli occhi”). He hides as Susanna arrives, accompanied by Marcellina and the Countess. Marcellina warns Susanna that Figaro is already in the garden. That suits Susanna just fine, as she can avenge herself on both Figaro for his jealousy and the Count for his philandering. Marcellina retires into the pavilion. The Countess is too nervous to remain but allows Susanna to stay for a bit to enjoy the breezes. Susanna sings a love song to an unnamed lover to punish the spying Figaro (“Deh, vieni, non tardar, o gioia bella”). Then she hides nearby and puts on the Countess’s cloak.

Figaro is furious, but he continues to lie in wait. Cherubino arrives, looking for Barbarina, who has meanwhile hidden herself in the pavilion. At the same time, the Countess enters, disguised as Susanna. Cherubino, not realizing who she really is, begins flirting with her. The Count comes in and receives the kiss Cherubino has meant for “Susanna.” The Count slaps Cherubino for his impudence, and the boy flees into the pavilion. Now the Count does some flirting of his own with “Susanna,” and Figaro becomes even angrier. The Count tries to lure “Susanna” into the dark pavilion. But hearing Figaro’s voice and fearing discovery, he tells her to go into the pavilion without him. He exits, promising to meet her later.

The real Susanna arrives, disguised as the Countess. When Figaro hears her voice, he immediately realizes who she is. He pretends to court the “Countess.” Susanna is furious until he reveals his joke, and they tenderly reconcile. When the Count returns, the couple replay the joke. The enraged Count seizes Figaro and calls for weapons. “The Countess” flees into the pavilion as Bartolo, Basilio, Antonio, and Curzio rush in. The Count demands that his wife come out of the pavilion. To everyone’s amazement, out pop Cherubino, Barbarina, Marcellina, and Susanna, who is still dressed as the Countess. She and Figaro pretend to beg the Count’s forgiveness. He refuses, and the Countess reveals herself. The chastened Count humbly asks her pardon. She grants it, and everyone rejoices.

Linda Cantoni

Encyclopædia Britannica

Mozart: "The Marriage of Figaro" Overture
Bangkok Charity Orchestra
Conductor: Chulayuth Lochotinan
Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro (Netrebko, Roschmann, D'Arcangelo, Skovhus) (2007)

Don Giovanni confronts the stone guest in a painting by
Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard, ca 1830–35
(Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)
Don Giovanni - 1787
Don Giovanni (K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It is based on the legends of Don Juan, a fictional libertine and seducer. It was premiered by the Prague Italian opera at the Teatro di Praga (now called the Estates Theatre) on October 29, 1787. Da Ponte's libretto was billed, like many of its time, as dramma giocoso, a term that denotes a mixing of serious and comic action. Mozart entered the work into his catalogue as an opera buffa. Although sometimes classified as comic, it blends comedy, melodrama and supernatural elements.

A staple of the standard operatic repertoire, Don Giovanni is currently tenth on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide. It has also proved a fruitful subject for writers and philosophers.

Composition and premieres
The opera was commissioned as a result of the overwhelming success of Mozart's trip to Prague in January and February of 1787. The subject matter may have been chosen in consideration of the long history of Don Juan operas in Prague; indeed, the genre of eighteenth-century Don Juan opera originated in Prague.

Don Giovanni was originally to have been performed on 15 October 1787 for a visit to Prague of the Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, niece of the Emperor Joseph II, and her new husband, Prince Anthony of Saxony; however, the production could not be prepared in time and Le nozze di Figaro was substituted instead on the order of the emperor himself. The score was completed on 28 October 1787 after Da Ponte was recalled to Vienna to work on another opera. Reports about the last-minute completion of the overture conflict; some say it was completed the day before the premiere, some on the very day. More likely it was completed the day before, in light of the fact that Mozart recorded the completion of the opera on 28 October.

The score calls for double woodwinds, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones (alto, tenor, bass), timpani, basso continuo for the recitatives, and the usual string section. The composer also specified occasional special musical effects. For the ballroom scene at the end of the first act, Mozart calls for two onstage ensembles to play separate dance music in synchronization with the pit orchestra, each of the three groups playing in its own meter (a 3/4 minuet, a 2/4 contradanse and a fast 3/8 peasant dance), accompanying the dancing of the principal characters. In act 2, Giovanni is seen to play the mandolin, accompanied by pizzicato strings. In the same act, two of the Commendatore's interventions ("Di rider finirai pria dell'aurora" and "Ribaldo, audace, lascia a' morti la pace") are sustained by trombones and bassoons, albeit this moment occurs during a recitativo secco.

The opera was first performed on 29 October 1787 in Prague under its full title of Il Dissoluto Punito ossia il Don Giovanni – Dramma giocoso in due atti (The Rake punished, or Don Giovanni, a dramma giocoso in two acts). The work was rapturously received, as was often true of Mozart's work in Prague, (See Mozart and Prague). The Prager Oberpostamtzeitung reported, "Connoisseurs and musicians say that Prague has never heard the like," and "the opera ... is extremely difficult to perform." Provincialnachrichten of Vienna reported, "Herr Mozart conducted in person and was welcomed joyously and jubilantly by the numerous gathering."

Mozart also supervised the Vienna premiere of the work, which took place on 7 May 1788. For this production, he wrote two new arias with corresponding recitatives – Don Ottavio's aria "Dalla sua pace" (K. 540a, composed on April 24 for the tenor Francesco Morella), Elvira's aria "In quali eccessi ... Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata" (K. 540c, composed on April 30 for the soprano Caterina Cavalieri) – and the duet between Leporello and Zerlina "Per queste tue manine" (K. 540b, composed on 28 April).

Performance practices
The opera's final ensemble was generally omitted until the early-20th century, and does not appear in the Viennese libretto of 1788. Mozart also made a shortened version of the operatic score. Nonetheless, the final ensemble is almost invariably performed in full today.

Another modern approach occasionally encountered is to cut Don Ottavio's most celebrated aria, "Il mio tesoro", in favour of the less demanding "Dalla sua pace", which replaced it in the Viennese premiere in order to suit the tenor Francesco Morella. Most modern productions find a place for both tenor arias, however. In addition, the duet, "Per queste tue manine" and the whole accompanying scene involving Zerlina and Leporello, composed specifically for the Viennese premiere, is usually cut from 21st century productions of the opera, although the other Viennese addition, Elvira's "In quali eccessi, o Numi... Mi tradi per l'alma ingrata" is usually retained.

In modern-day productions, Masetto and the Commendatore are typically played by different singers (unless limited by such things as finance or rehearsal time and space), although the same singer played both roles in both the Prague and Vienna premieres, and the final scene's chorus of demons after the Commendatore's exit gives the singer time for a costume change before entering as Masetto for the sextet.

