TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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Gothic and Early Renaissance Art

Painting

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Gothic and Early Renaissance
 
 
 
Painting
 
 
     
Villard de Honnecourt
Illuminated Manuscripts

Cimabue
Duccio
Giotto
Cavallini
Simone Martini
Pietro Lorenzetti
Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Francesco Traini
Giovanni da Milano
Jean Pucelle
Melchior Broederlam
Limbourg brothers
Gentile da Fabriano
     
     
Illuminated Manuscripts    
     
Stefan Lochner
Nicolas Bataille
Bonaventura Berlinghieri
Altichiero da Zevio
Beauneveu Andre
Andrea da Firenze
Barnaba da Modena
Lippo Memmi
Fra Angelico
Pisanello
Konrad of Soest

Bartolo di Fredi
Hubert van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Masaccio
Masolino
Bernat Martorell

Hans Memling
Rogier van der Weyden
Hugo van der Goes
Gerard David
Antonello da Messina

Piero della Francesca
Pedro Berruguete
Sassetta
Jaume Huguet
Nicolas Froment

Robert Campin
Konrad Witz

Derick Baegert
Master E.S.
Martin Schongauer
Israhel van Meckenem

Bartolome Bermejo
Fernando Gallego

Hans Multscher

Barthelemy d'Eyck
Dieric Bouts

Andrea Mantegna
Hans Holbein the Elder

Michael Pacher

Quentin Massys
Lorenzo Monaco
Jean Fouquet
Jacopo Bellini
     
     
Mr of the Glatz Madonna
Mr Theodoric
Torriti Jacopo
Mr Bertram of Munden Maso di Banco
Taddeo Gaddi
Mr of the Kaufmann Crucifixion
     
     
Tommaso da Modena
Mr of Wittingau
Mr of the Narbonne Parament
Malouel Jean
Mr of the Wilton Dyptych
Borrassa Lluis
Mr of the Ortenberg Altar
Filippo Brunelleschi
Joos van Gent
     
     
Mr of the Westminster Altar
Mr of the of Robert de Lisle
Mr of Cologne Workshop
Mr of St. Veronica 
Mr of the Paradise Garden Westphalian Master
Mr of the Schloss Tirol Altar
Norwegian Master
     
     
Lukas Moser
Master of the Albrecht Altar
Frances Nicolas
Colantonio
Lluis Dalmau
Marco Zoppo
     
Mr of the Rohan Book of Hours
Mr of Alkmaar
Mr Francke
Bernat Martorell Nuno Goncalves
Martinus Opifex
Juan de Levi
Mr of the Lower Saxon Workshop
     
 
 

Malouel Jean

Master of the Wilton Dyptych

Borrassa Lluis

 

A uniform style throughout western Europe

In the thirty years following the completion of the Wittingau Altar, non-Byzantine painters everywhere competed in their striving towards an ever more exquisite palette and ever more fluid draperies; not without reason is the International Gothic also known as the Soft or Beautiful Style. For the first time, lovingly detailed landscapes became a major element of the composition. For the last time before the Baroque, western European painters shared the same vocabulary, the same aesthetic ideals. Even Italy, entrenched in its old traditions, eagerly embraced the new trend, to the regret of later Renaissance theoreticians of the school of Vasari; the supposedly unbroken line of development from Giotto to Michelangelo (1475—1564) is a later myth. Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370— 1427;) and Pisanello (before 1395-1455) were leading figures in both Italian and Gothic art. It is no coincidence that Milan cathedral dates from precisely this period, as a symbol of the triumph of Northern form. There are sociological reasons, too, behind this broad-based stylistic uniformity: the ruling houses of the day were dominated by very similar courtly ideals, which were also finding their way into literature.
What is so truly astonishing about this epoch is the fact that the style was practised so widely, including by many unknown and second-rate artists. But it was also embraced by some of the greatest names in Gothic painting. Apart from Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello, these included Jean Malouel (c. 1365— 1419) and Melchior Broederlam (doc. 1381—1409) in Paris and the Burgundian capital of Dijon, the Master of the Wilton Dyptych (doc. c. 1390-1395) in London, Lluis Borrassa (doc. from 1380-c. 1425/26) in Catalonia and, in the wealthy Hanseatic city of Dortmund, Konrad of Soest (c. 1370 — after 1422), who would exert an enormous influence upon west and north German art for decades to come. All of these artists sought to place their own stamp upon the universal style

 

Malouel Jean
 

(b ?Nijmegen c. 1365; d Dijon, 12 March 1415).

