Claude Debussy  
Claude Debussy

Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy, in full Achille-Claude Debussy (born August 22, 1862, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died March 25, 1918, Paris), French composer whose works were a seminal force in the music of the 20th century. He developed a highly original system of harmony and musical structure that expressed in many respects the ideals to which the Impressionist and Symbolist painters and writers of his time aspired. His major works include Clair de lune (“Moonlight,” in Suite bergamasque, 1890–1905), Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (1894; Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun), the opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1902), and La Mer (1905; “The Sea”).

Early period
Debussy showed a gift as a pianist by the age of nine. He was encouraged by Madame Mauté de Fleurville, who was associated with the Polish composer Frédéric Chopin, and in 1873 he entered the Paris Conservatory, where he studied the piano and composition, eventually winning in 1884 the Grand Prix de Rome with his cantata L’Enfant prodigue (The Prodigal Child).

Debussy’s youth was spent in circumstances of great turbulence. He was almost overwhelmed by situations of great extremes, both material and emotional. While living with his parents in a poverty-stricken suburb of Paris, he unexpectedly came under the patronage of a Russian millionairess, Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck, who engaged him to play duets with her and her children. He traveled with her to her palatial residences throughout Europe during the long summer vacations at the Conservatory. In Paris during this time he fell in love with a singer, Blanche Vasnier, the beautiful young wife of an architect; she inspired many of his early works. It is clear that he was torn by influences from many directions; these stormy years, however, contributed to the sensitivity of his early style.

This early style is well illustrated in one of Debussy’s best-known compositions, Clair de lune. The title refers to a folk song that was the conventional accompaniment of scenes of the love-sick Pierrot in the French pantomime, and indeed the many Pierrot-like associations in Debussy’s later music, notably in the orchestral work Images (1912) and the Sonata for Cello and Piano (1915; originally titled Pierrot fâché avec la lune [“Pierrot Vexed by the Moon”]), show his connections with the circus spirit that also appeared in works by other composers, notably the ballet Petrushka (1911) by Igor Stravinsky and Pierrot Lunaire by Arnold Schoenberg.

Debussy at the piano, in front of the composer Ernest Chausson, 1893


Middle period
As a holder of the Grand Prix de Rome, Debussy was given a three-year stay at the Villa Medici in Rome, where, under what were supposed to be ideal conditions, he was to pursue his creative work. Most composers who were granted this state scholarship, however, found life in this magnificent Renaissance palace irksome and longed to return to simpler and more familiar surroundings. Debussy himself eventually fled from the Villa Medici after two years and returned to Blanche Vasnier in Paris. Several other women, some of doubtful reputation, were also associated with him in his early years. At this time Debussy lived a life of extreme indulgence. Once one of his mistresses, Gabrielle (“Gaby”) Dupont, threatened suicide. His first wife, Rosalie (“Lily”) Texier, a dressmaker, whom he married in 1899, did in fact shoot herself, though not fatally, and, as is sometimes the case with artists of passionate intensity, Debussy himself was haunted by thoughts of suicide.

The main musical influence in Debussy’s work was the work of Richard Wagner and the Russian composers Aleksandr Borodin and Modest Mussorgsky. Wagner fulfilled the sensuous ambitions not only of composers but also of the Symbolist poets and the Impressionist painters. Wagner’s conception of Gesamtkunstwerk (“total art work”) encouraged artists to refine upon their emotional responses and to exteriorize their hidden dream states, often in a shadowy, incomplete form; hence the more tenuous nature of the work of Wagner’s French disciples. It was in this spirit that Debussy wrote the symphonic poem Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (1894). Other early works by Debussy show his affinity with the English Pre-Raphaelite painters; the most notable of these works is La Damoiselle élue (1888), based on “The Blessed Damozel” (1850), a poem by the English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti. In the course of his career, however, which covered only 25 years, Debussy was constantly breaking new ground. Explorations, he maintained, were the essence of music; they were his musical bread and wine. His single completed opera, Pelléas et Mélisande (1st perf. 1902), demonstrates how the Wagnerian technique could be adapted to portray subjects like the dreamy nightmarish figures of this opera who were doomed to self-destruction. Debussy and his librettist, Maurice Maeterlinck, declared that they were haunted in this work by the terrifying nightmare tale of Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher. The style of Pelléas was to be replaced by a bolder, more highly coloured manner. In his seascape La Mer (1905) he was inspired by the ideas of the English painter J.M.W. Turner and the French painter Claude Monet. In his work, as in his personal life, he was anxious to gather experience from every region that the imaginative mind could explore.

