400-201 BC PART II
400 - 201 BC
The Ten Thousand
The Political Environment
Corinthian War
Agesilaus II
"Life of
Peace of Antalcidas
The Struggle for Supremacy
Marcus Manlius Capitolinus
The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt
Plutarch "Life of Pelopidas"
Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
The Battle of Mantinea
Marcus Furius Camillus
Plutarch "Life of Camillus"
Ariarathes I of Cappadocia
The Struggle for Supremacy-2
The Rise of Macedonia
Alexander I
Macedonia as a Great Power under Philip II
Philip II
Battle of Chaeronea
Battle of Chaeronea
The Third Sacred War
Samnite Wars
The Persian Empire under the Later Achaemenids
Artaxerxes III
Alexander the Great-1
Alexander the Great and His Campaigns
Aristotle "Poetics", "The Categories"
Aristotle and Phyllis
The Persian Empire under the Later Achaemenids
Darius III
The Battle of Issus
Battle of Gaugamela
Battle of Gaugamela
Second Samnite War
Alexander the Great-2
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
The Empire of Alexander the Great
Plutarch "Life of Alexander"
Alexander's Goals and Failure
Alexander the Great -3
Macedonia after Alexander's Death
Macedonia under the Antigonids
The Kingdoms of the Diadochoi
Wars of the Diadochi
Ptolemy I Soter
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
Seleucus I Nicator
Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
Philip III of Macedon
Alexander IV of Macedon
Eurydice II of Macedon
Cleopatra of Macedon
Eumenes of Cardia
Plutarch "Life of Eumenes"
Pyrrhus of Epirus
Plutarch "Life of Pyrrhus"
Demetrius Poliorcetes
Plutarch "Life of Demetrius"
Ptolemy Keraunos
Alexander the Great-4
Third Samnite War
Lucius Papirius Cursor
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Antiochus I Soter
Stratonice of Syria
Antigonus II Gonatas
The Rise of Carthage to Military and Economic Power
The First Punic War
Hamilcar Barca
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Jacob Abbott  "Hannibal"
Antiochus II Theos
Seleucus II Callinicus
Agis IV
Plutarch "Life of Agis"
Marcus Porcius Cato
Plutarch "Life of Marcus Cato"
Publius Cornelius Scipio
Antigonus III Doson
Cleomenes III
"Life of
Hannibal in Quotations
The Second Punic War
Battle of Cannae
Battle of Cannae
The Siege of Syracuse
Battle of the Metaurus
Battle of Metaurus River
Battle of Zama
Battle of Zama
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
Plutarch "Life of Fabius"
Philip V
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Plutarch "Life of Marcellus"
Antiochus III
Qin dynasty
The Terracotta army
The Terracotta army
Battle of Kai-hsia
Battle of Kai-hsia
Han dynasty
Liu Bang
Intellectual Innovations in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries
The Death of Socrates
Eucleides of Megara
"The Categories"
Aristotle and Phyllis
"Life of Demosthenes"
Demosthenes Quotes
Heraclides Ponticus
The Parian Marble
Zeno of Citium
Quintus Fabius Pictor
The Rise of Individualism
Ancient Greek Sculpture
The Temple of Concordia
The Greek theater of Epidaurus
Pamphilus of Amphipolis
Philosophy in Art
Hellenistic Baroque
Baroque Ancient and Modern
Colossus of Rhodes
Pharos of Alexandria
The Farnese Tazza
Temple of Edfu
"An illustrated version of
Valmiki's Story
Timotheus of Miletus
Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Rhodes
"Jason and the Golden Fleece" (The Argonautica)
Lucius Livius Andronicus
Quintus Ennius
Gnaeus Naevius
Apollonius of Perga
From Phalanx to Legion
From Phalanx to Legion
Alexandria founded by Alexander the Great
Common Coins of the Roman Empir
Ancient Greek Clothing
The Costume History
Ancient Greek Clothing

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Furio Camillo
Plutarch, Camillus:

"Camillus ... assumed more to himself than became a civil and legal magistrate; among other things, in the pride and haughtiness of his triumph, driving through Rome in a chariot drawn with four white horses, which no general either before or since ever did; for the Romans consider such a mode of conveyance to be sacred, and especially set apart to the king and father of the gods.