The instrumentation is:

Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons
Brass: 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones
Percussion: timpani
Strings: first violins, second violins, violas, cellos and double basses


Don Giovanni, a young, arrogant, and sexually promiscuous nobleman, abuses and outrages everyone else in the cast, until he encounters something he cannot kill, beat up, dodge, or outwit.

Act 1
The overture begins in D minor, before a light-hearted D major allegro.

Scene 1 – The garden of the Commendatore

Leporello, Don Giovanni's servant, complains of his lot ("Notte e giorno faticar" – "Night and day I slave away"). He is keeping watch while Don Giovanni has entered the Commendatore's house in an attempt to seduce the Commendatore's daughter, Donna Anna. Don Giovanni enters, pursued by Donna Anna. Giovanni is masked and Donna Anna insists on knowing his true identity (Trio: "Non sperar, se non m'uccidi, Ch'io ti lasci fuggir mai!" – "Do not hope, unless you kill me, that I shall ever let you run away!"); before he can break free from her grasp she cries for help. The Commendatore appears and forces Giovanni to fight a duel. Donna Anna flees to seek help. Giovanni kills the Commendatore with his sword and escapes with Leporello. Anna, returning with her fiancé, Don Ottavio, is horrified to see her father lying dead in a pool of his own blood. She makes Ottavio swear vengeance against the unknown murderer. (Duet: "Ah, vendicar, se il puoi, giura quel sangue ognor!" – "Ah, swear to avenge that blood if you can!").

Scene 2 – A public square outside Don Giovanni's palace

Giovanni and Leporello arrive and hear a woman (Donna Elvira) singing of having been abandoned by her lover, on whom she is seeking to wreak her revenge ("Ah, chi mi dice mai" – "Ah, who could ever tell me"). Giovanni starts to flirt with her, but he is the wretch she is seeking. He shoves Leporello forward, ordering him to tell Elvira the truth, and then hurries away.

Leporello tells Elvira that Don Giovanni is not worth her feelings for him. His conquests include 640 women and girls in Italy, 231 in Germany, 100 in France, 91 in Turkey, but in Spain, 1,003 ("Madamina, il catalogo è questo" – "My dear lady, this is the catalogue"). In a frequently cut recitative, Elvira vows vengeance.

They leave, and a marriage procession with Masetto and Zerlina enters. Don Giovanni and Leporello arrive soon after. Giovanni is immediately attracted to Zerlina, and he attempts to remove the jealous Masetto by offering to host a wedding celebration at his castle. On realizing that Giovanni means to remain behind with Zerlina, Masetto becomes angry ("Ho capito! Signor, sì" – "I understand! Yes, my lord!"). Don Giovanni and Zerlina are soon alone and he immediately begins his seductive arts (Duet: "Là ci darem la mano" – "There we will entwine our hands").

Elvira arrives and thwarts the seduction ("Ah, fuggi il traditor" – "Flee from the traitor!"). She leaves with Zerlina. Ottavio and Anna enter, plotting vengeance on the still unknown murderer of Anna's father. Anna, unaware that she is speaking to the attacker, pleads for Giovanni's help. Giovanni, relieved that he is unrecognised, readily promises it, and asks who has disturbed her peace. Before she can answer, Elvira returns and tells Anna and Ottavio that Giovanni is a false-hearted seducer. Giovanni tries to convince Ottavio and Anna that Elvira is insane (Quartet: "Non ti fidar, o misera" – "Don't trust him, oh sad one"). As Giovanni leaves, Anna suddenly recognizes him as her father's murderer and tells Ottavio the story of his intrusion, claiming to have at first been deceived because Anna was expecting a night visit from Ottavio himself, but managed to fight Giovanni off after discovering the imposture, leading to the events we have already witnessed (long recitative-duet between Anna and Ottavio, leading to Anna aria: "Or sai chi l'onore Rapire a me volse" – "Now you know who wanted to rob me of my honour"). Ottavio, not yet convinced (Anna having only recognised Giovanni's voice, not seen his face), resolves to keep an eye on his friend ("Dalla sua pace la mia dipende" – "On her peace my peace depends").

Leporello informs Giovanni that all the guests of the peasant wedding are in Giovanni's house and that he distracted Masetto from his jealousy, but that Zerlina, returning with Elvira, made a scene and spoiled everything. However, Don Giovanni remains cheerful and tells Leporello to organize a party and invite every girl he can find. (Giovanni's "Champagne Aria": "Fin ch'han dal vino calda la testa" – "Till they are tipsy"). They hasten to his palace.

Zerlina follows the jealous Masetto and tries to pacify him ("Batti, batti o bel Masetto" – "Beat, O beat me, handsome Masetto"), but just as she manages to persuade him of her innocence, Don Giovanni's voice from offstage startles and frightens her. Masetto hides, resolving to see for himself what Zerlina will do when Giovanni arrives. Zerlina tries to hide from Don Giovanni, but he finds her and attempts to continue the seduction, until he stumbles upon Masetto's hiding place. Confused but quickly recovering, Giovanni reproaches Masetto for leaving Zerlina alone, and returns her temporarily to him. Giovanni then leads both to his ballroom, which has been lavishly decorated. Leporello invites three masked guests to the party: the disguised Ottavio, Anna, and Elvira. Ottavio and Anna pray for protection, Elvira for vengeance (Trio: "Protegga il giusto cielo" – "May the just heavens protect us").

Luigi Bassi in the title role of Don Giovanni in 1787

Scene 3 – Finale: Ballroom

As the merriment, featuring three separate chamber orchestras on stage, proceeds, Leporello distracts Masetto by dancing with him, while Don Giovanni leads Zerlina offstage to a private room. When Zerlina screams for help, Don Giovanni tries to fool the onlookers by dragging Leporello into the room and threatening to kill him for assaulting Zerlina. But Ottavio produces a pistol, and the three guests unmask and declare that they know all. But despite being denounced on all sides, Don Giovanni escapes – for the moment.

Act 2

Scene 1 – Outside Elvira's house

Leporello threatens to leave Giovanni, but his master calms him with a peace offering of money (Duet: "Eh via buffone" – "Go on, fool"). Wanting to seduce Elvira's maid, Giovanni persuades Leporello to exchange cloak and hat with him. Elvira comes to her window (Trio: "Ah taci, ingiusto core" – "Ah, be quiet unjust heart"). Seeing an opportunity for a game, Giovanni hides and sends Leporello out in the open dressed as Giovanni. From his hiding place Giovanni sings a promise of repentance, expressing a desire to return to her and threatening to kill himself if she does not take him back, while Leporello poses as Giovanni and tries to keep from laughing. Elvira is convinced and descends to the street. Leporello, continuing to pose as Giovanni, leads her away to keep her occupied while Giovanni serenades her maid with his mandolin. ("Deh vieni alla finestra" – "Ah, come to the window").

