Johann Joseph Fux  
Johann Joseph Fux
Johann Joseph Fux (German pronunciation: [ˈfʊks]) (1660 – 13 February 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. He is most famous as the author of Gradus ad Parnassum, a treatise on counterpoint, which has become the single most influential book on the Palestrinian style of Renaissance polyphony. Almost all modern courses on Renaissance counterpoint, a mainstay of college music curricula, are indebted in some degree to this work by Fux.

Fux was born to a peasant family in Hirtenfeld in Styria. Relatively little is known about his early life, but likely he went to nearby Graz for music lessons. In 1680 he was accepted at the Jesuit university there, where his musical talent became apparent. From 1685 until 1688 he served as organist at St. Moritz in Ingolstadt. Sometime during this period he must have made a trip to Italy, as evidenced by the strong influence of Corelli and Bolognese composers on his work of the time.

By the 1690s he was in Vienna, and attracted the attention of Emperor Leopold I with some masses he composed; the emperor was sufficiently impressed by them to assist him with his career after this point. In 1698, Leopold hired him as court composer. Fux traveled again to Italy, studying in Rome in 1700; it may have been here that he acquired the veneration for Palestrina which was so consequential for music pedagogy.
Fux served Leopold I until his death, and two more Habsburg emperors after that: Joseph I, and Charles VI, both of whom continued to employ him in high positions in the court. Fux was famous as a composer throughout this period, his fame being eclipsed only later in the 18th century as the Baroque style died out. Although his music until recently never regained favor, his mastery of counterpoint influenced countless composers through his treatise Gradus ad Parnassum (1725). Haydn largely taught himself counterpoint by reading it and recommended it to the young Beethoven. Mozart had a copy of it that he annotated. The Baroque age in music in Austria ends with Fux.

Gradus Ad Parnassum

The Gradus Ad Parnassum (Steps or Ascent to Mount Parnassus) is a theoretical and pedagogical work written in Latin, which Fux dedicated to Emperor Charles VI in 1725.
It is divided in two major parts. In the first part, Fux presents a summary of the theory on Musica Speculativa, or the analysis of intervals as proportions between numbers. This section is in a simple lecture style, and looks at music from a purely mathematical angle, in a theoretical tradition that goes back, through the works of Renaissance theoreticians, to the Ancient Greeks. The works of Mersenne, Cicero and Aristotle are among the references quoted by Fux in this section.

The second part, on Musica Pratica, is the section of this treatise where the author presents his instruction on counterpoint, fugue, double counterpoint, a brief essay on musical taste, and his ideas on composing sacred music, writing in the a cappella and in the recitativo style. This part is in the form of a dialog, between a master (Aloysius, Latin for Luigi, who is meant to represent Palestrina's ideas) and a student, Josephus, who represents Fux himself, a self-admitted admirer of Palestrina. At the outset, Fux states his purpose: "to invent a simple method by which a student can progress, step by step, to the heights of compositional mastery..." and gives his opinion of contemporary practice: "I will not be deterred by the most passionate haters of study, nor by the depravity of the present time." He also states that theory without practice is useless. Thus, his book stresses practice over theory.
While Gradus ad Parnassum is famous as the origin of the term "species counterpoint", Fux was not the first one to invent the idea. In 1610, Girolamo Diruta, a composer of the Venetian school, published Il Transilvano, which presented the Renaissance polyphonic style as a series of types: one note against one note, two notes against one note, suspensions, and so forth. Fux's work repeated some of Diruta's, possibly coincidentally, since he is not known to have had a copy. In any event, Fux presented the idea with a clarity and focus which made it famous as a teaching method.