Claude Debussy in 1908


Late period
In 1905 Debussy’s illegitimate daughter, Claude-Emma, was born. He had divorced Lily Texier in 1904 and subsequently married his daughter’s mother, Emma Bardac. Repelled by the gossip and scandal arising from this situation, he sought refuge for a time at Eastbourne, on the south coast of England. For his daughter, nicknamed Chouchou, he wrote the piano suite Children’s Corner (1908). Debussy’s spontaneity and the sensitive nature of his perception facilitated his acute insight into the child mind, an insight noticeable particularly in Children’s Corner, a French counterpart to Mussorgsky’s song cycle The Nursery; in the Douze Préludes, 2 books (1910, 1913; “Twelve Preludes”), for piano; and in the ballet La Boîte à joujoux (1st perf. 1919; The Box of Toys).

In his later years, it is the pursuit of illusion that marks Debussy’s instrumental writing, especially the strange, other-worldly Cello Sonata. This noble bass instrument takes on, in chameleon fashion, the character of a violin, a flute, and even a mandolin. Debussy was developing in this work ideas of an earlier period, those expressed in a youthful play he had written, Frères en art (Brothers in Art), where his challenging, indeed anarchical, ideas are discussed among musicians, painters, and poets. (He had in fact published in one of the anarchist journals poems that he had written and that he later set to music in the song cycle Proses lyriques [1893].)

Claude Debussy, 1909.

Evolution of his work
Debussy’s music marks the first of a series of attacks on the traditional language of the 19th century. He did not believe in the stereotyped harmonic procedures of the 19th century, and indeed it becomes clear from a study of mid-20th-century music that the earlier harmonic methods were being followed in an arbitrary, academic manner. Hence his formulation of the “21-note scale” designed to “drown” the sense of tonality, though this system was never adhered to in the inflexible manner of the 12-note system of Schoenberg. Debussy’s inquiring mind similarly challenged the traditional orchestral usage of instruments. He rejected the traditional dictum that string instruments should be predominantly lyrical. The pizzicato scherzo from his String Quartet (1893) and the symbolic writing for the violins in La Mer, conveying the rising storm waves, show a new conception of string colour. Similarly, he saw that woodwinds need not be employed for fireworks displays; they provide, like the human voice, wide varieties of colour. Debussy also used the brass in original colour transformations. In fact, in his music, the conventional orchestral construction, with its rigid woodwind, brass, and string departments, finds itself undermined or split up in the manner of the Impressionist painters. Ultimately, each instrument becomes almost a soloist, as in a vast chamber-music ensemble. Finally, Debussy applied an exploratory approach to the piano, the evocative instrument par excellence since notes struck at the keyboard are, by the nature of the piano mechanism, neither eighth notes, quarter notes, nor half notes, but merely illusions of these notes.

During the latter part of his life Debussy created an alter ego, “Monsieur Croche,” with whom he carried on imaginary conversations on the nature of art and music. “What is the use of your almost incomprehensible art?” Monsieur Croche asks. “Is it not more profitable to see the sun rise than to listen to the Pastoral Symphony of Beethoven?” Elsewhere Monsieur Croche supports the cause of the musical explorer: “I am less interested in what I possess than in what I shall need tomorrow.”

In his last works, the piano pieces En blanc et noir, (1915; In Black and White) and in the Douze Études (1915; “Twelve Études”), Debussy had branched out into modes of composition later to be developed in the styles of Stravinsky and the Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It is certain that he would have taken part in the leading movements in composition of the years following World War I had his life not been so tragically cut short by cancer.

Wagner, said Debussy, was a wonderful sunset that had been mistaken for a dawn. As one looks back on the music of the last century this seems a remarkably shrewd observation. It was true of Wagner, of course, but it is now seen to be more true of Debussy himself. The fact is that there comes a time when the peak, the zenith of a civilization is reached. Critics have frequently noted this evolutionary stage in the music of Wagner, Debussy, or in one of their followers. A quintessential spirit is presented by these composers; and it seemed at the time that they could never be surpassed. But of course it is at this very stage that a decline in musical values sets in. Hence the paradoxical element in Debussy’s stature. Undoubtedly, he was aware of this duality in his achievement, as may be gathered from his searching, hesitant letters. Sensitive to sham in every sphere and also a child of his environment, he not only perceived this dual aspect of his work but also realized the extent to which he himself was caught up in this vast evolutionary transformation.