Before Giovanni can complete his seduction of the maid, Masetto and his friends arrive, searching for Giovanni with the intent of killing him. Giovanni (dressed as Leporello) convinces the posse that he also hates Giovanni, and joins the hunt. After cunningly dispersing Masetto's friends (Giovanni aria: "Metà di voi qua vadano" – "Half of you go this way"), Giovanni takes Masetto's weapons away, beats him up, and runs off, laughing. Zerlina arrives and consoles the bruised and battered Masetto ("Vedrai carino" – "You'll see, dear one").

Scene 2 – A dark courtyard

Leporello abandons Elvira. (Sextet: "Sola, sola in buio loco" – "All alone in this dark place"). As he tries to escape, Ottavio arrives with Anna, consoling her in her grief. Just as Leporello is about to slip through the door, which he has difficulty finding, Zerlina and Masetto open it and, seeing him dressed as Giovanni, catch him before he can escape. When Anna and Ottavio notice what is going on, all move to surround Leporello, threatening him with death. Elvira tries to protect the man who she thinks is Giovanni, claiming that he is her husband and begging for pity. The other four are resolved to punish the traitor, but Leporello removes his cloak to reveal his true identity. He begs everyone's forgiveness and, seeing an opportunity, runs off (Leporello aria: "Ah pietà signori miei" – "Ah, have mercy, my lords"). Given the circumstances, Ottavio is now convinced that Giovanni was the murderer of Donna Anna's father (the deceased Commendatore) and swears vengeance ("Il mio tesoro" – "My treasure" – though in the Vienna version this was cut). Elvira is still furious at Giovanni for betraying her, but she also feels sorry for him. ("Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata" – "That ungrateful wretch betrayed me").

Graveyard scene of act 2 (Prague, probably 1790s), the earliest known set design for the opera

Scene 3 – A graveyard with the statue of the Commendatore.

Leporello tells Don Giovanni of his brush with danger, and Giovanni taunts him, saying that he took advantage of his disguise as Leporello by trying to seduce one of Leporello's girlfriends. But the servant is not amused, suggesting it could have been his wife, and Don Giovanni laughs aloud at his servant's protests. The voice of the statue warns Giovanni that his laughter will not last beyond sunrise. At the command of his master, Leporello reads the inscription upon the statue's base: "Here am I waiting for revenge against the scoundrel who killed me" (Dell'empio che mi trasse al passo estremo qui attendo la vendetta). The servant trembles, but the unabashed Giovanni orders him to invite the statue to dinner, threatening to kill him if he does not. Leporello makes several attempts to invite the statue to dinner but for fear cannot complete the task (Duet: "O, statua gentilissima" – "Oh most noble statue"). It falls upon Don Giovanni himself to complete the invitation, thereby sealing his own doom. Much to his surprise, the statue nods its head and responds affirmatively.

Scene 4 – Donna Anna's room.

Ottavio pressures Anna to marry him, but she thinks it inappropriate so soon after her father's death. He accuses her of being cruel, and she assures him that she loves him, and is faithful ("Non mi dir" – "Tell me not").

Scene 5 – Don Giovanni's chambers

Giovanni revels in the luxury of a great meal, served by Leporello, and musical entertainment during which the orchestra plays then-contemporary late-18th-century operatic music: "O quanto in sì bel giubilo" from Vicente Martín y Soler's Una cosa rara (1786), "Come un agnello" from Giuseppe Sarti's Fra i due litiganti il terzo gode (1782) and finally, "Non più andrai" from Mozart's own The Marriage of Figaro (1786).[18] (Finale "Già la mensa preparata" – "Already the table is prepared"). Elvira appears, saying that she no longer feels resentment for Giovanni, only pity. ("L'ultima prova dell'amor mio" – "The final proof of my love"). Surprised by her lack of hatred, Giovanni asks what it is that she wants, and she begs him to change his life. Giovanni taunts her and then turns away, praising wine and women as the "support and glory of humankind" (sostegno e gloria d'umanità). Hurt and angered, Elvira gives up and leaves. A moment later, her scream is heard from outside the walls of the palace, and she returns only to flee through another door. Giovanni orders Leporello to see what has upset her; upon peering outside, the servant also cries out, and runs back into the room, stammering that the statue has appeared as promised. An ominous knocking sounds at the door. Leporello, paralyzed by fear, cannot answer it, so Giovanni opens it himself, revealing the statue of the Commendatore. With the D minor music from the overture now accompanying the bass voice ("Don Giovanni! A cenar teco m'invitasti" – "Don Giovanni! You invited me to dine with you"), the Commendatore offers a last chance to repent, but Giovanni adamantly refuses. The statue sinks into the earth and drags Giovanni down with him. Hellfire, and a chorus of demons, surround Don Giovanni as he is carried below.

Donna Anna, Don Ottavio, Donna Elvira, Zerlina, and Masetto arrive, searching for the villain. They find instead Leporello hiding under the table, shaken by the supernatural horror he has witnessed. Giovanni is dead. Anna and Ottavio will marry when Anna's year of mourning is over; Elvira will spend the rest of her life in a convent; Zerlina and Masetto will finally go home for dinner; and Leporello will go to the tavern to find a better master.

The concluding ensemble delivers the moral of the opera – "Such is the end of the evildoer: the death of a sinner always reflects his life" ("Questo è il fin di chi fa mal, e de' perfidi la morte alla vita è sempre ugual"). In the past, the final ensemble was sometimes omitted by conductors (such as Gustav Mahler) who claimed that the opera should end when the title character dies. However, this approach has not survived, and today's conductors almost always include the finale in its entirety. The return to D major and the innocent simplicity of the last few bars conclude the opera.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

W. A. Mozart: Don Giovanni (La Scala, Milano 2011)
Published on Nov 11, 2012
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Don Giovanni (La Scala, Milano 2011).
Daniel Barenboim (Director), Anna Netrebko (Anna), Anna
Prohaska (Zerlina), Peter Mattei (Don Giovanni), Bryn Terfel
(Leporello), Barbara Frittoli (Elvira
Kiri Te Kanawa - Don Giovanni
Published on Dec 20, 2013
The 1988 Royal Opera House, Covent Gardon production
conducted by Colin Davis.
Don Giovanni: Thomas Allen
Donna Elvira: Kiri Te Kanawa
Leporello: Stafford Dean
Donna Anna: Makvala Kasrashvili
Il commendatore: Gwynne Howell
Don Ottavio: Stuart Burrows
Zerlina: Joan Rodgers
Masetto: Gordon Sandis
Mozart - Don Giovanni - Overture and start of scene 1
Uploaded on Aug 15, 2007
Nikolaus Harnoncourt conducts the Zurich Opera House Orchestra
from 2002---titles end at about 2:34 and you see him conduct the
rest of the overture.
From start of opera to the entrance of the Commendatore.

