TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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  Classical Music Timeline

Classical Music History

Instruments Through the Ages

Composers and Masterworks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
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Introduction
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
The Baroque Era
The Classical Era
The Romantic Era
The Romantic Legacy
The Modern Age

 
 
 
The Romantic Legacy
 
 
Albeniz Isaac 
Balakirev Mily
Bristow George Frederick
Bruch Max
Busoni Ferruccio
Chabrier Emmanuel
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
D’Albert Eugen
Debussy Claude
Delibes Leo
D'Indy Vincent
Dukas Paul
Duparc Henri
Dvorak Antonin
Elgar Edward
Franck Cesar

Ernest Chausson
Falla Manuel
Faure Gabriel
Glazunov Alexander
Goldmark Karl
Gomes Antonio Carlos
Gottschalk Louis
Grieg Edward
Granados Enrique
Joachim Joseph
Kienzl Wilhelm
Lalo Edouard
Leoncavallo Ruggero
  MacDowell Edward
Mahler Gustav
Mascagni Pietro
Nielsen Carl
Paderewski Ignace
Paine John Knowles
Parry Hubert
Pedrell Felipe
Pfitzner Hans
Ponchielli Amilcare
Puccini Giacomo
Ravel Maurice
Reger Max
Saint-Saens Camille
Sarasate Pablo
Satie Eric
Scriabin Alexander
Sgambati Giovanni
Sibelius Jean
Sinding Christian
Smetana Bedrich
Stanford Charles
Strauss Richard
Suppe Franz
Waldteufel Emile
Weingartner Felix
Widor Charles Marie
Wieniawski Henri
Williams Vaughan
Wolf Hugo
 
 
 

Camille Pissarro
 

The 1880s saw a great expansion of European power overseas and much of tropical Africa was divided between the great European nations. Asian colonies were also established - at the expense of the Chinese empire - drawing the United States into the expansionist tide. Britain fought a bitter war with the Boer republics, and a newly industrialized Japan inflicted a harsh defeat on Russia, provoking the futile revolution of 1905. Ancient rivalries between Russia and Austria-Hungary combined with German ambitions and nationalist strife in the Balkans to fuel European tensions, The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbian patriot sparked off a brutal conflict that swiftly engulfed the continent.

In France, art became involved in a fruitful period of controversy, with Impressionist painters making major advances in the use of colour and technique to capture light and atmosphere. Traditional forms were profoundly challenged, and by the early 1900s abstract art had appeared.

The later nineteenth century witnessed some remarkable scientific achievements -the beginnings of atomic physics, the discovery of X-rays and Pasteur's work on micro-organisms, as well as Einstein's theories of relativity. Technological innovation was vigorous - the phonograph and electric light bulb made their first appearances - to be followed by the motor car aeroplane, and wireless.

In music, nationalism remained a potent source of inspiration; British, Czech, and Russian composers drew on native songs and folk music, as did Grieg in Norway and Bartok in Hungary. From the United States came ragtime - highly popular and also rooted in indigenous traditions.

 


Edouard Manet
 

By the late 1870s the revolutionary and nationalistic fervour so closely associated with the Romantic movement had transformed the map of Europe. The new German Empire maintained a fragile balance of power, upholding the resolutions that had been agreed upon at the Congress of Berlin. Nationalism was by no means a spent force but, in the later years of the century, it assumed a different character. While the unification of Germany and Italy had been essentially constructive processes, as disparate states were built up to form new nations, similar forces in central and eastern Europe tended more to destruction, leading to the break-up of long-established empires.

Romanticism played a lesser part in this second strain of nationalism. In literature and the visual arts the movement was gradually supplanted in the mid-nineteenth century, giving way to the Realist school. In the musical world Romanticism had a longer life. One of its foremost exponents, Richard Wagner, was still a dominant figure at the end of the century. Increasingly, however, it became a mark of tradition, rather than an instrument for change. In a musical context realism's nearest equivalent was VERISMO (true to life) opera, inspired by Bizet's Carmen (1875), which shocked Parisian audiences with its uninhibited portrayal of lust and savagery. Even so, it helped to create a demand for operas that concentrated on the seamier aspects of lite — a demand which was cheerfully supplied by composers like Puccini and Mascagni.
 

VERISMO Italian, "realism." A type of Italian opera current in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Aiming at social and psychological realism, verismo operas depicted the lives of ordinary people and addressed contemporary themes.

 


Pierre-Auguste
Renoir

 

The influence of Impressionism and the East

In the meantime, a veritable revolution was taking place in the art world. In 1874 a group of French painters banded together to stage the first Impressionist show in Paris. In all, they would mount eight exhibitions, all in open defiance of the academic establishment. These artists sought to capture on canvas the ephemeral effects of light and of changing patterns of weather,

as well as the immediacy of contemporary Parisian life. Rejecting the carefully composed artifices of their predecessors, they tried to paint pictures that were like "snapshots." The Impressionists' emphasis on the fleeting moment had slight Romantic overtones, but their overall approach was more scientific — Monet painted more than 20 versions of Rouen cathedral to illustrate how its appearance altered under different light conditions — and they fiercely opposed the emotionalism of Romantic art.

