TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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Gothic and Early Renaissance Art

Painting

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Gothic and Early Renaissance
 
 
 
Painting
 
 
     
Villard de Honnecourt
Illuminated Manuscripts

Cimabue
Duccio
Giotto
Cavallini
Simone Martini
Pietro Lorenzetti
Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Francesco Traini
Giovanni da Milano
Jean Pucelle
Melchior Broederlam
Limbourg brothers
Gentile da Fabriano
     
     
Illuminated Manuscripts    
     
Stefan Lochner
Nicolas Bataille
Bonaventura Berlinghieri
Altichiero da Zevio
Beauneveu Andre
Andrea da Firenze
Barnaba da Modena
Lippo Memmi
Fra Angelico
Pisanello
Konrad of Soest

Bartolo di Fredi
Hubert van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Masaccio
Masolino
Bernat Martorell

Hans Memling
Rogier van der Weyden
Hugo van der Goes
Gerard David
Antonello da Messina

Piero della Francesca
Pedro Berruguete
Sassetta
Jaume Huguet
Nicolas Froment

Robert Campin
Konrad Witz

Derick Baegert
Master E.S.
Martin Schongauer
Israhel van Meckenem

Bartolome Bermejo
Fernando Gallego

Hans Multscher

Barthelemy d'Eyck
Dieric Bouts

Andrea Mantegna
Hans Holbein the Elder

Michael Pacher

Quentin Massys
Lorenzo Monaco
Jean Fouquet
Jacopo Bellini
     
     
Mr of the Glatz Madonna
Mr Theodoric
Torriti Jacopo
Mr Bertram of Munden Maso di Banco
Taddeo Gaddi
Mr of the Kaufmann Crucifixion
     
     
Tommaso da Modena
Mr of Wittingau
Mr of the Narbonne Parament
Malouel Jean
Mr of the Wilton Dyptych
Borrassa Lluis
Mr of the Ortenberg Altar
Filippo Brunelleschi
Joos van Gent
     
     
Mr of the Westminster Altar
Mr of the of Robert de Lisle
Mr of Cologne Workshop
Mr of St. Veronica 
Mr of the Paradise Garden Westphalian Master
Mr of the Schloss Tirol Altar
Norwegian Master
     
     
Lukas Moser
Master of the Albrecht Altar
Frances Nicolas
Colantonio
Lluis Dalmau
Marco Zoppo
     
Mr of the Rohan Book of Hours
Mr of Alkmaar
Mr Francke
Bernat Martorell Nuno Goncalves
Martinus Opifex
Juan de Levi
Mr of the Lower Saxon Workshop
     
 
 
Tommaso da Modena

(b Modena, 1325–6; d before 16 July 1379). Italian painter.

He was the son of a Modenese painter, Barisino Barisini ( fl 1317; d 1343), who probably taught him the craft. Tomaso was absent from Modena in 1346 and has been assumed to have continued his training in Bologna after his father’s death, probably in the workshop of Vitale da Bologna: his art shows knowledge of the subject-matter and techniques of Bolognese illumination, as well as dependence on the style and work of Vitale. Two panel paintings probably belong to this period: a small triptych (410*388 mm; Modena, Gal. & Mus. Estense) and the centre of a reliquary triptych (Bologna, Pin. N.). The little triptych is signed with a prayer to the Virgin; its date, repainted and variously interpreted, may be 1345. The subject-matter of holy hermits and martyrs and the Descent into Limbo shares the solemn tone of the prayer. The dramatic composition, the facial types and rich brushwork are strongly influenced by Vitale. The reliquary panel has three registers, the central one with three images of the Virgin: showing her pregnant and reading, feeding the Christ Child, and knitting his seamless tunic. The four elegant Virgin Martyrs below are dressed in the latest and finest fashions; such figures are frequently found in Tomaso’s work. The damaged St Agnes of this panel is the only example to preserve the full richness of his conception of courtly dress.

 
 


Cardinal Nicholas of Rouen
1351-52
Chapter House, San Niccolò, Treviso




Saint Albert the Great



The Departure of St. Ursula
1355-58
Museo Civico, Treviso.