Rodney Gilfrey (Don Giovanni) and Laszló Polgár, with Isabel Rey
as Donna Anna
Magic Flute - 1791

The arrival of the Queen of the Night. Stage set by Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781–1841) for an 1815 production
The Magic Flute (German: Die Zauberflöte), K. 620, is an opera in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. The work is in the form of a Singspiel, a popular form that included both singing and spoken dialogue. The work premiered in 1791 at Schikaneder's theatre, the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna.

Emanuel Schikaneder, librettist of Die Zauberflöte, shown performing in the role of Papageno.

The opera was the culmination of a period of increasing involvement by Mozart with Schikaneder's theatrical troupe, which since 1789 had been the resident company at the Theater auf der Wieden. Mozart was a close friend of one of the singer-composers of the troupe, tenor Benedikt Schack (the first Tamino), and had contributed to the compositions of the troupe, which were often collaboratively written. Mozart's participation increased with his contributions to the 1790 collaborative opera Der Stein der Weisen (The Philosopher's Stone), including the duet ("Nun liebes Weibchen", K. 625/592a) among other passages. Like The Magic Flute, Der Stein der Weisen was a fairy-tale opera and can be considered a kind of precursor; it employed much the same cast in similar roles.

The libretto for The Magic Flute, written by Schikaneder, shares much of its plot and many of its characters with the Singspiel Oberon, written by Karl Ludwig Giesecke for the Schikaneder troupe two years earlier (and set to music by Paul Wranitzky) as a re-adaptation of Sophie Seyler's Singspiel Hüon und Amande.

Mozart evidently wrote keeping in mind the skills of the singers intended for the premiere, which included both virtuosi and ordinary comic actors asked to sing for the occasion. Thus, the vocal lines for Papageno—sung by Schikaneder himself—and Monostatos (Johann Joseph Nouseul) are often stated first in the strings so the singer can find his pitch, and are frequently doubled by instruments. In contrast, Mozart's sister-in-law Josepha Hofer, who premiered the role of the Queen of the Night, evidently needed little such help: this role is famous for its difficulty. In ensembles, Mozart skillfully combined voices of different ability levels.

The pitch ranges of two of the original singers for whom Mozart tailored his music have posed challenges for many singers who have since recreated their roles. The Queen of the Night's "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" ("The vengeance of Hell boils in my heart") reaches a high F6, rare in opera. At the low end, the part of Sarastro, premiered by Franz Xaver Gerl, includes a conspicuous F2 in a few locations.

Premiere and reception
The opera was premiered in Vienna on 30 September 1791 at the suburban Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden. Mozart conducted the orchestra,  Schikaneder himself played Papageno, while the role of the Queen of the Night was sung by Mozart's sister-in-law Josepha Hofer.

On the reception of the opera, Mozart scholar Maynard Solomon writes:

Although there were no reviews of the first performances, it was immediately evident that Mozart and Schikaneder had achieved a great success, the opera drawing immense crowds and reaching hundreds of performances during the 1790s.

The success of The Magic Flute lifted the spirits of its composer, who had fallen ill while in Prague a few weeks before. Solomon continues:

Mozart's delight is reflected in his last three letters, written to Constanze, who with her sister Sophie was spending the second week of October in Baden. "I have this moment returned from the opera, which was as full as ever", he wrote on 7 October, listing the numbers that had to be encored. "But what always gives me the most pleasure is the silent approval! You can see how this opera is becoming more and more esteemed." … He went to hear his opera almost every night, taking along [friends and] relatives.

The opera celebrated its 100th performance in November 1792. Mozart did not have the pleasure of witnessing this milestone, having died of his illness on 5 December 1791.

Since its premiere, The Magic Flute has always been one of the most beloved works in the operatic repertoire, and is presently the fourth most frequently performed opera world wide.

First publication
On 28 December 1791, three and a half weeks after Mozart's death, his widow Constanze offered to send a manuscript score of The Magic Flute to the electoral court in Bonn. Nikolaus Simrock published this text in the first full-score edition (Bonn, 1814), claiming that it was "in accordance with Mozart's own wishes" (Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 13 September 1815).

The Magic Flute and Freemasonry
The Magic Flute is noted for its prominent Masonic elements. Schikaneder and Mozart were Masons and lodge brothers, as was Ignaz Alberti, engraver and printer of the first libretto. The opera is also influenced by Enlightenment philosophy, and can be regarded as an allegory advocating enlightened absolutism. The Queen of the Night represents a dangerous form of obscurantism or, according to some, the anti-Masonic Roman Catholic Empress Maria Theresa. Her antagonist Sarastro symbolises the enlightened sovereign who rules according to principles based on reason, wisdom, and nature. The story itself portrays the education of mankind, progressing from chaos through religious superstition to rationalistic enlightenment, by means of trial (Tamino) and error (Papageno), ultimately to make "the Earth a heavenly kingdom, and mortals like the gods" ("Dann ist die Erd' ein Himmelreich, und Sterbliche den Göttern gleich"); this couplet is sung in the finales to both acts.

Act 1
Scene 1: A rough, rocky landscape

Tamino, a handsome prince who is lost in a distant land, is pursued by a serpent and asks the gods to save him (quartet: "Zu Hilfe! Zu Hilfe!"). He faints, and three ladies, attendants of the Queen of the Night, appear and kill the serpent. They find the unconscious prince very attractive, and each of them tries to convince the other two to leave. After arguing, they reluctantly decide to leave together.

Tamino wakes. Papageno enters, arrayed entirely in the plumage of birds. He describes his happy life as a bird-catcher, but also complains of his longing for a wife, or at least a girlfriend (aria: "Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja"). Tamino emerges and introduces himself to Papageno, who he initially thinks may have killed the serpent. Papageno is only too happy to take the credit – he claims that he strangled the monster with his bare hands. The three ladies suddenly reappear and place a padlock over his mouth as a warning not to lie. They give Tamino a portrait of the Queen of the Night's daughter Pamina, with whom Tamino falls instantly in love (aria: "Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön" / "This image is enchantingly lovely").

The ladies return and tell Tamino that Pamina has been captured by an evil sorcerer, Sarastro. Tamino swears that he will rescue Pamina. The Queen of the Night herself appears and tells Tamino that Pamina will be his wife if he can rescue her from Sarastro (Recitative and aria: "O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn" / "Oh, tremble not, my dear son!"). After the Queen leaves, the ladies remove the padlock from Papageno's mouth, warning him not to tell any more lies. They give Tamino a magic flute, which will protect him on his journey and has the power to change sorrow into joy. They tell Papageno to accompany Tamino on his rescue-mission and present him with some magic bells for protection – the bells will bring great happiness to anyone who hears them. The ladies introduce three child-spirits, who will guide Tamino and Papageno to Sarastro's temple. Together Tamino and Papageno set forth (Quintet: "Hm! Hm! Hm! Hm!").