Debussy’s work cannot be judged on the musical level alone. “One must seek the poetry in his work,” said his friend the French composer Paul Dukas. There is not only poetry in his music; there is often an inspiration from painting. “I love painting [les images, a generic term that might apply to the whole of Debussy’s work] almost as much as music itself,” he told the Franco-American composer Edgard Varèse. This association of the arts is a theme that runs through the whole of the 19th century—it originated with the theories of the German short-story writer E.T.A. Hoffmann—but for Debussy it was a theory more sensitively expressed in the tales of Edgar Allan Poe. Throughout his life Debussy planned to set The Fall of the House of Usher in the form of an opera—the shadow of the tale never having been realized in Pelléas et Mélisande—and actually signed a contract for the production of this work at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, but it was never completed. The fact is that the hero of the tale, Roderick Usher, was a hypersensitive being like Debussy himself—a poet, a painter, and a musician. Moreover, the reputation of Poe was, during Debussy’s life and after, almost entirely a French reputation. The French poets translated his works, and the French painters appreciated his genius; and it was therefore only natural that a French musician should similarly have reflected the nature of his appeal.

Edward Lockspeiser

Encyclopædia Britannica


Claude Debussy was born in St German-en-Laye and was encouraged to take up music at an early age. He entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of ten, and quickly learned to play a considerable repertoire of very difficult piano works. However, he abandoned his planned career as a virtuoso pianist when he joined the Conservatoire's composition class in 1880 and won the coveted Prix de Rome competition twice. He travelled extensively in these early years, visiting Italy, Vienna, and Russia. He also spent two unhappy years studying in Rome. He was known as a moody, unsociable youth who found it difficult to endure the company of strangers even temporarily.

Debussy returned from Rome in 1887, and m 1888 and 1889 followed the well-worn path to Bayreuth in order to sample Wagner's genius. He also attended the World Exhibition in Paris in 1889 where, like Ravel, he was enthralled by the Javanese gamelan music. During this tune he set up house with a girlfriend, Gabrielle Dupont, with whom he would live in poverty for six years.

In 1892 he began one of his best-known orchestral works, Prelude a l'apresmidi d'un faune. At the first performance it was enthusiastically received and accorded an immediate encore, and the work is now recognized as breaking new musical ground with its unconventional and "impressionistic" harmonics. Based on a poem by Stephane Mallarme, which describes the dreams and desires of a faun basking in the afternoon heat, the music consists of a beautiful and sensual mosaic of sound graphically depicting the erotic content of the poem.

In 1893 Debussy began work on his only completed opera, Pelleas et Melisande. It took the composer almost ten years to finish and was premiered at the Opera-Comique in 1902. The music turns away from the drama and thunderous passion of Wagnerian opera, remaining for the most part subdued and always allowing the words to be clearly audible. The trance-like quality of the score almost hypnotizes the listener with a new and beautiful world of sound. For many Pelleas et Melisande is Debussy's finest creation.

The years 1904 and 1905 were especially fertile for Debussy. He completed the first book of Images for piano and the popular orchestral work La Mer (The Sea) which makes full use of the impressionistic techniques developed in previous works. At the same time Debussy's personal life was in tumult. In 1904 he left his wife. Lily, whom he had married barely five years before, to move in with a wealthy lady, Emma Bardac, who was later to become his second wife. Distraught, his first wife shot herself; she was badly wounded and taken to a nursing home. An enormous scandal ensued, fuelled by comments from the press. Many of the composer's friends held him to blame and broke with him in disgust. During this time he was also plagued by a series of lawsuits, a result of debts, which continued to plague him until his death.

Debussy was now well established and his music increasingly performed, although controversy attended nearly every new work at its first performance. A second book of Images for piano was followed in 1908 by the delightful collection of piano pieces Children's comer, dedicated to his daughter. From this set the Golliwog's Cakewalk is especially well known, featuring a playful skit on the opening of Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde. Two sets of Preludes were completed in 1910 and 1913 and a book of Etudes in 191 5 — also for the piano.

Debussy's last major orchestral work, the ballet score Jeux, has been described as "a beautiful nightmare." Commissioned by Diaghilev, it was premiered in 1912. In 1909 Debussy had been diagnosed as having cancer, which by 1915 was so serious that he had to undergo surgery. He died m 1918, internationally recognized as the foremost French composer of his time. The use of exotic and unconventional harmonies, together with the delicate colouring which characterizes his work, have revealed Debussy as an innovator who has inspired generations of subsequent composers, and have ensured him a position among the greatest of twentieth-century composers.


