TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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Gothic and Early Renaissance Art

Painting

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Gothic and Early Renaissance
 
 
 
Painting
 
 
     
Villard de Honnecourt
Illuminated Manuscripts

Cimabue
Duccio
Giotto
Cavallini
Simone Martini
Pietro Lorenzetti
Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Francesco Traini
Giovanni da Milano
Jean Pucelle
Melchior Broederlam
Limbourg brothers
Gentile da Fabriano
     
     
Illuminated Manuscripts    
     
Stefan Lochner
Nicolas Bataille
Bonaventura Berlinghieri
Altichiero da Zevio
Beauneveu Andre
Andrea da Firenze
Barnaba da Modena
Lippo Memmi
Fra Angelico
Pisanello
Konrad of Soest

Bartolo di Fredi
Hubert van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Masaccio
Masolino
Bernat Martorell

Hans Memling
Rogier van der Weyden
Hugo van der Goes
Gerard David
Antonello da Messina

Piero della Francesca
Pedro Berruguete
Sassetta
Jaume Huguet
Nicolas Froment

Robert Campin
Konrad Witz

Derick Baegert
Master E.S.
Martin Schongauer
Israhel van Meckenem

Bartolome Bermejo
Fernando Gallego

Hans Multscher

Barthelemy d'Eyck
Dieric Bouts

Andrea Mantegna
Hans Holbein the Elder

Michael Pacher

Quentin Massys
Lorenzo Monaco
Jean Fouquet
Jacopo Bellini
     
     
Mr of the Glatz Madonna
Mr Theodoric
Torriti Jacopo
Mr Bertram of Munden Maso di Banco
Taddeo Gaddi
Mr of the Kaufmann Crucifixion
     
     
Tommaso da Modena
Mr of Wittingau
Mr of the Narbonne Parament
Malouel Jean
Mr of the Wilton Dyptych
Borrassa Lluis
Mr of the Ortenberg Altar
Filippo Brunelleschi
Joos van Gent
     
     
Mr of the Westminster Altar
Mr of the of Robert de Lisle
Mr of Cologne Workshop
Mr of St. Veronica 
Mr of the Paradise Garden Westphalian Master
Mr of the Schloss Tirol Altar
Norwegian Master
     
     
Lukas Moser
Master of the Albrecht Altar
Frances Nicolas
Colantonio
Lluis Dalmau
Marco Zoppo
     
Mr of the Rohan Book of Hours
Mr of Alkmaar
Mr Francke
Bernat Martorell Nuno Goncalves
Martinus Opifex
Juan de Levi
Mr of the Lower Saxon Workshop
     
 
 

Colantonio

Lluis Dalmau

 

The waves of Netherlandish influence

This picture was consolidated over the following decades as "Netherlandicizing" currents increasingly gained ground across Europe. In the 1440s, Barthelemy d'Eyck (doc. from 1444— c. 1476) produced his famous Annunciation triptych for Aix cathedral, while in Naples Colantonio (doc. 1440—1465) made the new style his own. In Barcelona, Lluis Dalmau (doc. c. 1428—1461) set about painting, in his 1444/45 Virgin of the Councillors for Barcelona's town hall, one of the most faithful imitations of a van Eyck anywhere to be found. In Cologne, the most densely populated city in Germany, Stefan Lochner combined Eyck formulae with clear reminiscences of the Soft Style: the hems of the robes in his Virgin of the Rose Garden undulate like waves. Particularly striking here, as in his Darmstadt Presentation in the Temple, are the delicate, extraordinarily sophisticated harmonies of his palette. In the retrograde handling of scale in their figures, however, both panels lag far behind the van Eyck. Pasty, doll-like faces, overly large gold haloes and gilt grounds embossed with ornate decoration complete the picture.
That Lochner was nevertheless very familiar with developments in the Netherlands can be seen from the Patron Saints of Cologne altarpiece which he painted for the chapel in Cologne town hall, and which is today housed in Cologne cathedral. The folds here are far more angular than those of the Virgin of the Rose Garden executed a few years later. The Annunciation on the altar's exterior recalls the Ghent Altar even at the level of individual motifs in the Virgin's spreading draperies. In continuing to deploy elements from the past, however, Lochner was not betraying his incompetence, but was very consciously playing with the motifs and formal canons of different styles and regions - an "un-Gothic", extremely modern approach for which in the 15th century, significantly, parallels existed only in Italy. That we are dealing not with some inferior imitator, but rather with one of the most important Late Gothic artists of all, is surely demonstrated best of all by the fame which he enjoyed for generations to come. His design solutions and nature studies were drawn upon by Schongauer, himself a master of composition, and even Rogier van der Weyden, at that point the most important representative of the Early Netherlandish school. Over half a century after Lochner's death, Albrecht Durer went to the chapel in Cologne town hall in order to admire for himself the masterpiece which still survives today.
It was precisely the freedom with which Lochner created his art that ensured he would remain an isolated phenomenon, however famous. The Cologne painters of the following decades (Master of the Life of the Virgin, Master of the St. Bartholomew Altar) would orientate themselves towards their Netherlandish contemporaries, in the first instance primarily towards Rogier's "successor", Dieric Bouts (c. 1410/20 —1475). Their borrowings were thereby restricted to selected figural, drapery and landscape forms. Their approach to composition and their techniques of preliminary drawing and execution remained entrenched in local tradition — not just with regards to such obvious features as gold grounds and nimbuses. A constant "updating" of forms derived from the Netherlands can be observed in other European regions, too. The latest trends in Bruges and Antwerp were still being adopted even in distant Portugal right up to the early years of the 16th century.

 

Colantonio Niccolo (Antonio)
 

(b ?Naples, c. ?1420; d Naples, after 1460).
Italian painter. A certain ‘Cola de Neapoli’ is documented in Rome in 1444, but he cannot be definitely identifed with Colantonio. The main source for the reconstruction of Colantonio’s activity is Pietro Summonte’s letter of 1524 to
the Venetian Marcantonio Michiel on the history of the arts in the Kingdom of Naples. Despite the small number of undisputed works, scholars unanimously assign to Colantonio a primary role in the history of Neapolitan painting in the period of Aragonese rule between 1440 and 1470. In those years Naples was the capital of a vast realm and a centre of culture and art where many international styles came together.

 

 


Colantonio
St Jerome
c. 1445
Museo di Capodimonte, Naples
 

   
 

                   

 

Colantonio
St. Francis consigns the Rule to his followers
1445
Museo di Capodimonte, Naples

 

 

 

 

  Dalmau Lluis

Spanish painter (active 1428-61)

 

The earliest reference to him is in 1428, when he is called ‘painter of the city of Valencia’ and is mentioned as being in the service of Alfonso V, King of Aragon. Dalmau remained in Alfonso’s service for at least nine years, at times serving in a diplomatic capacity: he was sent to Castile in 1428, and in 1431 to the south Netherlands, although the duration and purpose of the latter visit are unknown. No works done for the King are known, and the only royal payment made to him was for some minor architectural work.

 

     


Lluis Dalmau
Altarpiece of the Councillors
Virgin of the Councillors
1445
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
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