In species counterpoint, as given in Fux, the student is to master writing counterpoint in each species before moving on to the next. The species are, in order, note against note; two notes against one; four notes against one; ligature or suspensions (one note against one, but offset by half of the note value); and florid counterpoint, in which the other species are combined freely. Once all the species are mastered in two voices, the species are gone through again in three voices, and then in four voices. (Occasionally, in modern counterpoint textbooks, the third and fourth species are reversed with suspensions being taught before four notes against one.) Fux expressed the intention of adding sections on how to write counterpoint for more than four parts, indicating that rules in this area were to be "less rigorously observed". However, citing his poor health as a result of gout and age, he chose to conclude the book as it stood.

Even though Fux made a number of errors, particularly in his description of third species (four notes against one) in which he allowed for idioms that do not belong to the 16th century, but rather to the 18th, modern counterpoint education is greatly indebted to Gradus ad Parnassum as the codex of the five species[citation needed]. Most subsequent counterpoint textbooks have taken Fux as their starting point, from the book by Albrechtsberger (Gründliche Anweisung zur Komposition) to 20th century examples such as the book by Knud Jeppesen (Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century).


Fux also composed church music (Missa canonica, Missa Christi Corporis, Requiem K 51–53, Magnificat K 98, De Profundis), oratorios (Il della Fonte Salute), operas (Julo Ascanio, re d'Alba, 1708; Orfeo ed Euridice, 1715; Angelica, vinditrice di Alkina, 1723 – an example of the Colossal Baroque style; Costanza e Fortezza, 1723), and instrumental pieces (collected in his Concentus musico-instrumentalis, 1701).
Fux frequently worked with theatrical engineer Giuseppe Galli Bibiena and poet and librettist Pietro Pariati.
Fux's compositions were catalogued by Ludwig Ritter von Köchel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johann Joseph Fux Cembalo Works
Johann Joseph Fux Sonatas & Sinfonias
1. Sonata A 4 K346 In A Minor 0:00
2. Sonata A 3 K379 In D Minor - Andante 2:23
3. - Largo
4. - Presto
5. Sonata A3 K 381 in G Minor - Allegro 8:45
6. - Larghetto
7. - Allegro
8. Sinfonia A 4 From 'Le Deposizione Dalla Croce Di Gesu Cristo' K346 11:30
9. Sonata A 3 K365 In A Minor - Andante 15:33
10. - Allegro
11. Sinfonia A 4 From 'La Cena del Signore' K298 - Grave 18:18
12 - Allegro-Grave
13. Sonata A 3 K385 In G Major - Andante 22:40
14. - Allegro
15. Sonata A 3 K370 In G Minor - Andante
16. - Allegro
17. Sonata A 4 K344 In B Flat Major - Andante 30:20
18. - Allegro
19. - Largo
20. - Allegro E Vivace
21. Sonata Pastorale A 3 K396 In A Major 36:21
22. Sonata A 3 K366 In F Sharp Minor - Grave 40:03
23. - Allegro
24. - Adagio
25. - Allegro
26. Sinfonia A 4 From 'La Donna Forte Nella Madre De Sette Maccabei' K292 Adagio 44:26
27. - Allegro
28. Sonata A 3 K375 In A Minor - Adagio 48:33
29. - Allegro
30. - Adagio
31. Sinfonia A 4 From 'Cristo Nell Orto' K296 - Larghetto 52:34
32. - Largo E Forte
33. - Presto-Adagio
34. Sonata A 3 K377 In G Minor - Largo 57:19
35. - Passacaglia
36. Sinfonia A 4 K349 In D Major - Allegro 1:01:44
37. - Largo
38. - Fuga

Capella Agostino Steffani
Lajos Rovatkay Conductor

Johann Joseph Fux Concentus Musico-Instrumentalis Opus I
Johann Joseph Fux La Grandezza della Musica Imperiale Composizioni per Orchestra
1. Overture in D major, No.4 0:00
2. Concerto for 2 oboes, 2 violions&continuo in D major "Le dolcezze e l'amarezze della notte" 20:09
3. Intrada in C major, for chamber ensemble, E.62 34:11
4. Suite for chamber ensemble in C major, No.83 43:52
5. Rondeau à 7, for violino piccolo, bassoon, 4 violins & continuo 59:06

In viedo; Fresco on Ceiling of Benedictine Monastery in Tegernsee in Germany - on border of Austria.