This alienated the hearts of his fellow-citizens, who were not accustomed to such pomp and display..
  400-351 BC

M. Manlius Capitolinus, accused of royal ambitions, is thrown from the Tarpeian rock -384

The 30th dynasty in Egypt (-380 to -343), last native house to rule the country

Massacre of the Spartan tyrants at Thebes by Pelopidas and Epaminondas -379

Battle of Leuctra: Thebans under Epaminondas defeat Sparta-371

The first plebeian elected to office of consul in Rome -366

Marcus Furius Camillus, Roman general and dictator, d. -365

Epaminondas, Theban general, killed in the Battle of Mantinea -362

Cappadocia becomes a kingdom under Ariarathes I -360
  400-351 BC
  Marcus Manlius Capitolinus

Marcus Manlius Capitolinus (died 384 BC) was consul of the Roman Republic in 392 BC. He was the brother of Aulus Manlius Capitolinus. The Manlii were a patrician gens.

During the Gallic siege of Rome in 390 (or 387) BC, the account of which became partly mythologized, Marcus Manlius held out for months with a small garrison on the citadel (arx), while the rest of Rome was abandoned. When Gauls under the command of Brennus were attempting to scale the Capitoline, Manlius was roused by the cackling of the sacred geese, rushed to the spot, and threw down the foremost assailants.


Marcus Manlius Capitolinus (392 av J.C.) jeté dans le Tibre
  After the sack of Rome left the plebeians in pitiful condition, they were forced to borrow large sums of money from the patricians, and once again became the poor debtor class of Rome. Manlius, the hero of Rome, fought for them.

Livy says, with some inaccuracy, that he was the first patrician to act as a populist (popularis). Seeing a centurion led to prison for debt, he freed him with his own money, and even sold his estate to relieve other poor debtors, while he accused the Senate of embezzling public money. He was charged with aspiring to kingly power, and condemned by the comitia, but not until the assembly had adjourned to a place outside the walls, where they could no longer see the Capitol which he had saved.

The Senate condemned him to death in 385 BC, and he was thrown from the Tarpeian Rock one year later. He is considered the second martyr in the cause of social reform at Rome.

His house on the Capitoline Hill was razed, and the Senate decreed that no patrician should live there henceforth. The Manlii themselves resolved that no patrician Manlius should bear the name of Marcus. According to Mommsen, the story of the saving of the Capitol was a later invention to justify his cognomen, which may be better explained by his domicile.

The fate of Marcus Manlius
  400-351 BC
  The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt

The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.


A finely made gilded silver Ancient Egyptian 30th dynasty mummy mask from the Gulbenkian museum belonging to an unknown person.
  Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own son Tjahepimu. Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son-and Teos' grandson-Nectanebo II-king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia.

Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then attempted an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in the winter of 351/350 BC; the repercussions of his defeat prompted revolts in Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Cilicia. Although Nectanebo gave support to these revolts, Artaxerxes would eventually suppress these rebellions and was once again able to invade Egypt in 343 BC. This second invasion proved successful, and Nectanebo was forced to withdraw from his defenses in the Nile Delta to Memphis, where he saw that his cause was lost. He thereupon fled south to Nubia, where he is assumed to found refuge at the court of King Nastesen of Napata. Nectanebo, however, may have managed to maintain some form of independent rule in the south of Egypt for 2 more years since a document from Edfu is dated to his eighteenth year.

Although a shadowy rebel Khababash proclaimed himself king (338 - 336 BC), Nectanebo has been considered the last native pharaoh of Egypt, and his flight marked the end of Egypt as an independent entity.

Thirtieth Dynasty:
Nectanebo I (380 - 362 BC)
Teos (362 - 360 BC)
Nectanebo II (360 - 343 BC)

  400-351 BC

Pelopidas, (died 364 bc, Cynoscephalae, Thessaly [now in Greece]), Theban statesman and general responsible, with his friend Epaminondas, for the brief period (371–362) of Theban hegemony in mainland Greece.

  In 385 Pelopidas served in a Theban contingent sent to support the Spartans at Mantineia, where he was seriously wounded but was saved by Epaminondas. Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the Spartans (382), Pelopidas fled to Athens and took the lead in a conspiracy to liberate Thebes. In 379 his party surprised and killed their chief political opponents and, by arousing the Theban people, were able to force the Spartan garrison to surrender. In this and subsequent years he was elected boeotarch, or chief magistrate, of Thebes. Pelopidas was the leader of the Sacred Band, a selected infantry body of 300, which routed a large Spartan force at Tegyra (near Orchomenus, Boeotia) in 375 and distinguished itself in the defeat of Sparta at the decisive battle of Leuctra (371).