O. Demirtas
Arabesque No.1

T. Pascale
Arabesque No.
N. Eckel
La soiree dans Grenade
Jardins sous la pluie
H. Sung
Pour les cinq doigts, d'apres monsieur Czerny
Pour les arpeges composes

N.Muller, P. Bispham, J. Manchur
Danseuses de Delphes
Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir
Les collines d'Anacapri
Des pas sur la neige
La fille aux cheveux de lin
La Cathedrale Engloutie
La danse de Puck

La puerta del Vino
Les Fees sont d'exquises danseuses
General Lavine - eccentric
La terrasse des audiences du clair de lune
Feux d'artifice

Images, Premier Livre (1905)
A. Evans

Reflets dans l'eau

Images II
Bela Hartmann
Cloches a travers les feuilles
Laura Sanchez
Et la lune descend
Poissons d'or

E. Helling
Danse - Tarantelle Styrienne (1890)

J. Robson
La plus que lente (1910)

W.M. Gan
L'isle Joyeuse (1904)

M. McCarthy
Reverie (1890)

Erich Huang


Suite Bergamasque
Tom Pascale

Clair de lune

Children's Corner (1908)
Tom Pascale
Dr. Gradus ad Parnassum
Jimbo's Lullaby
Serenade of the Doll
The Snow is Dancing
The little Shepherd
Golliwog's Cakewalk

Canto Armonico
3 chansons de Charles d'Orleans

Paldi Fruttini Duo
Prelude a l’apres-midi d’un faune

Michio Nishihara Toro
Reflets Dans L'eau

The Best of Debussy - I
1. Arabesque Nº1
2. Arabesque Nº2
3. Clair De Lune
4. Passepied
5. Rêverie
6. Hommage A Rameau
7. Voiles
8. Les Sons Et Les Parfums Tournent Dans L'air Du Soir
9. La Fille Aux Cheveux De Lin
10. La Cathédral Engloutie
11. Musiciens
12. Le Petit Berger
13. Golliwogg's Cakewalk
14. L'isle Joyeuse
15. Prelúdio para a tarde de um fauno
The Best of Debussy - II
(0:00) Rêverie
(4:54) Pour le piano: Sarabande
(11:29) Suite bergamasque: Clair de lune
(17:21) Estampes: Jardins sous la pluie
(20:49) Deux Arabesques: Andantino con moto
(24:45) Images Book 1 - Reflets dans l'eau
(29:45) Childrens Corner: Golliwogg's Cakewalk
(32:43) Preludes: Cathedrale engloutie
(39:13) Danses sacree et danse profane
(49:20) Printemps: Modere
(55:29) Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
(1:05:20) Sonata for Cello & Piano: I Prologue
(1:10:32) Violin Sonata: Intermède- fantasque et léger. II
(1:14:39) Nocturnes: Fetes
(1:21:17) Images for orchestra - 2a. Iberia- Par Les Rues
(1:28:27) La Mer - 1. De l'aube à midi sur la mer. Très lent
(1:37:02) La Mer - 2. Jeux de vagues. Allegro
(1:43:15) String Quartet No. 1, Op 10. Assez vif et bien rythmé
Claude Debussy - The Essential Collection
1. Clair de Lune 0:00
2. Rêverie 4:30
3. Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune 8:52
4. Arabesque No. 1. Andantino con moto 14:15
5. The Girl with the Flaxen Hair 18:19
6. Prélude 21:00
7. Passepied 25:14
8. La Soirée dans Grenade 29:01
9. Arabesque No. 2. Allegretto scherzando 34:15
10. Étude No.6 - Pour Les Huit Doigts 38:52
11. Doctor Gradus as Parnassum 40:22
12. Jimbo's Lullaby 42:40
13. Serenade for the Doll 46:26
14. The Snow is Dancing 48:35
15. The Little Shepherd 51:02
16. The Golliwog Cakewalk 53:35
17. Étude No.1 - Pour les cinq doigts d'après Monsieur Czerny 56:30
18. Voiles 59:40
19. Jardins sous la pluie 1:02:59
20. Étude No.6 - Pour les Quartes 1:06:36
21. Menuet 1:10:57
Reverie - Claude Debussy
David Delucia's recording of Debussy's dreamy classic, Reverie.
Debussy, Clair de lune
Clair de lune, by Claude Debussy, played by Stephen Malinowski
Clair de Lune (Extended)
The extended version of Clair de Lune
Claude Debussy - La Mer
"La Mer" L.109, (The Sea), is an orchestral composition by Claude Debussy. It was started in 1903 in France and completed in 1905 on the English Channel coast in Eastbourne. The premiere was given by the Lamoureux Orchestra under the direction of Camille Chevillard on 15 October 1905 in Paris. "La Mer" is a composition of huge suggestion and subtlety in its rich depiction of the ocean, which combines unusual orchestration with daring impressionistic harmonies. The work has proven very influential, and its use of sensuous tonal colours and its orchestration methods have influenced many later film scores. While the structure of the work places it outside of both absolute music and programme music as those terms were understood in the early 20th century, it obviously uses descriptive devices to suggest wind, waves and the ambience of the sea. But structuring a piece around a nature subject without any literary or human element to it - neither people, nor mythology, nor ships are suggested in the piece - also was highly unusual at the time.
Debussy called his work "three symphonic sketches," avoiding the loaded term symphony; yet the work is sometimes called a symphony; it consists of two powerful outer movements framing a lighter, faster piece which acts as a type of scherzo.
"La Mer" is divided inot three movements:
1. "De l'aube à midi sur la mer" (from dawn to midday on the sea);
2. "Jeux de vagues" (Play of the Waves);
3. "Dialogue du vent et de la mer" (Dialogue of the wind and the sea).

