Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1877 Part I NEXT-1877 Part III    
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
History at a Glance
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
1870 Part IV
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
Ebert Friedrich
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
Impressionism Timeline
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell

Proclamation of Philip V as King of Spain in the Palace of Versailles on November 16, 1700.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Harley Granville-Barker, (born November 25, 1877, London, England—died August 31, 1946, Paris, France), English dramatist, producer, and critic whose repertoire seasons and Shakespeare criticism profoundly influenced 20th-century theatre.

Harley Granville-Barker
  Barker began his stage training at 13 years of age and first appeared on the London stage two years later. He preferred work with William Poel’s Elizabethan Stage Society and Ben Greet’s Shakespeare repertory company to a West End career, and in 1900 he joined the experimental Stage Society. His first major play, The Marrying of Ann Leete (1900), was produced by the society. In 1904 he became manager of the Court Theatre with J.E. Vedrenne and introduced the public to the plays of Henrik Ibsen, Maurice Maeterlinck, John Galsworthy, John Masefield, and Gilbert Murray’s translations from Greek. His original productions of the early plays of George Bernard Shaw were especially important. His wife, Lillah McCarthy, played leading roles in many of the plays he produced. Among new plays produced at the Court Theatre were several of his own: The Voysey Inheritance (1905), the most famous, showing Shaw’s influence; Prunella (1906), a charming fantasy written with Laurence Housman; Waste (1907); and The Madras House (1910).

Also revolutionary was his treatment of Shakespeare. Instead of traditional scenic decor and declamatory elocution, Barker successfully introduced, in the Savoy productions (1912–14) of The Winter’s Tale and Twelfth Night, continuous action on an open stage and rapid, lightly stressed speech. He and William Archer were active in promoting a national theatre, and by 1914 Barker had every prospect of a brilliant career.

After World War I, however, during which he served with the Red Cross, he found the mood of the postwar theatre alien and contented himself with work behind the scenes, including presidency of the British Drama League. He settled in Paris with his second wife, an American, collaborating with her in translating Spanish plays and writing his five series of Prefaces to Shakespeare (1927–48), a contribution to Shakespearean criticism that analyzed the plays from the point of view of a practical playwright with firsthand stage experience.

In 1937 Barker became director of the British Institute of the University of Paris. He fled to Spain in 1940 and then went to the United States, where he worked for British Information Services and lectured at Harvard University. He returned to Paris in 1946. A selection of his letters was published in 1986 as Granville Barker and His Correspondents.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse, (born July 2, 1877, Calw, Ger.—died Aug. 9, 1962, Montagnola, Switz.), German novelist, poet, and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946, whose main theme deals with man’s breaking out of the established modes of civilization to find his essential spirit.

Hermann Hesse

  With his appeal for self-realization and his celebration of Eastern mysticism, Hesse posthumously became a cult figure to young people in the English-speaking world.

At the behest of his father, Hesse entered the Maulbronn seminary. Though a model student, he was unable to adapt, so he was apprenticed in a Calw tower-clock factory and later in a Tübingen bookstore.

His disgust with conventional schooling was expressed in the novel Unterm Rad (1906; Beneath the Wheel), in which an overly diligent student is driven to self-destruction.

Hesse remained in the bookselling business until 1904, when he became a freelance writer and brought out his first novel, Peter Camenzind, about a failed and dissipated writer.

The inward and outward search of the artist is further explored in Gertrud (1910) and Rosshalde (1914).

A visit to India in these years was later reflected in Siddhartha (1922), a poetic novel, set in India at the time of the Buddha, about the search for enlightenment.

During World War I, Hesse lived in neutral Switzerland, wrote denunciations of militarism and nationalism, and edited a journal for German war prisoners and internees. He became a permanent resident of Switzerland in 1919 and a citizen in 1923, settling in Montagnola.

Hermann Hesse. 1905.
Portrait by Ernst Würtenberger

  A deepening sense of personal crisis led Hesse to psychoanalysis with J.B. Lang, a disciple of Carl Gustav Jung. The influence of analysis appears in Demian (1919), an examination of the achievement of self-awareness by a troubled adolescent. This novel had a pervasive effect on a troubled Germany and made its author famous. Hesse’s later work shows his interest in Jungian concepts of introversion and extraversion, the collective unconscious, idealism, and symbols. The duality of man’s nature preoccupied Hesse throughout the rest of his career.