In 369, in response to a petition of the Thessalians, an army under Pelopidas checked the ambitions of Alexander, tyrant of Pherae, and drove the forces of the king of Macedonia out of Thessaly. Later Pelopidas was seized by Alexander, and two expeditions from Thebes were needed to win his release. Finally Pelopidas defeated Alexander at Cynoscephalae (364) but was killed in the combat.
Death of Pelopidas, by Andrey Ivanov, 1805-1806
  Plutarch "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"

Life of Pelopidas

Pelopidas, the son of Hippoclus, was descended, as likewise Epaminondas was, from an honorable family in Thebes; and, being brought up to opulence, and having a fair estate left him whilst he was young, he made it his business to relieve the good and deserving amongst the poor, that he might show himself lord and not slave of his estate. For amongst men, as Aristotle observes, some are too narrow-minded to use their wealth, and some are loose and abuse it; and these live perpetual slaves to their pleasures, as the others to their gain. Others permitted themselves to be obliged by Pelopidas, and thankfully made use of his liberality and kindness; but amongst all his friends, he could never persuade Epaminondas to be a sharer in his wealth....


Epaminondas, (born c. 410 bc, Thebes—died 362, Mantineia), Theban statesman and military tactician and leader who was largely responsible for breaking the military dominance of Sparta and for altering permanently the balance of power among the Greek states. He defeated a Spartan army at Leutra (371 bc) and led successful expeditions into the Peloponnese (370–369, 369–368, 367, and 362), being killed in battle during the last of those invasions.

Epaminondas was the son of a Theban aristocrat. His father, though poor, provided him with a good education. Particularly attracted to philosophy, the boy became a devoted pupil of Lysis of Tarentum, a Pythagorean, who had settled in Thebes. Epaminondas did not at first take any part in political life but served on military expeditions. There is a legend that he saved the life of his colleague Pelopidas in battle in 385.
In 382 the Spartans took advantage of an expedition to northern Greece to conspire with a few Thebans and seize power by a sudden coup. For three and a half years the government was in the hands of this small dictatorship, backed by a Spartan garrison in the Cadmeia (the citadel of Thebes). Many of the previous leaders, including Pelopidas, were driven into exile. Epaminondas remained in private life, but when Pelopidas, returning secretly from Athens, successfully overthrew the dictatorship in 379 and frightened the Spartan garrison into surrender, Epaminondas is said to have been one of those who led the popular uprising in Thebes. No individual part is attributed to him for the next eight years, during which Thebes, in alliance with
  Athens, successfully fought off Sparta and reestablished its traditional leadership in a federation of the cities of Boeotia. In 371 the general war was ended at a peace conference, but Sparta and Athens combined to refuse recognition to the Theban federation by insisting that each city of Boeotia should be a separate party to the treaty, while Thebes claimed that its federation should be treated as a single unit. Epaminondas, who was boeotarch (one of the five magistrates of the federation), maintained this position, even when it led to the exclusion of Thebes from the peace treaty. The Spartans had an army stationed on Thebes’s western frontier, waiting to follow up their diplomatic success by a crushing military attack. But in the Battle of Leuctra (371) Epaminondas was ready with a tactical innovation. Instead of the usual advances of heavily armed infantry drawn up in an equal number of ranks over the whole front, he massed his troops on the left wing to the unprecedented depth of 50 ranks against an overall Spartan depth of 12. The Spartans, who according to Greek convention had their best troops on the right wing, were overwhelmed by the force of the Theban advance.
The Death of Epaminondas after the battle against the Spartans led by Mantineia in 362 B.C.,
painting by Isaak Walraven
The novelty consisted in striking the enemy first at their strongest, instead of their weakest, point, with such crushing force that the attack was irresistible. The defeat of the Spartans inflicted such heavy losses on the very limited numbers of the Spartan soldiers that it seriously threatened the possibility of raising another Spartan army. The Boeotian federation had been saved, and after more than a year the Theban army, once more led by Epaminondas, proceeded to press home its victory. In the winter (a most unusual season for Greek warfare) of 370–369 they invaded the Peloponnese and penetrated the valley of the Eurotas (modern Evrótas).

For the first time for at least two centuries an enemy army was in sight of Sparta. The subject population of Helots revolted, and Epaminondas re-created the state of Messenia, which had been enslaved by the Spartans for 300 years. He also encouraged the Arcadians, who had broken from Sparta’s league, to found Megalopolis (Big City) as a federal capital.

