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  Guillaume de Machaut  
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Guillaume de Machaut
 
 
WORK

Messe de Notre Dame

Je vivroie liement/Liement me deport

Douce dame jolie

De Fortune Me Doi Plaindre Et Loer

Joie, plaisance et douce nourriture

J'aim sans penser

Nes que on porroit les estoilles nombrer

Amours me fait désirer
 
 
 

French miniature, 14th century An allegorical scene in which Nature offers Machaut three of her children -Sense, Rhetoric, and Music.
 
 
Probably born in Rheims, Machaut was the leading exponent of the Ars Nova movement that flourished in France during the fourteenth century. In 1323 he joined the royal household of John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, and served as a clerk for about 20 years, widely respected as a poet as well as a composer. He travelled with the court, but increasingly spent his time composing rather than in administration. His first verified composition was a motet written in 1324 for the election of the Archbishop of Rheims. Through the efforts of King John, Machaut was granted several benefices, in particular the canonry of the new Gothic cathedral in Rheims, granted in 1337. He took up residency there in 1340, leaving his formal work with the king though remaining in service until the monarch's death at the battle of Crecy in 1346.

Machaut was one of the earliest known users of syncopated rhythm, and was at the forefront of rhythmic experimentation in both his religious and his secular music. His Hoquetus David is one of the first pieces of purely instrumental music in modern Western times. In addition, he composed for voices in a wider vocal range than was previously thought possible. In all he wrote more than 140 (mainly polyphonic) compositions, although fewer than two dozen have been found outside his own collections, suggesting that he protected his work fiercely. After the outbreak of the Black Death in France at the end of the 1340s, Machaut prepared elaborate collections of his compositions for his patrons, who included Jean, Due de Berry, and the future King Charles V of France. These unique and very beautifully illuminated manuscript editions combined motets, ballades, and many other forms with a wide selection of his poetry.

Machaut's Messe de Notre Dame is, deservedly, the best-known composition of the entire age. He -wrote the principal components of the Mass (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus/Benedictus, and Agnus Dei) polyphonically rather than in the customary plainchant. It is also one of the first Masses to have been written as a whole by a single composer (previously the different components of the Mass were assembled from different composers). This, together with its innovative rhythmical techniques, makes it a milestone in the evolution of the Mass as a musical form in its own right.
 
 

Manuscript illumination, 14th century Singers performing one of Machaut's works from a rotu/us (music roll).
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut
 
see also:  Guillaume de Machaut (French literature)
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault) (c. 1300 – April 1377) was a Medieval French poet and composer. He is one of the earliest composers on whom significant biographical information is available. According to Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, Machaut was "the last great poet who was also a composer". Well into the 15th century, Machaut's poetry was greatly admired and imitated by other poets, including Geoffrey Chaucer.

Machaut composed in a wide range of styles and forms. He is a part of the musical movement known as the ars nova. Machaut helped develop the motet and secular song forms (particularly the lai and the formes fixes: rondeau, virelai and ballade). Machaut wrote the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer.

 
Life
Guillaume de Machaut was born c. 1300 and educated in the region around Rheims. Though his surname most likely derives from the nearby town of Machault, 30 km east of Rheims in the Ardennes region, most scholars believe his birthplace was, in fact, Rheims.

He was employed as secretary to John I, Count of Luxemburg and King of Bohemia, from 1323 to 1346 and also became a canon (1337). He most likely accompanied King John on his various trips, many of them military expeditions, around Europe (including Prague). He was named the canon of Verdun in 1330, Arras in 1332, and Rheims in 1337. By 1340, Machaut was living in Rheims, having relinquished his other canonic posts at the request of Pope Benedict XII. In 1346, King John was killed fighting at the Battle of Crécy, and Machaut, who was famous and much in demand, entered the service of various other aristocrats and rulers, including King John's daughter Bonne (who died of the Black Death in 1349), her sons Jean de Berry and Charles (later Charles V, Duke of Normandy), and others such as Charles II of Navarre.