The Impressionists' evocative style translated well into musical terms. Manuel de Falla described his Nights in the gardens of Spain (1916) as a series of "symphonic impressions" for piano and orchestra; some of Ravel's pieces, such as Jeux d'eau (1901) and Miroirs (1905). could be called impressionistic; and Claude Debussy was greatly attracted to the work of the Impressionists. Indeed, striking parallels exist between the effects created by Impressionist paintings and Debussy's vise of subtle textures of harmony and tone to conjure up images of misty, atmospheric scenes, as in his Nuages (the first part of Nocturnes). The understatement and restraint characterizing works of this kind distanced them from the passion and the storytelling that were typical of Romanticism.

From the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1889 Debussy carried away deep impressions of the unique sound of the Javanese gamelan orchestra. He soon incorporated its exotic flavour into works such as Pagodas and his String quartet in G minor. Other composers followed suit, similarly seduced by the mystique of the East. Puccini's Madama Butterfly centred on the plight of a Japanese geisha girl; Mahler based his Song of the Earth on a cycle of six Chinese, poems; and Gilbert and Sullivan scored one of their biggest popular successes with The mikado. based on an Eastern theme. This vogue for things oriental swept through most branches of the arts. Blue and white porcelain and Japanese prints became significant collector's items, and the latter profoundly influenced painters like Van Gogh and Gauguin. The higher profile of the East, in part due to the beauty of its culture, was all the more exaggerated as the rush for imperial possessions gathered pace in the final years of the nineteenth century.


Edgar
Degas

 

Colonial expansion and conflict

Russia, thwarted in its advance towards Constantinople, next turned its attention to the moribund Chinese empire and annexed Manchuria. The other European powers soon followed the Russian example. Germany established bases in northern China, Britain consolidated its position in Hong Kong, the French extended their influence over Indochina, and even a comparatively weak state like Portugal managed to take possession of Macao. This involvement in Asian affairs reached a peak in 1900 when a combined force of European, Japanese, and American troops looted and occupied Peking, on the pretext of suppressing the Boxer Rebellion.

The spread ot imperialism was not confined to Asia. In every corner of the globe European governments hastened to stake their claims. Britain led the way. making great gains in central and southern Africa, as well as in the Pacific, where Fiji, New Guinea, and North Borneo were added to the list of new acquisitions. At the same time France tightened its grip on the Ivory Coast and Madagascar, while German forces occupied southwest Africa and the Solomon Islands. In the Congo King Leopold II of Belgium carved out a personal empire for himself, which he eventually bequeathed to his country.

Even the United States joined this expansionist tide. Hawaii was annexed in 1897, and Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam were taken from Spain the following year. In 1903 the United States encouraged a "revolution" in Panama in order to bring into American jurisdiction the transcontinental canal that was then under construction.

The race to establish overseas colonies made the great powers less inclined to wage war at home and, as a result, Europe enjoyed a period of comparative peace around the turn of the century. Instead, the major conflicts tended to occur outside the continent, when and where imperial interests were threatened. Britain, for example, became embroiled in a bitter

struggle against the Boer Republics in South Africa. It had been thought that the Afrikaners would put up little resistance against the might of the British army, but their forces inflicted heavy losses at the sieges of Mafeking and Kimberley, and the war lasted for three years (1899-1902).


Henri de
Toulouse-Lautrec
 

Russia in turmoil

Russia encountered similar problems in its new eastern territories. Early in 1904 the Japanese launched an attack, destroying part of the Vladivostok fleet near the Korean Straits and laying siege to Fort Arthur. This vital Manchunan stronghold finally fell in January 1905, and Japanese victory was assured after Admiral Togo's triumph at Tsushima in May of that year.

These reverses had serious consequences inside Russia itself, triggering a wave of social unrest. A government minister was assassinated, and strikes multiplied throughout the country. On 22 January 1905 — known as "Red Sunday" — nearly 1,000 demonstrators were butchered by Tsarist troops as they were attempting to deliver a petition at the Winter Palace in St Petersburg. Then, in June of the same year, sailors on the battleship Potemkin mutinied and put their officers to death. Order was ultimately restored, but the signs of future unrest were ominously clear.
 


Paul
Cezanne
 

Nationalism and imperialism

The ferment within Russia seemed to vindicate the views of Cecil Rhodes (the founder of Rhodesia), who declared that nations should become imperialist if they wished to avoid civil war. Many European governments shared this opinion, recognizing that colonial success would not only bring economic benefits, but could also deflect social discontent at home.

This brought about a significant shift in the nature of nationalist feeling. Whereas in the earlier part of the nineteenth century nationalism had usually been associated with liberalism or with the radical tradition of the French Revolution, it was now also used as a political tool by conservative elements. They sought to awaken a pride in national values and a patriotic sense of duty in order to draw attention away from domestic economic uncertainties.

This proved to be a double-edged sword. While greater national pride had its uses, it also led to an increase in xenophobia which, in turn, added to the risk of war. For example, the long-running Dreyfus affair, a case of treason that scandalized France for over a decade, was inflamed by the fact that the army officer in question was Jewish. Captain Dreyfus was wrongly convicted in 1 894; his sentence would not be quashed until 1906. Similarly, in England, the hostility to foreigners reached such a pitch that the royal family followed the prudent course of masking their German origins by adopting the name of Windsor.
 


Vincent Van Gogh

 

Nationalism and music

In the latter half of the nineteenth century nationalism proved a potent source of inspiration for many composers. In Czech music the groundwork had been laid by Frantisek Skroup, who in 1826 had produced the first homegrown opera, Dratenik (The Tinker); he also wrote the song that would many years later be chosen as the national anthem. He was followed by Smetana. whose nationalist sympathies had been stirred by the 1 848 uprising. In 1866 his most famous opera, The bartered bride, a lively evocation of rural life in a Bohemian village, was first produced. Smetana continued to celebrate his homeland with operas such as Libuse and with his cycle of symphonic poems, Ma Vlast.