These new political creations served to keep Sparta in check so that it was never again a serious military power outside the Peloponnese. Epaminondas’ brilliant success was met with jealousy and political opposition at home. He had stayed abroad over his year of office and was impeached on his return but acquitted. In 369–368 he led a second successful invasion of the Peloponnese, gaining further allies for Boeotia.
  In 367 he also served as a common soldier in an army sent to rescue his friend Pelopidas, who was a prisoner of Alexander, tyrant of Pherae (Thessaly). The expedition got into difficulties from which it was only rescued when Epaminondas was appointed general. This resulted in his reelection as boeotarch. He then returned to Thessaly and secured the release of Pelopidas. In 366 he invaded the Peloponnese for a third time, with a view to strengthening the Theban position there. He obtained assurances of fidelity from several states and, perhaps because of these assurances, decided not to overthrow the oligarchical governments that had been established by the Spartans. This was not accepted by the Theban government, which was in favour of overthrowing the oligarchs and establishing new democracies.
Athens had supported Sparta and was at war with Thebes. In 364–363 Epaminondas made a bold attempt to challenge Athens’ naval empire. With a new Boeotian fleet, he sailed to Byzantium, with the result that a number of cities in the Athenian Empire rebelled against their now-threatened masters. But the next year the outbreak of civil war in the Arcadian league brought Epaminondas once more to the head of a large allied army in the Peloponnese. He was met by Sparta, Athens, and their allies in the Battle of Mantineia (362). Epaminondas repeated on a large scale the tactics of Leuctra and was once more victorious but died of a wound on the field of battle. With his death all constructive initiative appeared to vanish from Theban policy.
  Battle of Leuctra

Battle of Leuctra, (371 bc), battle fought on the plain of Leuctra (near modern Levktra) in southern Boeotia, in which a Boeotian army under Epaminondas defeated a Spartan army under King Cleombrotus. This Spartan defeat in the Boeotian–Athenian war against Sparta of 379–371 destroyed the reputation of the Spartan hoplite phalanx and established Theban hegemony in Greece (371–362).

  Epaminondas’ tactical innovations of oblique order and concentration of forces against the enemy’s command brought about the Theban–Boeotian victory.
After the Theban refusal to sign the peace agreement of 371, Cleombrotus, who was in Phocis with about 10,000 Spartan and allied hoplites and 1,000 cavalry, was ordered to invade Boeotia and attack Thebes. He was met by Epaminondas’ Theban force, consisting of about 6,000 hoplites (heavily armed infantrymen) and an unknown number of cavalry. Eschewing the usual battle formation of cavalry heading a continuous hoplite phalanx, with the commander on the right wing, Epaminondas massed hoplites to a depth of 50 on his left wing and advanced it ahead of the centre and right wings. When the superior Theban cavalry drove the Spartan cavalry back on the phalanx, the Theban left wing attacked and routed the Spartan right, killing Cleombrotus, the Spartan king. Xenophon, a contemporary historian, reports nearly 1,000 Spartan dead.


Battle of Leuctra

Battle of Leuctra (July 371 BC):

Theban victory broke the power of Sparta, which
had dominated the Greek peninsula since the
Peloponnesian War.
Theban supremacy in Greece
was temporary, and hostile relations led to
Macedonian invasion and control.

  The Battle of Mantinea

The Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans. The battle was to decide the hegemony over Greece, but the death of Epaminondas and the defeat of the Spartans paved the way for Macedonian conquest by Phillip II of Macedon.

Theban Hegemony, Battle of Mantineia
After the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC had shattered the foundations of Spartan hegemony, Thebes' chief politician and general Epaminondas attempted to build a new hegemony centered on his city. Consequently, the Thebans had marched south, into the area traditionally dominated by the Spartans, and set up the Arcadian League, a federation of city-states of the central Peloponnesian plateau, to contain Spartan influence in the Peloponnese and thereby maintain overall Theban control. In years prior to the Battle of Mantinea, the Spartans had joined with the Eleans (a minor Peloponnesian people with a territorial grudge against the Arcadians) in an effort to undermine the League. When the Arcadians miscalculated and seized the Pan-Hellenic sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia in Elis, one of the Arcadian city-states, Mantinea, detached itself from the League. The Spartans and Eleans joined the Mantineans in a military attack on the Arcadian League. Athens decided to support the Spartans, as she resented the growing Theban power. The Athenians also recalled that at the end of Peloponnesian War, the Thebans demanded that Athens be destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved; the Spartans had resisted these demands. An Athenian army was sent by sea to join the Spartan-led forces, in order to avoid being intercepted on land by Theban forces. Epaminondas then led a Theban army into the Peloponnese to restore order and re-establish Theban/Arcadian hegemony there.   Battle
The two armies met near Mantinea in 362 BC. The Spartans, Athenians, Eleans and Mantineans were led by the Spartan king, Agesilaus II. The Theban army also included contingents from city-states of the pro-Theban Boeotian League. Epaminondas' Thebans were assisted by the Arcadians loyal to the League, principally those from the city-states of Megalopolis (founded by the Thebans when they were last in the Peloponnese, as the Arcadian federal capital) and Tegea (the traditional leading city-state of the Arcadians). Though both generals were highly competent, Epaminondas prevailed at Mantinea. Using a modified version of the tactics he had successfully pioneered at Leuctra, he organised the Boeotian troops on the left wing of his army into an unusually deep column of hoplites. This formation of troops, in conjunction with the echelon, sought to establish local superiority of numbers while delaying the battle on the weaker center and right side. As Greek battles were pushing-matches, it allowed the large, dense section of the line to force its way through the thinner classical phalanx. Epaminondas personally led this column from the front line. Xenophon (Hellenika 5.2.1-3) described the left wing of that Theban army as "like a trireme, with the spur of the prow out in front."