J.J. FUX, Ouverture in D minor, Il Fondamento
Ouverture in D minor
I. Ouverture 0:08
II. Menuet 6:15
III. Aria: Adagio 7:32
IV. Fuga: Presto-Lentement 9:14
V. Gigue 11:34
VI. Aria 13:14

Il Fondamento
Paul Dombrecht [director]

Johann Joseph Fux - Suite h-moll
1.Plelude 0:00
2.Allemande 2:21
3.Courante 6:34
4.Sarabande 8:28
5.Aria 11:09
6.Menuet 12:29
7.Gigue 13:40
8.Menuet 15:04

Dorota Cybulaska-Amsler ( cem )

Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Kyrie
David Cordier, Soprano
Drew Minter, Alto
Johannes Chum, Tenor
Klaus Mertens, Bass

Wiener Akademie - Martin Haselböck

Vocal Ensemble

Beat Duddeck, Ulli Groier - Soprano
Peer Abilgaard, Henning Voss - Alto
James Curry, Bernd Lambauer - Tenor
Mario Eder, Colin Mason - Bass

Leaders and Soloists

Gunar Letzbor - violin, Mathias Thir, Vienna 18th century
Tomas Bik - violin, H. Witting, Mittenwald 1780
Eva Posvanecz - viola, Carlo Tononi, Venezia 1734
Andreas Lackner - trumpet, Keavy Vanryne after J. L. Ehe

Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Gloria
Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Credo
Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Sanctus
Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Benedictus
Fux - Missa Corporis Christi; Agnus Dei
Fux - Litaniae Sancta Maria
1. Kyrie Eleison
2. Virgo prudentissima
3. Regina Angelorum
4. Sub tuum praesidium
5. Domina nostra
Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741) - Requiem
[01] Sonata a tre ex d per due Violini K 342 (violoncello & basso continuo) 0:00 Allegro-Grave-Presto-Grave-Presto
[02] Ciaccona per organo K 403/2 4:43
[03] Grave from Sonata a tre ex d K 342 (2 trombones, organ, violone) 9:36
[04] Media vita in morte sumus 10:40
Chorale, after a version of the ''Gross Catholisch Gesangbuch'' of David Gregor Corner, Nuremburg 1625
[05] De profundis K 130, motet 12:01
[06] Adagio per organo K 400 from Sonata terza 16:09
[07] REQUIEM AETERNAM "Kaiserrequiem" K 51-53 - KYLIE ELEISON 18:11
[08] DIES IRAE 26:54
[09] Libera me, Domine K 54, motet 40:20
[10] Largo from Canon a due E 66 (2 trombones, organ, violone) 44:05
[12] SANCTUS 49:50
[13] Adagio K 400 Sonata terza (2 trombones, organ, violone) 52:43

Clemencic Consort ・ René Clemencic, conductor

Hiro Kurosaki, 1st violin ・ Andrea Bischof, 2nd violin ・ Herbert Lindsberger, viola ・ Dorothea Kukelka, cello ・ Ulrich Fussenegger, violone ・ Werner Hackl, Ernst Hoffmann, trombone ・ Peter Widensky, organ positive
Elizabeth Dobie, Pamela Mildenhall, soprano ・ Stephanie Prewitt, alto ・ James Curry, tenor ・ Jörg-Steffen Duit, Thomas Schaller, baritone ・ John Winbigler, bass

Johann Joseph Fux - Sacred Vocal Works
- Kirchensonate in g K 320
- Ave Regina caelorum K 205

Mieke van der Sluis, soprano

Johann Joseph Fux - Capricio et Fugue
1.Capricio et Fugue 0:00
2.Allegretto La Superbia 6:06
3.Gustuoso Arietta 9:01
4.Tempo giusto L'Humilta 11:11
5.Affetuoso La vera pace 13:17
6.Allegro Finale 15:55
Dorota Cybulaska-Amsler ( cem )
Johann Joseph Fux - 3 Sonate a tre
00:00 - Sonata K.366
04:42 - Sonata K.375
08:23 - Sonata K.377
Johann Joseph Fux Serenada a 8
Synfonia a tre, by Johann Joseph Fux
The 4-movements orchestral piece is Synfonia a tre (K.331), by an Austrian composer Johann Joseph Fux.