This patriotic flavour was maintained in the work of Smetana's compatriot. Antonin Dvorak, who had played under his direction as a violinist in the national orchestra. Dvorak made particular use of native dance forms such as the dumka and the furiant, and his two collections of Slavonic dances won him international acclaim.

The Czech experience was replicated in other parts of the continent as composers looked to their musical roots for inspiration. However, the political dimensions of this trend varied considerably. Some composers used folk elements as a colourful and exotic feature of an otherwise cosmopolitan style. Liszt's Hungarian rhapsodies, for instance, mostly published in the

1 850s, were not based on true traditional forms, but rather derived from the gypsy music that could be heard in the restaurants and cafes of Budapest. The genuine folk music of Hungary was not appreciated until many years later.

Nationalism also prompted some nations to re-examine their own heritage. In France the National Society for French Music, founded in 1871, attempted to revive the country's musical fortunes by commissioning new editions and performances of works by earlier French masters. This, together with the Schola Cantorum (another educational body, founded in 1904), helped to restore the nation to its prominent position m the musical world.

The British emphasized the creation of a new native school. One mischievous German critic had described England as "the land without music" but, after the turn of the century, this jibe had lost its sting. Edward Elgar captured the patriotic mood of the country with his Pomp and circumstance marches, while Henry Wood's Promenade Concerts (beginning in 1895) provided the nation with an enduring musical tradition. Their efforts were consolidated by that most English of composers, Ralph

Vaughan Williams. His work benefited from his experience as editor of the Sew English hymnal— he later wrote that his "close association with some of the best (as well as some of the worst) tunes in the world was a better musical education than any amount of sonatas and fugues" — and from his links with the English Folk Song Society, founded in 1898. Together with Gustav Hoist, another folk enthusiast, he made field trips into the English countryside, noting down the songs and dances that he heard. Excursions of this kind into East Anglia provided the raw material for his three Sorfolk rhapsodies and In the Fen Country.
 


Paul Gauguin

 

The importance of folk music

The collecting of folk songs had begun in earnest in England in 1843 with the publication of the Reverend John Broadwood's Old English songs. This led to a series of similar anthologies, culminating in the work of Cecil Sharp (1859-1924), who collected some three thousand songs during Ins travels. Francis Child, a professor at Harvard University, performed an equally mountainous task in the United States. The motives of most of these collectors were either curatorial -preserving an aspect of culture that was in danger of dying out — or educational.

In Germany, Brahms used arrangements of folk songs as the basis of many of his Lieder. Elsewhere, the use of folk material represented a reaction against the dominance of German culture, whose influence had been so far-reaching that many talented young musicians believed it was necessary for them to study in a German conservatoire, if their music was to gain wide acceptance.

One such composer was Edvard Grieg, who trained in Leipzig but returned to his native Norway determined to break away from his foreign musical education. He helped found the Norwegian Academy of Music (1867) and produced scintillating piano arrangements of peasant dances. Debussy might have described some of his pieces as "bonbons stuffed with snow", but Grieg's fellow-countrymen considered them a perfect evocation of their misty Nordic homeland. In Finland Sibelius struck a similarly patriotic note, using the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic, as source material for many of his compositions. Equally, composers such as Albeniz and Falla in Spain used traditional sources as a basis for much of their music.

In England the next crucial stage in the collecting of folk songs was undertaken by an Australian musician, Percy Grainger, who had been inspired by Grieg to take an interest in folk music. In 1908 he journeyed round Lincolnshire, using a phonograph to record any tunes he came across. His research was echoed independently in the studies of Kodaly and Bartok. They, too, employed a phonograph, amassing some 16,000 recordings of peasant songs and dances during their travels in Hungary, Slovakia, and Romania.

The conditions under which this kind of research was conducted were arduous and painstaking. The machines themselves were barely portable, while the wax cylinders they used ran for only two and a half minutes, which meant interrupting the flow of the performance. Even so, the recordings allowed

musicians to study the material more closely and accurately and this, in turn, altered the way in which folk sources were applied. Whereas the earlier Romantics had tended to smooth out the irregularities they found in traditional songs or had simply composed in a folk idiom, later musicians used their discoveries as a departure point for creating newer and more original forms. This was particularly true of Bartok, who developed a very personal musical language that stretched tonality - the conventional method of composing a piece around one particular key — to its limits.
 


Gustave Moreau
 

Scientific developments

The phonograph, invented by Edison in 1877, was just one of the products of the technological revolution that transformed society in the years leading up to World War I. In 1895 the Lumiere brothers had presented the first cinematograph performance in Paris. Four years later Marconi set up wireless communications between England and France and just two years after that managed to establish similar links between Cornwall and Newfoundland. The same period also saw the appearance of such diverse advances as the electric light bulb, the safety razor, and the vacuum cleaner. Just as these symbols of progress were being invented, other scientists were casting doubt on the very foundations of contemporary belief. In 1900 Max Planck postulated his Quantum Theory and, five years later, Albert Einstein published his first Theory of Relativity. In 1904 Sir Ernest Rutherford's book on radioactivity challenged the concept of the indestructibility of matter, taking the study of physics along a new and dangerous path. Equally

influential, though in an entirely different way. was Sigmund Freud's work on psychoanalysis. Gustav Mahler was one of his patients, seeking relief from the agonized soul-searching which permeates so much of his music.