 
Machaut survived the Black Death that devastated Europe and spent his later years living in Rheims composing and supervising the creation of his complete-works manuscripts. His poem Le voir dit (probably 1361–1365) purports to recount a late love affair with a 19-year-old girl, Péronne d'Armentières, although the accuracy of the work as autobiography is contested. When he died in 1377, other composers such as François Andrieu wrote elegies lamenting his death.
 
Poetry
Guillaume de Machaut's lyric output comprises around 400 poems, including 235 ballades, 76 rondeaux, 39 virelais, 24 lais, 10 complaintes, and 7 chansons royales, and Machaut did much to perfect and codify these fixed forms. Some of his lyric output is inserted in his narrative poems or "dits", such as Le remède de fortune ("The Cure of Ill Fortune") which includes one of each genre of lyric poetry, and Le voir dit ("A True Story"), but most are included in a separate, unordered section entitled Les loanges des dames. That the majority of his lyrics are not set to music (in manuscripts, music and non-music sections are separate) suggests that he normally wrote the text before setting some to music.
Other than his Latin motets of a religious nature and some poems invoking the horrors of war and captivity, the vast majority of Machaut's lyric poems partake of the conventions of courtly love and involve statements of service to a lady and the poet's pleasure and pains. In technical terms, Machaut was a master of elaborate rhyme schemes, and this concern makes him a precursor to the Grands Rhétoriqueurs of the 15th century.

Guillaume de Machaut's narrative output is dominated by the "dit" (literally "spoken", i.e. a poem not meant to be sung).

  These first-person narrative poems (all but one are written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets, like the romance, or "roman" of the same period) follow many of the conventions of the Roman de la rose, including the use of allegorical dreams (songes), allegorical characters, and the situation of the narrator-lover attempting to return toward or satisfy his lady.
Machaut is also responsible for a poetic chronicle the chivalric deeds of Peter I of Cyprus (the Prise d'Alexandrie) and for poetic works of consolation and moral philosophy. His unusual self-reflective usage of himself (as his lyrical persona) as the narrator of his dits gleans some personal philosophical insights as well.

At the end of his life, Machaut wrote a poetic treatise on his craft (his Prologue). This reflects on his conception of the organization of poetry into set genres and rhyme schemes, and the ordering of these genres into distinct sections of manuscripts. This pre-occupation in ordering his oeuvre is reflected in an index to MS A entitled "Vesci l'ordenance que G. de Machau wet qu'il ait en son livre" ("Here is the order that G. de Machaut wants his book to have").

Machaut's poetry had a direct effect on the works of Eustache Deschamps, Jean Froissart, Christine de Pizan, René of Anjou and Geoffrey Chaucer, among many others.

 
 

Antisemitism
In René Girard's book The Scapegoat, Guillaume de Machaut's work is shown to instigate violence against Jews, as he accuses them of poisoning wells and causing the black plague which ravaged France in 1349. Girard uses Guillaume's work to demonstrate the "stereotypes of the scapegoat". (Girard R., 1986)

 
Music
As a composer of the 14th century, Machaut's secular song output includes monophonic lais and virelais, which continue, in updated forms, some of the tradition of the troubadours. He also worked in the polyphonic forms of the ballade and rondeau and wrote the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass which can be attributed to a single composer. Machaut fused together contemporary styles and techniques to create a series of masterworks that Classic FM Magazine says stands at the summit of 14th century music.
 

Secular music
The lyrics of Machaut's works almost always dealt with courtly love. A few works exist to commemorate a particular event, such as M18, "Bone Pastor/Bone Pastor/Bone Pastor." Machaut mostly composed in five genres: the lai, the virelai, the motet, the ballade, and the rondeau. In these genres, Machaut retained the basic formes fixes but often utilized creative text setting and cadences. For example, most rondeaux phrases end with a long melisma on the penultimate syllable. However, a few of Machaut's rondeaux, such as R18 "Puis qu'en oubli", are mostly syllabic in treatment.