Epaminondas charged and routed the Spartan right wing, winning the battle. Having fought in the front line, however, he was fatally wounded.
Epaminondas and Pelopidas at Battle of Mantineia

The Theban leaders Iolaidas and Daiphantus, whom he intended to succeed him, were also killed. On his deathbed, Epaminondas, upon hearing of the deaths of his fellow leaders, instructed the Thebans to make peace, despite having won the battle. Without his leadership, Theban hopes for hegemony faded. The Spartans, however, having been again defeated in battle, were unable to replace their losses. The ultimate result of the battle was to pave the way for the Macedonian conquest of Greece, by ensuring the weakness of both the Thebans and the Spartans.

  Map of "Ancient Greece and its Battles"
  400-351 BC
  Marcus Furius Camillus

Marcus Furius Camillus (ca. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome.

  Early life
Marcus Furius Camillus from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum InsigniorumCamillus belonged to the lineage of the Furii, whose origin had been in the Latin city of Tusculum. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both Volsci and Aequi began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Soon, the Furii integrated into the Roman society, accumulating a long series of magistrate offices. Thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s.

The father of Camillus was Lucius Furius Medullinus, a patrician tribune of consular powers. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was Lucius junior, who was both Roman Consul and tribune of consular powers. A younger brother was Spurius. The cognomen of Camillus was the denomination of the Roman acolytes of religious rituals. Coincidently, during Camillus' infancy, his relative Quintus Furius Paculus was the Roman Pontifex Maximus.

  Early career
Camillus had been a noteworthy soldier in the wars with the Aequi and Volsci. Subsequently, Camillus was a Military Tribune. In 403 BC, he was appointed Roman censor with Marcus Postumius Albinus Regillensis, and, by means of extensive taxation, took action to solve Roman financial problems, which were the outcome of uninterrupted military campaigns.

Against Veii
In 406, Rome declared war against the rival Etrurian city of Veii. Powerful Veii was a fortified city on an elevated site, which required several years of Roman siege. In 401, as the war started to grow increasingly unpopular in Rome, Camillus was appointed military tribune of consular power. He assumed command of the Roman Army, and within a short time he stormed two allies of Veii, Falerii and Capena, which resisted behind their walls. In 398, Camillus received consular powers and then looted Capena.

When Rome suffered severe defeats in 396, the tenth year of this war, the Romans resorted again to Camillus, who was named dictator once more. After defeating both Falerii and Capena at Nepete, Camillus commanded the final strike against Veii. He dug the soft ground below the walls and the Romans infiltrated through the city's sewage system effectively, defeating the enemy.

  Not interested in capitulation terms, but in Veii's complete destruction, the Romans slaughtered the entire adult male population and made slaves of all the women and children. The plunder was large. For the battle, Camillus had invoked the protection of Mater Matuta extensively, and he looted the statue of Juno for Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus paraded on a quadriga, a four-horse chariot, and the popular celebrations lasted four days.

Camillus opposed the plebeian plan to populate Veii with half of the Romans. It would have resolved the poverty issues, but the patricians opposed it. Deliberately, Camillus protracted the project until its abandonment. Camillus rendered himself controversial in not fulfilling his promise to dedicate a tenth of the loot to Delphi for the god Apollo. The Roman soothsayers announced that the gods were displeased by this, so the Senate charged the citizens and the sought amounts of gold were retrieved.

Francesco Salviati, Triumph of Furius Camillus,
Fresco in the Salone dei Cinquecento, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy.


To finish Falerii, which was the last surviving enemy of this war, Camillus was made military tribune again, in 395. He seized the opportunity to divert the bitter conflict between Roman social classes into a unifying external conflict. He besieged Falerii and, after he rejected as amoral the proposal of a local school teacher who had surrendered most of the local children to the Romans, the people of Falerii moved to gratitude, swore peace with Rome.

The entire Italian Peninsula was impressed by the Roman victories of Camillus. Aequi, Volsci, and Capena proposed peace treaties. Rome increased its territory by seventy percent and some of the land was distributed to needy citizens. Rome had become the most powerful nation of the central peninsula.