The last years of the nineteenth century also witnessed enormous advances in the fields of transportation and communications. The motor car, which had been pioneered by Daimler and Benz m the 1880s, became an increasingly common sight. London introduced its first taxicabs in 1903 and, four years later, the Model T Ford went into production in Detroit. Even as these developments were taking place, the Wright brothers were hard at work on the next mechanical marvel. In 1903 they achieved the first series of successful aeroplane flights in North Carolina, the longest of these lasting for just 59 seconds.
 


Henri Matisse
 

New trends in music and art

The vast improvements in communications helped to speed up the transmission of artistic currents. A series of "crazes" swept across Europe, as musical innovations from the New World made their mark. John Philip Sousa took his band on several well-attended tours of Europe, winning great acclaim for marches like 'The Washington Post and The Stars and Stripes forever. He gave his name to the sousaphone, a type of tuba, and became an international bestselling author with his biography, Marching Along.

Another — far less respectable — import was the tango, which had evolved in the brothel quarter of Buenos Aires. Eyebrows were raised at the popularity of this "immodest" dance. At the same time, and with far greater impact, ragtime burst upon the London scene m 1912. In that year a revue called Hullo rag-time opened at the Hippodrome Theatre in London and ran for 451 performances, giving British audiences their first taste of modern American music.

The undisputed centre of artistic developments at this time was Paris. The Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev chose the city as the home for his Ballets Russes company, and painters from all over Europe gravitated towards it. Indeed, it was a measure of the city's cosmopolitan appeal that the "School of Paris" — the group of artists who pioneered modern art at the start of the twentieth century — included two Spaniards (Picasso and Gris), three Russians (Chagall, Soutme and Lipchitz), an Italian (Modighani), a Romanian (Brancusi), and a Dutchman (Van Dongen).

If the geographical barriers between the arts were shrinking, so too were the aesthetic ones. Many painters of the period consciously sought to endow their pictures with musical qualities. James Whistler went one stage further, giving his canvases musical titles such as "Nocturnes" and "Symphonies." Accordingly, he dubbed his celebrated portrait of his mother An Arrangement in Grey and Black. Conversely, the composer Alexander Scriabin aimed at a marriage of sight and sound through his music. He wanted performances of his symphonic poem Prometheus to be accompanied by a display of coloured lights flashed onto a screen. Each note was to be represented by a different colour: "E", for example, he visualized as "pearly white and shimmer of moonlight."

It nothing else, these experiments demonstrated the feverish spirit of creativity that prevailed in prewar Europe. Post-Impressiomsm, Art Nouveau, Fauvism, Symbolism, Cubism, and Expressionism were all spawned within a matter of years. The specifics of these new styles differed greatly, but in general they marked the diminishing influence of the official academies that had controlled the arts for so long.
 

The Suffragette movement

A similar questioning of established order appeared in other sectors of society. The Trade Union and Socialist movements that had taken root in the nineteenth century continued to grow, and these were now joined by the new cause of female emancipation. The United States took the lead in this field, with some states granting women the vote before the turn of the century. In Europe the struggle started later and lasted longer. Women in Finland were granted electoral equality in 1906, with Norway following suit in 1908. In Britain the suffragette campaign began in earnest in 1906. It was cut short when war broke out, and it was not until 1928 that emancipation became universal, giving all British women the vote.
 

 

The road to war

The shadow of war had loomed over Europe since an uneasy peace emerged from the 1878 Congress of Berlin. By 1893 the continent had divided into two camps: the Dual Alliance of France and Russia, and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. The situation became more complicated in 1904 as France and Britain entered into their Entente Cordiale. On the surface this was little more than an imperialist pact by which France recognized British claims to Egypt, in return for support of its own activities in Morocco. However, the agreement also placed an extra strain on the delicate balance of power. German leaders voiced their tears about encirclement by their enemies, while the opposing powers were equally concerned at the mounting threat of Pan-Germanism. France's lingering bitterness over the loss of Alsace and Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War rubbed further salt into this wound.

Once again it was the strength of nationalist feeling in the Balkans which tilted the balance towards chaos. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. These provinces, under the nominal control of Turkey, had in reality been administered by the Austrians ever since the Berlin conference. Their annexation now was meant to stem the ambitions of Serbia, which hoped to unite all the Slav nations under its banner. Inevitably, the Serbs protested vociferously at the annexations, supported in this move by Russia. However, the Austro-German commitment to the seizures proved too powerful to contest and Russia was forced to climb down.

The Serbs gained their revenge in June 1914 when the heir to the Austrian throne, the Archduke Ferdinand, was murdered in Sarajevo. The Serbian press boasted that the assassination had been plotted in Belgrade, and pressure on the Austrian government to retaliate was overwhelming. However, in the years that had elapsed since the Bosnian crisis, attitudes had hardened. This time there was to be no backing down. Once Serbia and Austria had begun hostilities, the complex system of alliances came into play, and within a week the continent was at war.
 