Scene 2: A room in Sarastro's palace

Pamina is dragged in by Sarastro's slaves. Monostatos orders the slaves to untie her and leave them together. Papageno, sent ahead by Tamino to help find Pamina, enters. (Trio: "Du feines Täubchen, nur herein!".) Monostatos and Papageno are each terrified by the other's strange appearance and Monostatos flees. Papageno announces to Pamina that her mother has sent Tamino to save her. Pamina rejoices to hear that Tamino is in love with her. She offers sympathy and hope to Papageno, who longs for a wife. Together they reflect on the joys and sacred duties of marital love (duet: "Bei Männern welche Liebe fühlen").

Scene 3: A grove

The three child-spirits lead Tamino to Sarastro's temple, promising that if he remains patient, wise and steadfast, he will succeed in rescuing Pamina. Tamino approaches the left-hand entrance and is denied access by voices from within. The same happens when he goes to the entrance on the right. But from the entrance in the middle, an old priest appears and lets Tamino in. (The old priest is referred to as "The Speaker" in the libretto, but his role is a singing role.) He tells Tamino that Sarastro is benevolent, not evil, and that he should not trust the Queen of the Night. Tamino plays his magic flute. Animals appear and dance, enraptured, to his music. Tamino hears Papageno's pipes sounding offstage, and hurries off to find him.

Papageno and Pamina are trying to find Tamino when they are captured by Monostatos and his slaves. Papageno plays his magic bells, and Monostatos and his slaves begin to dance, mesmerised by the beauty of the music ("Das klinget so herrlich"). Papageno and Pamina hear the sound of Sarastro's retinue approaching. Papageno is frightened and asks Pamina what they should say. She answers that they must tell the truth. Sarastro enters, with a crowd of followers.

Pamina falls at Sarastro's feet and confesses that she tried to escape because Monostatos had forced his attentions on her. Sarastro receives her kindly and assures her that he wishes only for her happiness. But he refuses to return her to her mother, whom he describes as a proud, headstrong woman, and a bad influence on those around her. Pamina, he says, must be guided by a man.

Monostatos brings in Tamino. The two lovers see one another for the first time and embrace, causing indignation among Sarastro's followers. Monostatos tells Sarastro that he caught Papageno and Pamina trying to escape and demands a reward. Sarastro, however, punishes Monostatos for his lustful behaviour toward Pamina, and sends him away. He announces that Tamino must undergo trials of wisdom in order to become worthy as Pamina's husband. The priests declare that virtue and forgiveness will sanctify life ("Wenn Tugend und Gerechtigkeit").

Act 2
Scene 1: A grove of palms

The council of priests of Isis and Osiris, headed by Sarastro, enters to the sound of a solemn march. Sarastro tells the priests that Tamino is ready to undergo the ordeals that will lead to enlightenment. He explains that he seized Pamina from her mother so that she could be united with Tamino – he plans for the couple to eventually take over from him as rulers of the temple. He invokes the gods Isis and Osiris, asking them to protect Tamino and Pamina (Aria: "O Isis und Osiris").

Scene 2: The courtyard of the Temple of Ordeal

Tamino and a frightened Papageno are led in by two priests. The priests ask Tamino what he seeks; he says that they are searching for enlightenment, wisdom and love, for which they will risk their lives and undergo every trial. Papageno declines the trials at first, saying that he doesn't care much about wisdom or enlightenment, and only wants sleep, food and wine, and a pretty woman. One of the priests tells Papageno that Sarastro may have a woman for him if he undergoes the trials: she is called Papagena and is young and beautiful – a perfect wife for Papageno.

The priests advise Tamino and Papageno of the dangers ahead of them, warn them of women's wiles and swear them to silence (Duet: "Bewahret euch von Weibertücken"). The three ladies appear. They are shocked that Tamino is now an ally of Sarastro and tempt Tamino and Papageno to speak. (Quintet: "Wie, wie, wie") Papageno cannot resist answering the ladies, but Tamino remains aloof, angrily instructing Papageno not to listen to the ladies' threats and to keep quiet. Seeing that Tamino will not speak to them, the ladies withdraw in confusion.

Scene 3: A garden, Pamina asleep

Pamina is asleep. Monostatos approaches and gazes upon her with rapture. (Aria: "Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden") He is about to kiss the sleeping Pamina, when the Queen of the Night appears. Pamina wakes and tells her mother that Tamino is aspiring to join Sarastro's brotherhood and to gain enlightenment. The Queen is furious and gives Pamina a dagger, ordering her to kill Sarastro with it and threatening to disown her if she does not. (Aria: "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" / "Hell's vengeance boils in my heart"). She leaves. Monostatos returns and tries to force Pamina's love by threatening to reveal the Queen's plot, but Sarastro enters and drives him off.
Pamina begs Sarastro to forgive her mother and he reassures her that revenge and cruelty have no place in his domain (Aria: "In diesen heil'gen Hallen").

Scene 4: A hall in the Temple of Ordeal

Tamino and Papageno are led in by priests. They are reminded that they must remain silent. Papageno complains of thirst. An old woman enters and offers Papageno a cup of water. He drinks and teasingly asks whether she has a boyfriend. She replies that she does and that his name is Papageno. She disappears as Papageno asks for her name, and the three child-spirits bring in food, the magic flute, and the bells, sent from Sarastro. Tamino begins to play the flute, which summons Pamina. She tries to speak with him. Tamino, bound to a vow of silence as part of the trials, cannot talk to her, and Pamina begins to believe that he no longer loves her. (Aria: "Ach, ich fühl's, es ist verschwunden") She leaves in despair.

Scene 5: The pyramids

The priests celebrate Tamino's successes so far, and pray that he will succeed and become worthy of their order (Chorus: "O Isis und Osiris"). Pamina is brought in and Sarastro instructs Pamina and Tamino to bid each other farewell before the greater trials ahead. (Trio: Sarastro, Pamina, Tamino – "Soll ich dich, Teurer, nicht mehr sehn?") They exit and Papageno enters, in search of Tamino and complaining about the trials. The priests grant his request for a glass of wine and he expresses his desire for a wife. (Aria, Papageno: "Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen"). The elderly woman reappears and tells him that unless he marries her, he will be imprisoned forever. When Papageno promises to love her faithfully (muttering that he will only do this until something better comes along), she immediately transforms into the young and pretty Papagena. Papageno rushes to embrace her, but the priests drive him back, telling him that he is not yet worthy of her.

Scene 6: A garden

The three child-spirits hail the dawn. They observe Pamina, who is contemplating suicide because she believes Tamino has abandoned her. The child-spirits restrain her and reassure her of Tamino's love. She allows them to lead her to Tamino. (Quartet: "Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden").