 
 
 

Master of Wittingau

Master of the Narbonne Parament


Lippo Memmi


Fra Angelico



 

Pathways to the International Style


Even as an important basis was here being established for the extraordinarily homogeneous style that would stamp itself upon the art of western and central Europe around 1400, so in Tuscany Giotto and Simone Martini had set standards which were almost impossible to surpass. For their contemporaries and followers, consequently, it was a matter of consolidating what had been achieved rather than of embarking upon something new. In Siena, such important painters as Lippo Memmi (active 1317-c. 1350) and Pietro Lorenzetti (c. 1280/90-1348) further developed the art of Simone, while in Florence Taddeo Gaddi (active c. 1325—1366) and others embraced the legacy of Giotto. A certain artistic paralysis now set in. A contributory factor here was the outbreak in 1348/49 of the Black Death, which spread throughout Europe in just a few months and in some places carried off over half the population, including many artists — Pietro Lorenzetti  perhaps among them. Stagnation and increasingly empty routine would make the Italian artists only too eager to embrace the new trends of the International Gothic towards the end of the century.
New impetus would eventually come from the northern centres of Paris and Prague. While the trauma of 1348 continued to be processed in many places in extremely expressive Crucifixions and Lamentations, the forerunners of the International Gothic were already formulating the new style which, around 1400, would dominate the whole of non-Byzantine Europe. At almost the same time as Theoderic was painting his monumental, melancholy saints for Karlstein castle - the crystallization-point of Charles IV's cultural, political and religious ambitions - the Prague sculptors were unveiling their quite different art, its figures more stereotypical than individual, more elegant than earthly. Their influence immediately began radiating out to neighbouring Silesia, which belonged to Bohemia, and on to Salzburg.
There were enough branches of the Parler dynasty of artists alone to ensure close exchanges with the Rhineland. Characteristic features of this Prague school include Lamentations and, above all, the aptly-named Schone Madonnen ("Beautiful Madonnas"). Alongside their technical perfection, these latter are distinguished by the dynamic sweep of their bodies, an affected pose, faces of an almost saccharine sweetness and in particular a volume of draperies arranged with consummate skill, which tumble down the sides in rich cascades and conclude in a virtuoso sea of undulating hems.
Judging by the quality, number and geographical spread of the works which followed, this aesthetic revolution must have captivated other artists of the day as far away as Italy and even distant Spain. At home, it was translated into painting by the Master of Wittingau (active c. 1380-1390), the last great artist which the Bohemian school, which flow ered for just a few decades, would produce. He underlines once again the importance of the new style not just for Bohemia, but for Europe as a whole: almost all the elements which would be central to European painting around 1400 are present in his Wittingau Altar.  

 


Master of Wittingau
The Agony in the Garden
c. 1380-1390
(from the altar of the Augustinian
Canons
' church of St Aegidius)
Narodni Galeri, Prague

 
 
Theoderic's ample figures are reduced to an almost painful thinness: extremities, faces, all are now elongated and fragile; fingers resemble spider's legs. The slender silhouettes are clad all the more expressively in thin, generously cut robes. In a similar fashion to the sculptures mentioned above, the Christ in the Resurrection is enveloped in a cascade of folds ending in a rich swirling hem. Anecdotal details have assumed much greater importance — even where, as in the case of the many birds in the Resurrection, there is little obvious justification for their inclusion in the scene.
The quality of the execution struggles to match the inventiveness of the composition, however. As in the case of the Hohenfurth Altar, the paintings that have come down to us are perhaps only indirect reflections of the true, but now lost masterpieces of their day. There is another striking feature about the Wittingau Altar. As remained the convention in various regions up to the 16th century, the majestic gold ground is restricted to the interior panels, which in Wittingau are reserved — again in line with convention — for standing figures of saints. The narrative scenes on the altar's exterior, on the other hand, employ a red ground dotted with gold stars, which engages in a powerfully expressive interplay with the red of certain draperies. The impression made by the landscape, with its individual elements executed in such particular detail, is also intensified by the complementary colour of the background. There may have been earlier instances of this phenomenon, too, in works that are now lost.
This style had its roots in the Paris court art of the years around 1300, where its forms battled against more abstract tendencies throughout the 14th century. Years before the Wittingau Altar, the Parisian Master of the Narbonne Parament (active c. 1375— um 1400) had demonstrated, in the work which gave him his name, his familiarity with the elegant flow of movement, slender silhouettes and the exuberant undulation of fabric hems.
 
 


Master of Wittingau
The Resurrection
c. 1380-1390
(from the altar of the Augustinian Canons' church of St Aegidius)
Narodni Galeri, Prague

 

Master of the Narbonne Parament
Paramentdoration of the Child
c. 1390
(miniature from the Tres Belles Heures de
Notre-Dame)
Museo Civico d'Arte Antica, Turin

 

Master of the Narbonne Parament
Entombment, Descent into Hell and Noli me tangere
c. 1375
Musee du Luvre, Paris

 
 

Master of the Trebon Altarpiece
Bohamian painter (active in 1380-1400)
The Adoration of Jesus
Before 1380
Alsova Jihoceska Galeria, Hluboka
          

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
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