Henri Rousseau

 

Additional composers

Composers in the latter halt of the nineteenth centnry were affected in varying degrees by nationalism. In Russia the most fiery spokesman for the cause was Mily Balakirev (1837 — 1910), whose work is best represented by the oriental fantasy for piano, Islamey. In Poland, the violin virtuoso Henri Wieniawski (1835— 1880) favoured the national dance forms of mazurka and polonaise, although his fine Second violin concerto has a more international flavour. The Spaniard Enrique Granados (1867-1916) showed an affinity with Spanish art of earlier periods: his masterpiece is the suite of piano pieces Goyescas. The cosmopolitan Max Bruch (1838—1920) was quite at home using Russian, Swedish, Scottish, and Hebrew melodies (the last in the Scottish fantasy and the beautiful Коl Nidrei). He never recaptured the richly memorable invention of the popular First violin concerto in G minor.

In Fiance, Emmanuel Chabrier (1841-1894) and Ernest Chausson (1855 — 1899) were consummate artists who wrote music of great character and polish. Chabrier's wit and colourful orchestration are at their finest in the rhapsody Espana. but the Dix pieces pittoresques for piano have more delicate sensitivity. The opera Gwendoline shows his interest m Wagner, who also influenced Chausson, sometimes stiflmgly. However, Chausson's Symphony is an outstandingly graceful vision, superior in every way to Cesar Franck's (Franck Cesar) bombastic though more popular example. In Роете (Opus 25) Chausson achieved a masterpiece whose ecstatic lyricism is enhanced by its succinctness. Although psychosomatic illness led Henri Duparc (1848-1933) to abandon composition, his acknowledged output of 13 songs, composed between 1868 and 1884, is one of the most moving utterances in all French music.

In Italy the predominance of opera produced bolder, even crude music: the verismo movement of violent naturalism was anticipated by Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886) in La Gioconda (1876), and later exemplified by Mascagni Pietro (1863—1945) in Cavalleria rusticana, whose emotional effectiveness produced a sensational overnight success.

In the United States, the virtuoso piano music of Louis Gottschalk (1829-1869). though often brash, had a delightfully exotic feel m works such as Le Bananier and Le banjo; the piano pieces of Edward MacDowell (1860-1918), the Woodland sketches, were closer in spirit to Grieg. His fine Second piano concerto well deserves its occasional airing.

 
 
 
Michael Balfe
 
Michael William Balfe, (born May 15, 1808, Dublin, Ire.—died Oct. 20, 1870, near Ware, Hertfordshire, Eng.), singer and composer, best known for the facile melody and simple ballad style of his opera The Bohemian Girl.
 

Michael William Balfe
  Balfe appeared as a violinist at age nine and began composing at about the same time. In 1823 he went to London, where he studied violin with C.F. Horn and played in the orchestra at Drury Lane Theatre. In 1825 he was taken to Italy by Count Mazzara, a wealthy patron. There he studied composition, took voice lessons, and produced his first ballet, La Pérouse (1825). Between 1827 and 1833 he sang leading baritone roles in operas by Gioachino Rossini, Giacomo Meyerbeer, and others in Paris and Italy. His own early operas were written on Italian librettos and produced at Palermo, Pavia, and Milan between 1829 and 1833, after which he returned to London. His first English opera, The Siege of Rochelle, was produced at Drury Lane in 1835.

His popularity was established; in 1838 he sang Papageno in the first English performance of The Magic Flute, and with Le Puits d’amour (1843) he began a series of French operas.

The Bohemian Girl (first performed 1843) was the most successful of his operas and was produced in many countries, in French, German, Italian, and Russian. Two of the ballads from it, “When Other Lips” and “I Dreamt That I Dwelt in Marble Halls,” have been published in many arrangements.

Balfe produced several other operas in London; essayed managing and conducting with little success; and between 1849 and 1864 traveled in France, Germany, Italy, and Russia.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Michael W. Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl" (1843) - Overture
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michael William Balfe - "The Dream", The Bohemian Girl (Elīna Garanča)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Engelbert Humperdinck
 

Engelbert Humperdinck (1 September 1854 – 27 September 1921) was a German composer, best known for his opera Hänsel und Gretel. Humperdinck was born at Siegburg in the Rhine Province and died at the age of 67 in Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

 
Biography
After receiving piano lessons, Humperdinck produced his first composition at the age of seven. His first attempts at works for the stage were two Singspiele written when he was 13. His parents disapproved of his plans for a career in music and encouraged him to study architecture. Nevertheless, he began taking music classes under Ferdinand Hiller and Isidor Seiss at the Cologne Conservatory in 1872. In 1876, he won a scholarship that enabled him to go to Munich, where he studied with Franz Lachner and later with Josef Rheinberger. In 1879, he won the first Mendelssohn Award given by the Mendelssohn Stiftung (foundation) in Berlin. He went to Italy and became acquainted with Richard Wagner in Naples. Wagner invited him to join him in Bayreuth and during 1880 and 1881 Humperdinck assisted in the production of Parsifal. He also served as music tutor to Wagner's son, Siegfried.

After winning another prize, Humperdinck traveled through Italy, France, and Spain and spent two years teaching at the Gran Teatre del Liceu Conservatory in Barcelona. In 1887, he returned to Cologne. He was appointed professor at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt in 1890 and also teacher of harmony at Julius Stockhausen's Vocal School. By this time he had composed several works for chorus and a Humoreske for small orchestra, which enjoyed a vogue in Germany.

  Hansel und Gretel
Humperdinck's reputation rests chiefly on his opera Hänsel and Gretel, which he began work on in Frankfurt in 1890. He first composed four songs to accompany a puppet show his nieces were giving at home.

Then, using a libretto by his sister Adelheid Wette rather loosely based on the version of the fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, he composed a Singspiel of 16 songs with piano accompaniment and connecting dialogue. By January 1891 he had begun working on a complete orchestration.