Machaut's motets often contain sacred texts in the tenor, such as in M12 "Corde mesto cantando/Helas! pour quoy virent/Libera me". The top two voices in these three-part compositions, in contrast, sing secular French texts, creating interesting concordances between the sacred and secular. In his other genres, though, he does not utilize sacred texts.

  Sacred music
Machaut's cyclic setting of the Mass, the Messe de Nostre Dame ("Mass of Our Lady"), was probably composed for Rheims Cathedral in the early 1360s. While not the first cyclic mass – the Tournai Mass is earlier – it was the first by a single composer and conceived as a unit. Machaut probably was familiar with the Tournai Mass since the Messe de Nostre Dame shares many stylistic features with it, including textless interludes. Whether or not Machaut's mass is indeed cyclic is contested; after lengthy debate, musicologists are still deeply divided. However, there is a consensus that this mass is at best a forerunner to the later 15th-century cyclic masses by the likes of Josquin des Prez. Machaut's mass differs from these in the following ways: (1) he does not hold a tonal centre throughout the entire work, as the mass uses two distinct modes (one for the Kyrie, Gloria and Credo, another for Sanctus, Agnus and Ita missa est); (2) there is no extended melodic theme that clearly runs through all the movements, and the mass does not use the parody technique; (3) there is considerable evidence that this mass was not composed in one creative motion. That the movements may have been placed together does not mean they were conceived so.Nevertheless, the mass can be said to be stylistically consistent, and certainly the chosen chants are all celebrations of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Also adding weight to the claim that the mass is cyclic is the possibility that the piece was written or assembled for performance at a specific celebration. The possibility that it was for the coronation of Charles V, which was once widely accepted, is thought unlikely in modern scholarship. The composer's intention that the piece be performed as one entire mass setting makes the Messe de Nostre Dame generally considered a cyclic composition.
 
 
 
 
 
Machaut - Messe de Notre Dame
(abbaye de Thoronet, Ens. G. Binchois, dir. D. Vellard)
 
Misa de Notre Dame de Guillaume de Machaut, cantada por el Ensemble Gilles Binchois,
bajo la dirección de Dominique Vellard.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut "Je vivroie liement/Liement me deport"
 

I should lead a happy life,
sweet creature,
if only you truly realized
that you where the cause of all
my concern.
Lady of cheerful bearing,
pleasing, bright and pure,
often the woe I suffer
to serve you loyally

makes me say 'alas!'
And you may be sure
that I can in no wise
go on living like this, if it lasts
any longer

For you are merciless to me
and pitilessly obdurate,
and have put such longing
into my heart

that it will certainly die
a most dismal death,
unless for its relief
your mercy is soon
ready.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut: Douce dame jolie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT: De Fortune Me Doi Plaindre Et Loer (Ballade 23).
Ensemble Musica Nova
 
La hermosa balada de Machaut iluminada con algunas de las miniaturas pertenecientes al "Codex Manesse". La interpretación es del Ensemble Musica Nova
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut: Joie, plaisance et douce nourriture
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut : J'aim sans penser
 
Ensemble Gilles Binchois - Dominique Vellard, dir.: Le Jugement du Roi de Navarre - Guillaume de Machaut : Ballades, motets, virelais et textes dits

Anne-Marie Lablaude (voice), Brigitte Lesne (voice, harp, percussion), Akira Tachikawa (voice), Dominique Vellard (voice, gittern), Emmanuel Bonnardot (voice, fiddle, rebec), Pierre Hamon (recorders, flute, bagpipes), Randall Cook (fiddle, recorder), Jean-Paul Racodon

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut: Nes que on porroit les estoilles nombrer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guillaume de Machaut: Amours me fait désirer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     
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