North Netherlandish painter, active in Burgundy. He was the son of the heraldic artist Willem Maelwael and uncle of the Limbourg brothers. First recorded as a painter in 1382, he is then documented on 20 September 1396 for a commission to provide designs for textiles with decorative armorial bearings for Queen Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI, for which he received payment on 27 March 1397. By 5 August 1397 he was in Dijon, where he succeeded Jean de Beaumetz as court painter and Valet de Chambre to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Malouel was highly paid, and his annual pension was considerably more than that of Beaumetz or of the sculptor Claus Sluter. One of the first works Malouel produced for the Duke was a painting of the Apostles with St Anthony (untraced), paid for on 11 November 1398, which the Duke is known to have kept in his private oratory. On 18 March 1398 wooden supports were purchased for Malouel to paint five large altarpieces for the Charterhouse of Champmol, outside Dijon. The subject-matter of the paintings is not specified in the document, although the dimensions of the panels are given. The Martyrdom of St Denis (Paris, Louvre) has been identified as one of these five panels, on the basis of its possible provenance and its dimensions, which correspond approximately to those given in the document. In May 1416, however, Henri Bellechose received pigments to ‘perfect’ a painting of the Life of St Denis, and this document, in conjunction with the earlier one, has been interpreted to suggest that Bellechose completed a work left unfinished by Malouel. A rereading of the 1398 document and the absence of any discernible evidence of collaboration on the St Denis panel has led to its attribution to Henri Bellechose alone.

 


Malouel Jean
Virgin and Child with Angels
1410
Gemaldegalerie, Berlin

 


Malouel Jean
Madonna and Child
c. 1410
Musee du Louvre, Paris

 
 


Malouel Jean
Calvary and the Martyrdom of St Denis
1416
Musee du Louvre, Paris

 
 

Malouel Jean
Lamentation for Christ
1400
Musee du Louvre, Paris

 

 

 


Master of the Wilton Dyptych

(doc. c. 1390-1395)
 


Master of the Wilton Diptych
The Wilton Diptych
Left: Richard II of England with his patron saints
Right: Virgin and Child with Angels
1395
National Gallery, London

 

 
 

Borrassa Lluis
 

(b Girona; fl 1380; d Barcelona, between 19 Dec 1424 and 23 Feb 1425).

Catalan painter. He was the second son of Guillem Borrassa ( fl 1360–96), a painter of Girona, and is first mentioned on 21 January 1380, when he received payment for the repair of a stained-glass window in Girona Cathedral. Soon afterwards he moved to Barcelona, where in 1383 he was working on an important altarpiece (untraced) for the convent of S Damian, which was paid for by King Peter IV ‘el Ceremonioso’ of Aragon (reg 1336–87). Borrassa was already a citizen of Barcelona in 1385, and documents show clearly that his artistic gifts were soon recognized. In spite of his success, however, he maintained dual citizenship for several years and frequently returned to Girona to obtain commissions and payment for completed work; his elder brother Francesc ( fl 1399–1422), who inherited the family workshop, often acted as his agent or partner. Lluís Borrassa evidently became the most outstanding and prolific painter in Catalonia of his time, carrying out important commissions not only in Barcelona and Girona but also in central Catalonia and in the area between Tarragona, Igualada and Vilafranca del Penedes. He exercised some influence in the area of Lleida as well, which was dominated in the first third of the 15th century by the painter Jaume Ferrer.



 

 


Borrassa Lluis
St Peter is Walking
on the Water

1411-13
Sant Pere, Terrasa

 

 


Borrassa Lluis
Nativity
14o3-1411
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona

 


Borrassa Lluis
Nativity
14o3-1411
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona

 
 
 

 
 
 
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