The opera premiered in Weimar on 23 December 1893, under the baton of Richard Strauss, who called it: "a masterpiece of the highest quality... all of it original, new, and so authentically German."

With its highly original synthesis of Wagnerian techniques and traditional German folk songs, Hänsel und Gretel was an instant and overwhelming success.

Hänsel und Gretel has always been Humperdinck's most popular work. In 1923 the Royal Opera House (London) chose it for their first complete radio opera broadcast.

Eight years later, it was the first opera transmitted live from the Metropolitan Opera (New York).

 
 

Engelbert Humperdinck
  Later career
In 1896, the Kaiser made Humperdinck a Professor and he went to live at Boppard. Four years later, however, he went to Berlin where he was appointed head of a Meister-Schule of composition. His students included the Basque composer Andrés Isasi. Among his other stage works are:

Die sieben Geißlein (The Seven Little Kids), 1895
Königskinder (King's Children), 1897, 1910
Dornröschen (Sleeping Beauty), 1902
Die Heirat wider Willen (The Reluctant Marriage), 1905
Bübchens Weihnachtstraum (The Christmas Dream), 1906
Die Marketenderin (The Provisioner), 1914

Gaudeamus: Szenen aus dem deutschen Studentenleben (Gaudeamus igitur: Scenes from German Student Life), 1919
While composing those works, Humperdinck held various teaching positions of distinction and collaborated in the theater, providing incidental music for a number of Max Reinhardt's productions in Berlin, for example, for Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice in 1905.

Although recognized as a disciple of Wagner rather than an innovator, Humperdinck was nevertheless the first composer to use Sprechgesang—a vocal technique halfway between singing and speaking—in his melodrama Die Königskinder (1897). In 1914, Humperdinck seems to have applied for the post of director of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music in Australia, but with the outbreak of World War I it became unthinkable for a German to hold that position, and the job went instead to Belgium's Henri Verbrugghen.

 
 
Also in 1914, Humperdinck signed the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, declaring support for German military actions during early World War I.

On 5 January 1912, Humperdinck suffered a severe stroke. Although he recovered, his left hand remained permanently paralyzed. He continued to compose, completing Gaudeamus with the help of his son, Wolfram, in 1918. On 26 September 1921, Humperdinck attended a performance of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz in Neustrelitz, Wolfram's first effort as a stage director. He suffered a heart attack during the performance and died the next day from a second heart attack. The Berlin State Opera performed Hänsel und Gretel in his memory a few weeks later.

In 1965, British singer Arnold Dorsey named himself after the composer. The main belt asteroid 9913 Humperdinck, discovered in 1977, was named after the composer as well.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
Humperdinck - Hansel und Gretel
 
Hänsel : Elisabeth Grümmer
Gretel : Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
Die Knusperhexe : Else Schürhoff
Peter, Besenbinder : Josef Metternich
Gertrud, sein Weib : Maria von Ilosvay
Sandmännchen : Anny Felbermayer
Taumännchen : Anny Felbermayer
Choir of Loughton High School for Girls
Choir of Bancroft's School

Philharmonia Orchestra
Herbert von Karajan
Studio recording, London, 27, 29 & 30.VI & 1-2.VII.1953

 
 
 
 
Humperdinck - "Overture" Hansel & Gretel
 
Overture to Hänsel & Gretel by
Engelbert Humperdinck
Philharmonia Orchestra
Herbert von Karajan, conductor
London, VII.1953
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ignaz Brull
 

Ignaz Brull (7 November 1846 – 17 September 1907) was a Moravian born pianist and composer who lived and worked in Vienna.

 
His operatic compositions included Das Goldene Kreuz (The Golden Cross), which became a repertory work for several decades after its first production in 1875, but eventually fell into neglect after being banned by the Nazis because of Brüll's Jewish origins. He also wrote a small corpus of finely crafted works for the concert hall and recitals. Brüll's compositional style was lively but unabashedly conservative, in the vein of Mendelssohn and Schumann.

Brüll was also highly regarded as a sensitive concert pianist. Johannes Brahms regularly wanted Brüll to be his partner in private performances of four-hand piano duet arrangements of his latest works. Indeed, Brüll was a prominent member of Brahms's circle of musical and literary friends, many of whom he and his wife frequently entertained.

In recent years, Brüll's concert music has been revived on CD, and well received recordings are available of his piano concertos, among other non-vocal works.

In 1872 he was appointed professor at the Horak Institute in Vienna.

 
 

Ignaz Brull
  Biography
Early years

Brüll was born in Prostějov (Proßnitz) in Moravia, the eldest son of Katharina Schreiber and Siegmund Brüll. His parents were prosperous Jewish merchants and keen social musicians; his mother played piano and his father (who was closely related to the Talmudic scholar Nehemiah Brüll) sang baritone. In 1848 the family relocated their business to Vienna, where Brüll lived and worked for the rest of his life.

Brüll started learning piano from his mother around the age of eight and he quickly showed talent. Despite being the heir to the family business, his promise at the keyboard encouraged his parents to provide him with a serious musical training. By the age of ten, he was taking piano lessons from Julius Epstein, a professor at the Vienna Conservatory and friend of Brahms. A year later, in 1857, he began studying composition with Johann Rufinatscha; instrumentation tuition followed with Felix Otto Dessoff.