The Romans were restive because no plunder had been reaped out of Falerii. Furthermore, Camillus rejected both the land redistribution and the uncontrolled Roman population of Veii. Consequently, he was impeached by his political adversaries, by an accusation of embezzlement of the Etrurian loot.

To Camillus, his friends explained that, although the condemnation seemed unavoidable, they would help to pay the fine. Camillus spurned this, opting for the exile. He abandoned Rome with his wife and Lucius, his surviving son, toward Ardea. In his absence, Camillus was condemned to pay 1,500 denarii.

Francesco Salviati - Marcus Furius Camillus forbidding the
weighing of gold, from the Sala dell'Udienza


The Gauls
Clusium was reached by the Gauls, who had invaded most of Etruria already, and its people turned to Rome for help. However, the Roman embassy provoked a skirmish and, then, the Gauls marched straight for Rome (July, 387 BC). After the entire Roman army was defeated at the Allia brook (Battle of the Allia), the defenseless Rome was seized by the invaders. The entire Roman army retreated into the deserted Veii whereas most civilians ended at the Etruscan Caere. Nonetheless, a surrounded Roman garrison continued to resist on the Capitoline Hill. The Gauls dwelt within the city, getting their supplies by destroying all nearby towns for plunder.

When the Gauls went for Ardea, the exiled Camillus, who was now a private man, organized the local forces for a defense. Particularly, he harangued that, always, the Gauls exterminated their defeated enemies. Camillus found that the Gauls were too distracted, celebrating their latest spoils with much crapulence at their camp. Then, he attacked during a night, defeating the enemy easily with great bloodshed.

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Furio Camillo,
Palazzo Vecchio, Firenze

  Second foundation of Rome
Camillus was hailed then by all other Roman exiles throughout the region. After he refused a makeshift generalship, a Roman messenger sneaked into the Capitol and, therein, Camillus was officially appointed dictator by the Roman Senators, to confront the Gauls.

At the Roman base of Veii, Camillus gathered a 12,000-man army whereas more men joined out of the region. The occupying Gauls were in serious need, under quite poor health conditions. As the Roman Dictator, Camillus negotiated with the Gallic leader Brennus, and the Gauls left Rome, camping nearby at the Gabinian road. A day after this, Camillus confronted them with his refreshed army and the Gauls were forced to withdraw, after seven months of occupation (386 BC).

Camillus sacrificed for the successful return and he ordered the construction of the temple of Aius Locutius. Then, he subdued another claim of the plebeian orators, who importuned further about moving to Veii. After ordering a Senate debate, Camillus argued for staying and the Roman house approved this unanimously. The reconstruction extended for an entire year.

By this one-year office, Camillus was the longest of all Roman dictators. Basically, the Senators had been persuaded by the disturbing social clashes, which could be better managed by Camillus. Instead, Camillus disliked this and, vainly, he requested the dismissal.

Second regional war
During the reconstruction, Volsci and Aequi invaded the Roman territory, some Latin nations revolted, and the Etruscans besieged Sutrium, which was a Roman ally. To confront such a crisis, Camillus, who was military tribune then, was appointed Roman dictator yet again, in 385 BC.

When the enemy besieged Rome, Camillus slew most invaders at the Marcian heights, setting fire to their palisades during the windy hours of dawn. Subsequently, Camillus defeated Volsci southeastward, in the Battle of Maecium, not far from Lanuvium (389 BC). Camillus proceeded then, capturing Bola (Aequi's capital) and subjecting Volsci. However, the Romans lost Satricum and Camillus failed to capture Antium, the capital of the Volsci.

Finally, Camillus arrived at Sutrium where the population had just been expelled by the Etruscans. Camillus estimated that they would be given to boisterous celebrations in Sutrium, so he rushed to the confrontation; the Etruscans were so intoxicated that Camillus recaptured Sutrium with ease.

After this campaign, the Roman dictator Camillus celebrated a Triumph in Rome. Through Camillus, the Romans had proven their military professional strength and offensive readiness.

Camillus chases the Gauls from Rome

Further profile

Military tribune (381 BC)

In 381 BC, Camillus was military tribune of consular power again. His office was troubled chiefly by the charismatic Marcus Manlius Capitolinus, who became his greatest detractor and around whom all plebeians had aggregated. While Capitolinus had kingly dreams even, he attacked Camillus actually with precisely such kinglike accusation. Nonetheless, Capitolinus was formally judged and executed.

Military tribune (378 BC)
The southern nations were contemptuous against the Romans after their latest expedition. Several cities of Volsci united, such as Antium, Praeneste, and Velitrae. They liberated Satricum, slaying all Roman inhabitants. Before such crisis, Camillus was appointed military Tribune of consular power, for the sixth time.