Scene 7: Outside the Temple of Ordeal

Two men in armour lead in Tamino. They recite one of the formal creeds of Isis and Osiris, promising enlightenment to those who successfully overcome the fear of death ("Der, welcher wandert diese Strasse voll Beschwerden"). This recitation takes the musical form of a Baroque chorale prelude, to the tune of Martin Luther's hymn Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein (Oh God, look down from heaven).[19] Tamino declares that he is ready to be tested. Pamina's voice is heard offstage. The men in armour assure Tamino that the trial by silence is over and he is free to speak with her. Pamina enters and declares her intention to undergo the remaining trials with Tamino. Pamina hands Tamino the magic flute to help them through the trials. ("Tamino mein, o welch ein Glück!"). Protected by the music of the magic flute, they pass unscathed through chambers of fire and water. The Priests hail their triumph and invite the couple to enter the temple.

Scene 8: A garden

Papageno despairs at having lost Papagena and decides to hang himself (Aria/Quartet: "Papagena! Papagena! Papagena!") The three child-spirits appear and stop him. They advise him to play his magic bells to summon Papagena. She appears and, united, the happy couple stutter in astonishment. They plan their future and dream of the many children they will have together (Duet: "Pa … pa … pa ...").[20]

The traitorous Monostatos appears with the Queen of the Night and her three ladies. They plot to destroy the temple ("Nur stille, stille") and the Queen confirms that she has promised her daughter Pamina to Monostatos. But before the conspirators can enter the temple, they are magically cast out into eternal night.

Scene 9: The Temple of the Sun

Sarastro announces the sun's triumph over the night. Everyone praises the courage of Tamino and Pamina in enduring their trials, gives thanks to Isis and Osiris and hails the dawn of a new era of wisdom and brotherhood.

Magic Flute (Queen of Night Aria)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "The Magic Flute" - Royal Opera
House production
Diana Damrau as Queen of Night
Dorothea Röschmann as Pamina
conducted by Colin Dav
The Queen of the Night(O zittre nicht) 20 sopranos
1. Erika Miklosa
2. Clara Polito
3. Beverley Sills
4. Hyunju Park
5. Mimi Coertse
6. Elena Mosuc
7. Ingeborg Hallstein
8. Luciana Serra
9. June Anderson
10. Edita Gruberova
11. Lucia Popp
12. Cyndia Sieden
13. Cristina Deutekom
14. Birgit Nordin
15. Edda Moser
16. Giusy Devinu
17. Roberta Peters
18. Sumi Jo
19. Natalie Dessay
20. Diana Damrau
Queen of the night Aria act2:"Der Hölle Rache"(11 Sopranos)
1.Diana Damrau (2003 live)

2.Lucia Popp (1970 live)

3.Joan Sutherland (1962 live)

4.Edda Moser (1972)

5.Cristina Deutekom (1968 English live)

6.June Anderson (1991)

7.Cheryl Studer (1989)

8.Elena Mosuc (2000 live)

9.Luciana Serra (1991 live)

10.Natalie Dessay (2001 live)

11.조수미_Sumi Jo (1992)

Queen of the night Aria act2: "Der Hölle Rache" (14 sopranos)
1.조수미_Sumi Jo
Wiener Philharmoniker_Georg Solti(1990)

2.Wilma Lipp
Karl Bohm Wiener Philharmoniker(1955)

3.Beverly Hoch
Roger Norrington_London Classical Players(1990)

4.Cyndia Sieden
John Eliot Gardiner English Baroque Soloists(1995)

5.Edita Gruberova
Jamer Levine_Wiener Philharmoniker
(1982 live)

6.Sylvia Geszty
Staats Kapelle Dresden_Otmar Suitner

7.Rita Streich
RIAS Symphonie Orchester Berlin Ferenc Fricsay(1954)

8.Julia Kogan (live)

9.Andrea Frei
Orchestra Of The Ludwigsburger Festspiele_Wolfgang Gonnenwein(1992 live)

10.Luciana Serra
Staats kapelle Dresden_Sir Colin Davis(1984 live)

11.Erika Miklosa
Mahler Chamber Orchestra_Claudio Abbado(2005 live)

12.Karin Ott
Herbert von Karajan_Berliner Philharmoniker(1980)

13.Roberta Peters
Berliner Philharmoniker Karl Bohm(1964)

14.권해선_Hellen Kwon
Ivan Anguelov_Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra(1996)

Il Flauto Magico - riccardo muti - 1995
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Conductor
Jens-Daniel Herzog, Stage Director
Mathis Neidhardt, Sets and Costume Design
Stefan Bolliger, Lighting Design
Ronny Dietrich, Dramaturgy
Ramses Sigl, Choreography
Ernst Raffelsberger, Chorus Master
Georg Zeppenfeld, Sarastro
Bernard Richter, Tamino
Mandy Fredrich, The Queen of Night
Julia Kleiter, Pamina, her daughter
Sandra Trattnigg, First Lady
Anja Schlosser, Second Lady
Wiebke Lehmkuhl, Third Lady
Tölzer Knaben, Three Boys
Markus Werba, Papageno
Elisabeth Schwarz, Papagena
Rudolf Schasching, Monostatos, a Moor
Martin Gantner, Speaker
Lucian Krasznec, First Man in Armour/First Priest
Andreas Hörl, Second Man in Armour
Concentus Musicus Wien
Concert Association of the Vienna State Opera Chorus
Requiem - 1791
The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in Vienna in 1791 and left unfinished at the composer's death on December 5. A completion dated 1792 by Franz Xaver Süssmayr was delivered to Count Franz von Walsegg, who had anonymously commissioned the piece for a requiem mass to commemorate the February 14 anniversary of his wife's death.

The autograph manuscript (acquired by the Austrian National Library in 1831–1838) shows the finished and orchestrated Introit in Mozart's hand, as well as detailed drafts of the Kyrie and the sequence Dies Irae as far as the first eight bars of the "Lacrymosa" movement, and the Offertory. It cannot be shown to what extent Süssmayr may have depended on now lost "scraps of paper" for the remainder; he later claimed the Sanctus and Agnus Dei as his own. Walsegg probably intended to pass the Requiem off as his own composition, as he is known to have done with other works. This plan was frustrated by a public benefit performance for Mozart's widow Constanze. A modern contribution to the mythology is Peter Shaffer's 1979 play Amadeus, in which a mysterious messenger orders Mozart to write a requiem mass, giving no explanation for the order; Mozart (in the play) then comes to believe that the piece is meant to be the requiem mass for his own funeral.

The Requiem is scored for 2 basset horns in F, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets in D, 3 trombones (alto, tenor & bass), timpani (2 drums), violins, viola and basso continuo (cello, double bass, and organ). The vocal forces include soprano, contralto, tenor, and bass soloists and an SATB mixed choir.