In 1860, while aged fourteen, Brüll started writing his Piano Concerto No. 1, which received its first public performance the following year in Vienna with Epstein as soloist. Further encouragement to pursue a musical career came with endorsement from the distinguished pianist-composer, Anton Rubinstein.

Success and Das Goldene Kreuz
Brüll scored another success with his Serenade No. 1 for orchestra, which was premiered in Stuttgart in 1864. By now, Brüll was 18 years old and had just finished composing first opera score, Die Bettler von Samarkand (The Beggar of Samarkand). Unfortunately, plans for a production at the Court Theatre in Stuttgart in 1866 failed to materialize and the work appears never to have been played.

 
 
By contrast, Brüll's second opera, Das Goldene Kreuz (The Golden Cross), was by far his most successful: it held a place in the repertory for several decades and brought its composer into the public eye almost overnight. At its premiere in Berlin in December 1875, Brüll was personally complimented by the emperor, Wilhelm I. The opera, with a libretto by Salomon Hermann Mosenthal based on a story by Mélesville, involves an emotional drama of mistaken identities during the Napoleonic wars.

In parallel, Brüll had also been pursuing a career as a concert pianist, playing as a popular soloist and recitalist throughout the German speaking countries. The London premiere of Das Goldene Kreuz, in an 1878 production by the Carl Rosa Opera Company, coincided with the first of two extensive concert tours of England, during which he was able to play his Piano Concerto No. 2 (another youthful work, written in 1868) and arrange performances of some of his other pieces. Brüll also toured with George Henschel.

 
 
The Brahms circle and later years
In 1882, Brüll married Marie Schosberg, a banker's daughter who became a popular hostess to Viennese musical and artistic society. Brüll now shifted his attention towards composition, reduced the number of concert engagements, and permanently gave up touring. He also found himself playing host to Johannes Brahms's circle of friends, including the powerful music critic Eduard Hanslick, the musically minded eminent surgeon Theodor Billroth, and composers such as Carl Goldmark, Robert Fuchs, and even Gustav Mahler. When Brahms wanted to audition his latest orchestral compositions, as was his habit, to a select group of connoisseurs in four-handed versions for two pianos, Brüll regularly played alongside the senior composer. From 1890, Brüll's new holiday home (the Berghof) in Unterach am Attersee also became a social venue.

Unlike Brahms, Brüll was a man of the theatre, and he went on to compose at least seven more operas, which however did not approach the same level of popular success as Das Goldene Kreuz. His final opera, the two-act comedy Der Hussar, was well received when it was staged in Vienna in 1898.

  Music
Brüll's other operas include:
Der Landfriede (Vienna, 1877),
Bianca (Dresden, 1879),
Königin Mariette (Munich, 1883),
Das Steinerne Herz (Prague, 1888),
Gringoire (one act, Munich, 1892),
Schach dem König (Munich, 1893).

For the ballet, he wrote the orchestral dance-suite, Ein Märchen aus der Champagne (1896).

Orchestral concert works by Brüll include the Im Walde and Macbeth overtures, and three serenades, a violin concerto, and the two piano concertos, as well as three other piano concertante pieces.

His chamber and instrumental music includes a suite and 3 sonatas for piano and violin, a trio, a cello sonata, and a sonata for two pianos and various other piano pieces.

He also wrote songs and part-songs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Ignaz Brüll - Das goldene Kreuz - 1875 - Ouverture
 
Das goldene Kreuz, opera in two acts, first performance 22 December 1875, Wien.

Libretto: Salomon Hermann Mosenthal, after Mélesville.

Ouverture

Orchestra: Berlin Studio Orchestra

Conductor: Kurt Gaebel

 
 
 
 
 
 
Ignaz Brüll - Symphony in E-minor, Op.31 - 1880
 
Mov.I: Molto moderato 00:00
Mov.II: Allegretto molto moderato 08:54
Mov.III: Scherzo: Allegro assai 13:55
Mov.IV: Molto moderato - Allegro assai 18:51

Orchestra: Belorussian State Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: Marius Stravinsky

 
 
 
 
 
 
Siegfried Wagner
 

Siegfried Wagner (6 June 1869 – 4 August 1930) was a German composer and conductor, the son of Richard Wagner. He was an opera composer and the artistic director of the Bayreuth Festival from 1908 to 1930.

 

Siegfried Wagner
  Life
Helferich Siegfried Richard Wagner, nicknamed "Fidi," was born in 1869 to Richard Wagner and his future wife Cosima, at Tribschen on Lake Lucerne in Switzerland. Through his mother, he was a grandson of Franz Liszt, from whom he received some instruction in harmony.

Some youthful compositions date from about 1882. After he completed his secondary education in 1889, he studied with Wagner's pupil Engelbert Humperdinck, but was more strongly drawn to a career as an architect and studied architecture in Berlin and Karlsruhe.

In 1892 he undertook a trip to Asia with a friend, the English composer Clement Harris. During the voyage he decided to abandon architecture and commit himself to music. Reputedly, it was also Harris who first aroused his homoerotic impulses.

While on board ship he sketched his first official work, the symphonic poem Sehnsucht, inspired by the poem of the same name by Friedrich Schiller.

This piece was not completed until just before the concert in which Wagner conducted it in London on 6 June 1895. He composed more operas than his father. Though his works are numerous, none entered the standard repertory.

 
 
He made his conducting debut as an assistant conductor at Bayreuth in 1894; in 1896 he became associate conductor, sharing responsibility for conducting the Ring Cycle with Felix Mottl and Hans Richter, who had conducted its premiere 20 years earlier. In 1908 he took over as Artistic Director of the Bayreuth Festival in succession to his mother, Cosima.