His health was poor but his retirement was refused. Camillus decided then that he would command through his son Lucius. Thus, Camillus campaigned. At the battlefield, although Camillus helped the military actions safely, from a distanced camp, Lucius couldn't cope with his duties so Camillus jumped into the battlefield. It was so that the Romans defeated their enemy. Camillus headed then to Satricus with his youngest men and it was retrieved.

Because many war prisoners were of Tusculum, Camillus headed the romans thither and the city was bloodlessly adjoined with the Romans whereas its citizens were endowed with fully Roman rights. Such favorable development was due to the local relatedness of the Furiis.

After these events, Camillus decided that he would retire definitively.

The treacherous Schoolmaster of Falerii


Roman dictator (368 BC)
Camillus was appointed Roman dictator (368 BC), nominally to attend the war of Velletri. However, at Rome, the patricians of the Senate were expecting, actually, that Camillus would be their leverage against the agitated plebeians because the crisis of social classes had worsened by a quite severe economical pass.

For the Roman magistracy, the populists were demanding a dyad of Roman consuls, of whom one should be a plebeian always. Through a bogus military call, Camillus attempted to trick the plebeian concil so it might not meet to approve such plans. The enraged assemblymen were about punishing Camillus when he renounced his office of Dictator.

Roman dictator (367 BC)
As the Gauls were, again, marching toward Latium, all Romans reunited despite their severe differences. Camillus was named Roman dictator for the fifth time then (367 BC). He organized the defense of Rome actively. By the commands of Camillus, the Roman soldiers were protected particularly against the Gallic main attack, the heavy blow of their swords. Both smooth iron helmets and brass rimed shields were built. Also, long pikes were used, to keep the enemy's swords far.

The Gauls camped at the Anio river, carrying loads of recently gotten plunder. Near them, at the Alban Hills, Camillus discovered their disorganization, which was due to unruly celebrations. Before the dawn, then, the light infantry disarrayed the Gallic defenses and, subsequently, the heavy infantry and the pikemen of the Romans finished their enemy. After the battle, Velitrae surrendered voluntarily to Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus celebrated with another Triumph.

Sebastiano Ricci, Marcus Furius Camillus and Brennus


Issue of the social classes
At Rome, the plebeians were insisting about the dyad of Consuls. The patricians kept refusing uncompromisingly and, again, they sought protection behind Camillus' figure. The populists attempted to arrest Camillus but, timely, he convoked a Senate session, during which he convinced the assembly effectively for the satisfaction of the popular demand, through the Lex Licinia Sextia (367 BC).

The creation of the new plebeian magistracy ensued in general celebrations. Camillus ordered the construction of the Temple of Concord, which would be emplaced beside the Roman Forum.

A deadly pestilence struck Rome and it affected most Roman public figures. Camillus was amongst them, passing away in 365 BC. His death was deeply mourned as he was named "the second founder of Rome."

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The wealth of detail in the Gardner’s “Marriage” is spellbinding.
Plutarch "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"

Life of Camillus

Among the many remarkable things that are related of Furius Camillus, it seems singular and strange above all, that he, who continually was in the highest commands, and obtained the greatest successes, was five times chosen dictator, triumphed four times, and was styled a second founder of Rome, yet never was so much as once consul....

  400-351 BC
Ancient Coinage of Cappadocia
  Ariarathes I of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I (Ancient Greek: Ἀριαράθης, Ariaráthēs; ruled 331 BC or 330 BC – killed 322 BC), the son of the Cappadocian satrap Ariamnes I, was distinguished (Φιλάδελφος, Philádelphos) for his love of his brother Holophernes, whom he sent to assist his overlord king Artaxerxes III in the recovery of Egypt, 350 BC.

  Then he devotedly supported Darius III. Alexander the Great conquered Cappadocia during his route and installed a governor there (though two different names of this governor are given). Nevertheless, by the time of Alexander's death Ariarathes somehow assumed power as the first king of Cappadocians and even expanded the kingdom by subduing Cataonia.

After the death of Alexander, 323 BC, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes, Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated, taken prisoner, and crucified, together with many of his relations, 322 BC. Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time of his death: he had adopted as his son Ariarathes II, the eldest son of his brother Holophernes.

The Struggle for Supremacy- 2


"More than a thousand Athenians fell in the battle [of Chaeroneia, 338 ВС] and no fewer than 2,000 were captured ... The story is told that in the drinking after dinner Philip ... paraded through the midst of the captives, jeering at the misfortunes of the luckless men. Now Demades, the orator, who was one of the captives, spoke out boldly to curb the king's disgusting exhibition: 'O King, when Fortune has cast you in the role of Agamemnon [conqueror of Troy], are you not ashamed to act the part of Thersites?' Stung by this well-aimed rebuke, Philip altered his whole demeanour completely. He ... expressed admiration for the man who dared to speak so plainly: he freed him from captivity and ... ended by releasing all the Athenian prisoners without ransom and, altogether abandoning the arrogance of victory, sent envoys to the people of Athens and concluded with them a treaty of friendship and alliance."