Conductor: Vladimir Ashkenazy & Cleveland Orchestra

Claude Debussy - Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
Debussy, Suite Bergamasque. Claudio Arrau, piano
Suite Bergamasque
1. Prélude
2. Minuet
3. Clair de lune
4. Passepied
Claudio Arrau, piano.

La Suite Bergamasque de Claude Debussy es una suite para piano en varios movimientos. Aunque fue escrita en 1890, la obra no se publicó hasta 1905, y eso pese a que su autor intentó que no viese la luz, pues creía que esta obra de juventud estaba muy por debajo del nivel de sus composiciones más modernas.
La Suite toma su nombre de las máscaras de la Commedia dell'Arte de Bérgamo (Comedia del arte de Bérgamo) y está inspirada en las Fêtes galantes (Fiestas galantes) de Verlaine.

Préludes (complete 24) - Claude Debussy - Krystian Zimerman
1. Danseuses de Delphes 00:00
2. Voiles 03:38
3. Le vent dans la plaine 08:06
4. Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir 10:13
5. Les collines d'Anacapri 14:08
6. Des pas sur la neige 17:40
7. Ce qu'a vu le vent d'ouest 22:05
8. La fille aux cheveux de lin 25:19
9. La sérénade interrompue 28:28
10. La cathédrale engloutie 30:58
11. La danse de Puck 38:25
12. Minstrels 40:59
13. Brouillards 43:27
14. Feuilles mortes 46:58
15. La puerta del Vino 50:58
16. Les fées sont d'exquises danseuses 54:06
17. Bruyères 57:20
18. Général Lavine - eccentric 01:00:27
19. La terrasse des audiences du clair de lune 1:03:05
20. Ondine 01:07:37
21. Hommage à S. Pickwick 1:11:01
22. Canope 01:13:26
23. Les tierces alternées 01:16:41
24. Feux d'artifice 01:19:28
Sviatoslav Richter - Debussy - Preludes
I - Danseuses de Delphes (Dancers of Delphi): Lent et grave
II - Voiles (Veils or sails): Modéré
III - Le vent dans la plaine (The Wind in the Plain): Animé
IV - Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir (The sounds and fragrances swirl through the evening air): Modéré
V - Les collines d'Anacapri (The Hills of Anacapri): Très modéré
VI - Des pas sur la neige (Footsteps in the Snow): Triste et lent
VII - Ce qu'a vu le vent d'ouest (What the West Wind has seen): Animé et tumultueux
IX - La sérénade interrompue (Interrupted Serenade): Modérément animé
X - La cathédrale engloutie (The Submerged Cathedral): Profondément calme
XI - La danse de Puck (Puck's Dance): Capricieux et léger

Sviatoslav Richter, piano

Debussy - Preludes Book II - Richter Aldeburgh 67
Brouillards 0:00
Feuilles mortes 3:11
La Puerta del vino 06:12
Les fées sont d'exquises danseuses 09:21
Bruyères 12:02
General Lavine - Eccentric 14:42
La terrasse des audiences du clair de lune 17:38
Ondine 22:12
Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq.P.P.M.P.C. 25:26
Canope 27:55
Les tierces alternées 31:03
Feux d'artifice 33:26

Sviatoslav Richter
Live recording, Aldeburgh 6.VI.1967


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