At the time of Mozart's death on 5 December 1791, only the opening movement (Requiem aeternam) was completed in all of the orchestral and vocal parts. The following Kyrie and most of the sequence (from Dies Irae to Confutatis) were complete only in the vocal parts and the continuo (the figured organ bass), though occasionally some of the prominent orchestral parts were briefly indicated, such as the first violin part of the Rex tremendae and Confutatis and the musical bridges in the Recordare. The sixth movement of the sequence, the Lacrymosa, breaks off after only eight bars and was unfinished. The following two movements of the Offertorium were again partially done; the Domine Jesu Christe in the vocal parts and continuo (up until the fugue, which contains some indications of the violin part) and the Hostias in the vocal parts only.

Constanze Mozart and the Requiem after Mozart's death
The eccentric count Franz von Walsegg commissioned the Requiem from Mozart anonymously through intermediaries. The count, an amateur chamber musician who routinely commissioned works by composers and passed them off as his own, wanted a Requiem Mass he could claim he composed to memorialize the recent passing of his wife. Mozart received only half of the payment in advance, so upon his death his widow Constanze was keen to have the work completed secretly by someone else, submit it to the count as having been completed by Mozart and collect the final payment. Joseph von Eybler was one of the first composers to be asked to complete the score, and had worked on the movements from the Dies irae up until the Lacrymosa. In addition, a striking similarity between the openings of the Domine Jesu Christe movements in the requiems of the two composers suggests that Eybler at least looked at later sections. After this work, he felt unable to complete the remainder, and gave the manuscript back to Constanze Mozart.

The task was then given to another composer, Franz Xaver Süssmayr. Süssmayr borrowed some of Eybler's work in making his completion, and added his own orchestration to the movements from the Kyrie onward, completed the Lacrymosa, and added several new movements which a Requiem would normally comprise: Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. He then added a final section, Lux aeterna by adapting the opening two movements which Mozart had written to the different words which finish the Requiem Mass, which according to both Süssmayr and Mozart's wife was done according to Mozart's directions. Some people[who?] consider it unlikely, however, that Mozart would have repeated the opening two sections if he had survived to finish the work.

Other composers may have helped Süssmayr. The Agnus Dei is suspected by some scholars to have been based on instruction or sketches from Mozart because of its similarity to a section from the Gloria of a previous Mass (Sparrow Mass, K. 220) by Mozart, as was first pointed out by Richard Maunder. Others have pointed out that in the beginning of the Agnus Dei the choral bass quotes the main theme from the Introitus. Many of the arguments dealing with this matter, though, center on the perception that if part of the work is high quality, it must have been written by Mozart (or from sketches), and if part of the work contains errors and faults, it must have been all Süssmayr's doing. A frequent meta-debate[citation needed] is whether this is a fair way to judge the authorship of the parts of the work.

Another controversy is the suggestion that Mozart left explicit instructions for the completion of the Requiem on "little scraps of paper." It is commonly believed[by whom?] this claim was made by Constanze Mozart after it was public knowledge that the Requiem was actually completed by Süssmayr as a way to increase the impression of authenticity.

The completed score, initially by Mozart but largely finished by Süssmayr, was then dispatched to Count Walsegg complete with a counterfeited signature of Mozart and dated 1792. The various complete and incomplete manuscripts eventually turned up in the 19th century, but many of the figures involved did not leave unambiguous statements on record as to how they were involved in the affair. Despite the controversy over how much of the music is actually Mozart's, the commonly performed Süssmayr version has become widely accepted by the public. This acceptance is quite strong, even when alternate completions provide logical and compelling solutions for the work. A completion dating from 1819 by Sigismund Neukomm has been recorded under the baton of Jean-Claude Malgoire. Salzburg-born Neukomm, a student of Joseph Haydn, provided a concluding Libera me, Domine for a performance of the Requiem on the feast of St Cecilia in Rio de Janeiro at the behest of Nunes Garcia.

The confusion surrounding the circumstances of the Requiem's composition was created in a large part by Mozart's wife, Constanze. Constanze had a difficult task in front of her: she had to keep secret the fact that the Requiem was unfinished at Mozart's death, so she could collect the final payment from the commission. For a period of time, she also needed to keep secret the fact that Süssmayr had anything to do with the composition of the Requiem at all, in order to allow Count Walsegg the impression that Mozart wrote the work entirely himself. Once she received the commission, she needed to carefully promote the work as Mozart's so that she could continue to receive revenue from the work's publication and performance. During this phase of the Requiem's history, it was still important that the public accept that Mozart wrote the whole piece, as it would fetch larger sums from publishers and the public if it were completely by Mozart.

It is Constanze's efforts that created the flurry of half-truths and myths almost instantly after Mozart's death. According to Constanze, Mozart declared that he was composing the Requiem for himself, and that he had been poisoned. His symptoms worsened, and he began to complain about the painful swelling of his body and high fever. Nevertheless, Mozart continued his work on the Requiem, and even on the last day of his life, he was explaining to his assistant how he intended to finish the Requiem. Source materials written soon after Mozart’s death contain serious discrepancies, which leave a level of subjectivity when assembling the "facts" about Mozart’s composition of the Requiem. For example, at least three of the conflicting sources, both dated within two decades following Mozart's death, cite Constanze as their primary source of interview information. In 1798, Friedrich Rochlitz, a German biographical author and amateur composer, published a set of Mozart anecdotes that he claimed to have collected during his meeting with Constanze in 1796. The Rochlitz publication makes the following statements:

Mozart was unaware of his commissioner's identity at the time he accepted the project.
He was not bound to any date of completion of the work.
He stated that it would take him around four weeks to complete.
He requested, and received, 100 ducats at the time of the first commissioning message.
He began the project immediately after receiving the commission.
His health was poor from the outset; he fainted multiple times while working.
He took a break from writing the work to visit the Prater with his wife.
He shared the thought with his wife that he was writing this piece for his own funeral.
He spoke of "very strange thoughts" regarding the unpredicted appearance and commission of this unknown man.
He noted that the departure of Leopold II to Prague for the coronation was approaching.

The most highly disputed of these claims is the last one, the chronology of this setting. According to Rochlitz, the messenger arrives quite some time before the departure of Leopold for the coronation, yet there is a record of his departure occurring in mid-July 1791. However, as Constanze was in Baden during all of June to mid-July, she would not have been present for the commission or the drive they were said to have taken together. Furthermore, The Magic Flute (except for the Overture and March of the Priests) was completed by mid-July. La clemenza di Tito was commissioned by mid-July. There was no time for Mozart to work on the Requiem on the large scale indicated by the Rochlitz publication in the time frame provided.