Diodorus Siculus (1st century ВС) Library of History (1963 trans.) Bk 16.86-7. Diodorus' 40-volume work was a compilation of earlier sources. Thersites was the abusive commoner who taunted his commander in the Iliad and in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.


"At the Battle of Chaeroneia, Alexander is said to have been the first man that charged the Thebans' Sacred Band ... His early bravery made Philip [his father] so fond of him that nothing pleased him more than to hear his subjects call himself their general and Alexander their king."

Plutarch (c.46-c 127) (1876 trans.) 'Alexander' Ch.9. For the Sacred Band see 61:2.


"In this year [336 BC] King Philip opened the war with Persia by sending an advance party into Asia while he himself, wanting to enter upon the war with the gods' approval, asked the Pythia [priestess who transmitted the oracular words of Apollo at Delphi] whether he would conquer the king of the Persians. She gave him the following response: 'Wreathed is the bull. All is done. There is also the one who will smite him.'
Now Philip found this response ambiguous but accepted it in a sense favourable to himself, namely
that the Persian would be slaughtered like a sacrificial victim. Actually, however, it was not so, and it meant that Philip himself, in the midst of a festival and holy sacrifice, like the bull, would be stabbed to death while decked with a garland."

Diodorus Siculus (Ist century ВС) (1963 trans.) Bk 16.91.1-3.


"Every seat in the theatre was taken when Philip appeared wearing a white cloak, and by his express orders his bodyguard kept away from him and followed only at a distance, since he wanted to show publicly that he was protected by the goodwill of all the Greeks and had no need of a guard of spearmen."

Diodorus Siculus (I st century ВС) (1963 trans.) Bk 16.93.1.


"Pausanias nursed his wrath implacably and ... when he saw that the king was left alone, rushed at him, pierced him through his ribs and killed him; then ran for the gates and the horses which he had prepared for his flight ... Having a good start he would have mounted his horse before they could catch him had he not caught his foot in a vine and fallen. As he was scrambling to his feet, the rest of the bodyguards caught up with him and killed him with their javelins."

Diodorus Siculus (I st century ВС) (1963 trans.) Bk 16.94.3. The murder of Philip in 336 ВС, when he was 46 and Alexander was 20 years old, took place in the theatre at the celebration of his daughter's wedding. The assassin, one of Philip's seven high-ranking bodyguards, had a personal grudge, but those who were probably behind the murder were never caught.


"When he died Qlympias [Philip's estranged wife and mother of Alexander] took his baby son, the child of Attalus' niece Cleopatra, and murdered the child and the mother together by dragging them onto a bronze oven filled with fire."

Pausanias Guide to Greece (c AD 150: 1971 trans.) Bk 8.7. This and other stories hostile to Olympias derive from her enemy Cassander, who finally won the struggle for control of Macedonia and Greece after Alexander's death.


"What was the duty of Athens when she perceived that Philip's purpose was to establish a despotic empire over all Greece? What language, what counsels, were incumbent upon an adviser of the people at Athens... when I was conscious that... our country had ever striven for primacy and honour and renown, and ... had expended her treasure and the lives of her sons far more generously than any other Hellenic state fighting only for itself; and knowing as I did that our antagonist, Philip himself, contending for empire and supremacy, had endured the loss of his eye, the fracture of his collar-bone, the mutilation of his hand and his leg, and was ready to sacrifice to the fortune of war any and every part of his body, if only the life of the shattered remnant should be a life of honour and renown?"

Demosthenes On the Crown (330 ВС; 1926 trans.) 66. The orator and statesman set out to justify his stance against Philip in a case that did not come to court until 330 ВС, six years after the death of Philip.


"In the first place, Philip was the despotic commander of his adherents: and in war that is the most important of all advantages. Secondly they had their weapons constantly in their hands. Then he was well provided with money: he did whatever he chose, without giving notice by publishing decrees, or deliberating in public, without fear of prosecution by informers or indictment for illegal measures. He was responsible to nobody: he was the absolute autocrat, commander and master of everybody and everything. And I, his chosen adversary - it is a fair inquiry - of what was 1 master? Of nothing at all! Public speaking was my only privilege - and that you permitted to Philip's hired servants on just the same terms as to me."

Demosthenes (330 ВС; 1926 trans.) 235-6. The traditional city-state, especially with a democratic constitution, was ill fitted to respond to the ambitions of Philip.