He was a music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. He is most famous as the author of 'Gradus ad Parnassum' (Step or Ascent to Mount Parnassus, 1725).

Played by Clemencic Consort (on authentic instruments)
Hiro Kurosaki, István Kertész (violin I / II)
Claudio Ronco (violoncello)
Herwig Neugebauer (violone)
Renè Clemencic (clavicembalo)

Fux - Te Deum; Pleni sunt coeli
Armonico Tributo Austria
Lorenz Duftschmid

Mieke van der Sluis, Soprano
Barbara Fink, Soprano
Pascal Bertin, Alto
Bernd Fröhlich, Tenor
Wilfried Zelinka, Bass

Domkantorei Graz
Domkapellmeister Josef M. Doeller

Grazer Choralschola
Franz Karl Prassl

J. J. Fux: Sonata Pastorale a tre for strings & b.c. in A major (K 396)
Sonata Pastorale a tre for strings and basso continuo in A major (K 396) - 0:05

Anne Roehrig, Katharina Huche, Volker Muehlberg, Susanne Diez (violin I)
Ursula Bundies, Barbara Kralle, Andreas Preuss, Eva Politt (violin II)
Klaus Bundies, Hella Hartmann (viola)
Dorothée Zimmer, Sibylle Huntgeburth (violoncello)
Adrian Rovatkay (baroque bassoon)
Love Persson (double bass)
Lajos Rovatkay (organ)

Capella Agostino Steffani / Lajos Rovatkay (conductor)

Virgin Veritas 7243 5 45194 2 0 - DDD

FUX Johann Joseph - Prelude en la
Johann Joseph Fux: Miserere
Fux - Costanza e Fortezza; Act 1 Sinfonia & Chorus "Ceda Roma" § 400 §
Tito Tarquinio : Agnes Mellon, Sopran
Valeria : Monique Zanetti, Sopran
Erminio : Mieke van der Sluis, Sopran
Cledia : Elisabeth von Magnus, Alt
Porsenna : Michael Chance, Countertenor
Muzio : Claudio Cavina, Countertenor
Orazio : Douglas Nasrawi, Tenor
Publio Valerio : David Thomas, Bass

Trompeten Consort Friedemann Immer
ORF-Chor Gradus ad Parnassum Wien

Dir. : Howard Arman

(Aufgenommen am 26. Oktober 1991 im Großen Musikvereinssaal in Wien; Teilwiedergabe)

Fux - Costanza e Fortezza; Act 3 Finale "Godi, o Roma"
Johann Joseph Fux: Passacaglia/Ars Antiqua Austria
Partita à tre in G-moll ex g K 320

Ars Antiqua Austria
Gunar Letzbor (violin and conducting), Ilia Korol (violin), Jan Krigovsky (viola), Norbert Zeilberger (organ, harpsichord), Hubert Hoffmann (lute).

CHALLENGE Classics, 2011

Johann Joseph Fux: Sento nel cuore
Fux - Plaudite Sonat Tuba (1/2)
Fux - Plaudite Sonat Tuba (2/2); Alleluja
Fux - Stabat Mater
1. Stabat Mater
2. Eja Mater
3. Virgo Virginum Praeclara
4. Quando corpus morietur
Fux: Dafne in Lauro, aria of Diana : il voler vincer amore
Fux: Dafne in Lauro, aria of Diana : il voler vincer amore
Soprano: Myrsini Margariti
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