Also in 1798, Constanze is noted to have given another interview to Franz Xaver Niemetschek, another biographer looking to publish a compendium of Mozart's life. He published his biography in 1808, containing a number of claims about Mozart’s receipt of the Requiem commission:

Mozart received the commission very shortly before the Coronation of Emperor Leopold II, and before he received the commission to go to Prague.
He did not accept the messenger's request immediately; he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating his fee, but urging that he could not predict the time required to complete the work.
The same messenger appeared later, paying Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work's completion.
He started composing the work upon his return from Prague.
He fell ill while writing the work
He told Constanze "I am only too conscious...my end will not be long in coming: for sure, someone has poisoned me! I cannot rid my mind of this thought."
Constanze thought that the Requiem was overstraining him; she called the doctor and took away the score.
On the day of his death he had the score brought to his bed.
The messenger took the unfinished Requiem soon after Mozart's death.
Constanze never learned the commissioner's name.
This account, too, has fallen under scrutiny and criticism for its accuracy. According to letters, Constanze most certainly knew the name of the commissioner by the time this interview was released in 1800. Additionally, the Requiem was not given to the messenger until some time after Mozart's death. This interview contains the only account from Constanze herself of the claim that she took the Requiem away from Wolfgang for a significant duration during his composition of it. Otherwise, the timeline provided in this account is historically probable. However, the most highly accepted text attributed to Constanze is the interview to her second husband, Georg Nikolaus von Nissen. After Nissen's death in 1826, Constanze released the biography of Wolfgang (1828) that Nissen had compiled, which included this interview. Nissen states:

Mozart received the commission shortly before the coronation of Emperor Leopold and before he received the commission to go to Prague.
He did not accept the messenger's request immediately; he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating his fee, but urging that he could not predict the time required to complete the work.
The same messenger appeared later, paying Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work's completion.
He started composing the work upon his return from Prague.
The Nissen publication lacks information following Mozart's return from Prague.

Modern completions
In the 1960s a sketch for an Amen fugue was discovered, which some musicologists (Levin, Maunder) believe belongs to the Requiem at the conclusion of the sequence after the Lacrymosa. H. C. Robbins Landon argues that this Amen fugue was not intended for the Requiem, rather that it "may have been for a separate unfinished Mass in D minor" to which the Kyrie K. 341 also belonged. There is, however, compelling evidence placing the "Amen Fugue" in the Requiem based on current Mozart scholarship. First, the principal subject is the main theme of the requiem (stated at the beginning, and throughout the work) in strict inversion. Second, it is found on the same page as a sketch for the Rex tremendae (together with a sketch for the overture of his last opera The Magic Flute), and thus surely dates from late 1791. The only place where the word 'Amen' occurs in anything that Mozart wrote in late 1791 is in the sequence of the Requiem. Third, as Levin points out in the foreword to his completion of the Requiem, the addition of the Amen Fugue at the end of the sequence results in an overall design that ends each large section with a fugue.

Since the 1970s several musicologists, dissatisfied with the traditional "Süssmayr" completion, have attempted alternative completions of the Requiem. Each version follows a distinct methodology for completion:

Franz Beyer - makes revisions to Süssmayr's orchestration in an attempt to create a more Mozartian style.
H. C. Robbins Landon - orchestrates parts of the completion using the partial work by Eybler, thinking that Eybler's work is a more reliable guide of Mozart's intentions.
Richard Maunder - dispenses completely with the parts known to be written by Süssmayr, but retains the Agnus Dei after discovering an extensive paraphrase from an earlier Mass (Sparrow Mass, K. 220).
Duncan Druce - makes slight changes in orchestration, but retain Eybler's ninth and tenth measure of the Lacrymosa, lengthening the movement substantially to end in the "Amen Fugue". He also completely rewrites the Benedictus, only retaining the opening theme.
Robert D. Levin and Simon Andrews - each retain the structure of Süssmayr while adjusting orchestration, voice leading and in some cases rewriting entire sections in an effort to make the work more Mozartean.
Benjamin-Gunnar Cohrs - provides an entirely new instrumentation, based on Eybler's ideas, new elaborations of the Amen and Osanna fugues, and a new continuity of the Lacrymosa (after b. 18), Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei, following those bars of which Dr. Cohrs assumes Mozart might have sketched himself.
In the Levin, Andrews, Druce and Cohrs versions, the Sanctus fugue is completely rewritten and reproportioned and the Benedictus is restructured to allow for a reprise of the Sanctus fugue in the key of D (rather than Süssmayr's use of B-flat).

Maunder, Levin, Druce and Cohrs use the sketch for the Amen fugue discovered in the 1960s to compose a longer and more substantial setting to the words "Amen" at the end of the sequence. In the Süssmayr version, "Amen" is set as a plagal cadence with a Picardy third (iv - I in D minor) at the end of the Lacrymosa: the Andrews version uses the Süssmayr ending.

Other authors have also attempted the completion, including Clemens Kemme.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mozart - Requiem By Herbert von Karajan (Full HD) (Full Concert)
Mozart - Requiem - Cecilia Bartoli - George Solti 1991
Requiem - Mozart by Gardiner
Requiem of Mozart - John Eliot Gardiner

Barbara Bonney, Soprano.
Anne Sofie von Otter, Mezzo-soprano.
Anthony Rolfe Johnson, Tenor.
Alastair Miles, Bass.

Monteverdi Choir
English Baroque Soloists

Filmed at the Palau de la Música Catalana, Barcelona, in December 1991.

Mozart - Requiem (Sir Colin Davis - Full Recording)
The legendary 1967 recording of Mozart's Requiem

Performed by Helen Donath, Yvonne Minton, Ryland Davies, Gerd Nienstedt
John Alldis Choir, BBC Symphony Orchestra

Conducted by Sir Colin Davis

1. I. Introitus: Requiem Aeternam
2. II. Kyrie
3. III. Sequentia: Dies Irae
4. III. Sequentia: Tuba Mirum
5. III. Sequentia: Rex Tremendae Majestatis
6. III. Sequentia: Recordare
7. III. Sequentia: Confutatis
8. III. Sequentia: Lacrimosa
9. IV. Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
10. IV. Offertorium: Hostias
11. V. Sanctus
12. VI. Benedictus
13. VII. Angus Dei
14. VIII. Communio: Lux Aeterna

0:00 Requiem Aeternam 4:45 Kyrie 7:27 Dies Irae 9:12 Tuba Mirum 13:06 Rex Tremendae Majestatis 15:38 Recordare 22:29 Confutatis 25:41 Lacrimosa 28:48 Domine Jesu Christe 33:25 Hostias 38:15 Sanctus 40:05 Benedictus 45:02 Angus Dei 48:37 Lux Aeterna

Mozart, Requiem en re menor K626. Karl Bohm
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