Wagner was bisexual. For years, his mother urged him to marry and provide the Wagner dynasty with heirs, but he fought off her increasingly desperate urgings.

Around 1913, pressure on him increased due to the Harden-Eulenburg Affair (1907–1909), in which the journalist Maximilian Harden accused several public figures, most notably Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg-Hertefeld, a friend of Kaiser Wilhelm II, of homosexuality. In this climate, the family found it suitable to arrange a marriage with a 17-year-old Englishwoman, Winifred Klindworth, and at the Bayreuth festival of 1914 she was introduced to the then-45-year-old Wagner. The two married on 22 September 1915.
Though the marriage provided for the dynastic succession, the hope that it would also bring an end to his homosexual encounters and the associated costly scandals was disappointed, as Wagner remained sexually active with other men.

Peter Pachl, one of Siegfried's biographers, asserted that in 1901 Siegfried had sired an illegitimate son, Walter Aign (1901–1977). However, that assertion remains controversial, as he supplied no evidence. Nonetheless, several recent authors, such as Frederic Spotts and Brigitte Hamann, have taken it up.

Wagner died in Bayreuth in 1930, having outlived his mother by only four months. Since his two sons were still only adolescents, he was succeeded at the helm of the festival by his wife Winifred.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
 
Rundfunk-Sinfonierorchester Frankfurt
Dmitri Kitajenko, conductor
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
 
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (January 12, 1876 – January 21, 1948) was an Italian composer and teacher. He is best known for his comic operas such as Il segreto di Susanna (1909). A number of his works were based on plays by Carlo Goldoni, including Le donne curiose (1903), I quatro rusteghi (1906) and Il campiello (1936).
 

Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
  Life
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari was born in Venice in 1876, the son of an Italian mother and a German father. Ferrari was his mother's maiden-name, which he added to his own surname in 1895. Although he studied piano from an early age, music was not the primary passion of his young life. As a teenager Wolf-Ferrari wanted to be a painter like his father; he studied intensively in Venice and Rome and traveled abroad to study in Munich. It was there that he decided to concentrate instead on music, taking lessons from Josef Rheinberger. He enrolled at the Munich conservatory and began taking counterpoint and composition classes. These initially casual music classes eventually completely eclipsed his art studies, and music took over Wolf-Ferrari’s life. He wrote his first works in the 1890s.

At age 19, Wolf-Ferrari left the conservatory and traveled home to Venice. There he worked as a choral conductor, married, had a son called Federico Wolf-Ferrari, and met both Arrigo Boito and Verdi. In 1900, having failed to have two previous efforts published, Wolf-Ferrari saw the first performance of one of his operas, Cenerentola, based on the story of Cinderella. The opera was a failure in Italy, and the humiliated young composer moved back to Munich. German audiences would prove more appreciative of his work; a revised version of Cenerentola was a hit in Bremen in 1902, while the cantata La vita nuova brought the young composer international fame.

Wolf-Ferrari now began transforming the wild and witty farces of the 18th-century Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni into comic operas.

 
 
The resulting works were musically eclectic, melodic, and utterly hilarious; every single one became an international success. In fact, until the outbreak of World War I, Wolf-Ferrari’s operas were among the most performed in the world. In 1902 he became professor of composition and director of the Liceo Benedetto Marcello.

In 1911 Wolf-Ferrari tried his hand at full bloodied Verismo with I gioielli della Madonna; a story of passion, sacrilege and madness. It was quite popular in its day and for a period after, especially in Chicago, where the great Polish soprano Rosa Raisa made it a celebrated vehicle. Maria Jeritza (and, later, Florence Easton) triumphed in it at the Metropolitan Opera, in an all-out spectacular production in 1926.

World War I, however, was a nightmare for Wolf-Ferrari. The young composer, who had been dividing his time between Munich and Venice, suddenly found his two countries at war with each other. With the outbreak of the War, he moved to Zurich and composed much less, though he still wrote another comedy, Gli amanti sposi (1916). A new melancholy vein appeared in his post-war work; his operas grew darker and more emotionally complex.

He did not really pick up his rate of output until the 1920s, when he wrote Das Himmelskleid (1925) and Sly (1927), the latter based on William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In 1939 he became professor of composition at the Mozarteum in Salzburg. In 1946 he moved again to Zürich before returning to his home city of Venice. He died in Venice at Palazzo Malipiero and is buried in the Venetian cemetery Island of San Michele.

 
 
Music
As well as his operas, Wolf-Ferrari wrote a number of instrumental works, mainly at the very beginning and very end of his career. Only his violin concerto has ever been performed with anything approaching regularity, though he also wrote Idillio-concertino (essentially a chamber symphony), various pieces of chamber music including a piano quintet and two piano trios, three violin sonatas and a number of works for the organ amongst others.

Wolf-Ferrari's work is not performed very widely (with the exception of several of his overtures and his Jewels of the Madonna intermezzo) although he is generally thought of probably the finest writer of Italian comic opera of his time. His works often recall the opera buffa of the 18th century, although he also wrote more ambitious works in the manner of Pietro Mascagni, which are thought of less well.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
 
"Intermezzo" from I Gioielli della Madonna
by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
Symphony Orchestra of the Bavarian Radio
Jan Kotsier, conductor
 
 
 
 
 
     
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