Der Steppenwolf (1927; Steppenwolf) describes the conflict between bourgeois acceptance and spiritual self-realization in a middle-aged man. In Narziss und Goldmund (1930; Narcissus and Goldmund), an intellectual ascetic who is content with established religious faith is contrasted with an artistic sensualist pursuing his own form of salvation. In his last and longest novel, Das Glasperlenspiel (1943; English titles The Glass Bead Game and Magister Ludi), Hesse again explores the dualism of the contemplative and the active life, this time through the figure of a supremely gifted intellectual.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Hermann Hesse

  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
The Pillars of Society (or "Pillars of the Community," as the RSC has performed it; original Norwegian title: Samfundets støtter) is an 1877 play written by Norwegian playwright Ibsen Henrik.
Ibsen had great trouble with the writing of this play which came before the series of masterpieces which made him famous throughout the world. The ending is the most criticised feature, since Bernick is clearly guilty of attempted murder but gets off unscathed, but successfully illustrates that the rich and powerful are often selfish and corrupt.

Ibsen first planned a contemporary drama at the end of 1869 but did not begin the writing until October 1875 (in Munich), completing it in the summer of 1877. It was first published on 11 October of that year in Copenhagen, with the first stagings following on 14 November at the Odense Teater and on 18 November at the Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen. The first performance in Norway was at Den Nationale Scene in Bergen on 30 November. By this date, the play had been translated into German, in which it was immediately well received. In December 1880 in London it became the first of any of Ibsen's plays to be performed in English (under the title Quicksands).

Karsten Bernick is the dominant businessman in a small coastal town in Norway, with interests in shipping and shipbuilding in a long-established family firm. Now he is planning his most ambitious project yet, backing a railway which will connect the town to the main line and open a fertile valley which he has been secretly buying up.

Suddenly his past explodes on him. Johan Tønnesen, his wife's younger brother comes back from America to the town he ran away from 15 years ago. At the time it was thought he had run off with money from the Bernick family business and with the urge to avoid scandal because he was having an affair with an actress. But none of this was true. He left town to take the blame for Bernick, who was the one who had actually been having the affair and was nearly caught with the actress. There was no money to take since at the time the Bernick firm had been almost bankrupt.

With Tønnesen comes his half-sister Lona (whom Ibsen is said to have modelled after Norwegian feminist Aasta Hansteen), who once loved and was loved by Bernick. He rejected her and married his current wife for money so that he could rebuild the family business. In the years since Tønnesen left, the town has built ever greater rumours of his wickedness, helped by Bernick's studious refusal to give any indication of the truth.

Henrik Ibsen
"The Pillars of Society"
This mixture only needs a spark to explode and it gets one when Tønnesen falls in love with Dina Dorf, a young girl who is the daughter of the actress involved in the scandal of 15 years ago and who now lives as a charity case in the Bernick household. He demands that Bernick tell the girl the truth. Bernick refuses. Tønnesen says he will go back to the US to clear up his affairs and then come back to town to marry Dina. Bernick sees his chance to get out of his mess. His yard is repairing an American ship, The Indian Girl, which is dangerously unseaworthy. He orders his yard foreman to finish the work by the next day, even if it means sending the ship and its crew to certain death because he wants Tønnesen to die on board. That way he will be free of any danger in the future. Things do not work out like that. Tønnesen runs off with Dina on board another ship which is safe, leaving word that he will be back. And Bernick's young son stows away on the Indian Girl, seemingly heading for certain death.

Bernick discovers that his plot has gone disastrously wrong on the night the people of the town have lined up to honour him for his contribution to the city.

It is all set up for a tragic conclusion, but suddenly Ibsen pulls back from the brink. The yard foreman gets an attack of conscience and rows out to stop the Indian Girl from heading to sea and death; Bernick's son is brought back safely by his mother; and Bernick addresses the community, tells them most of the truth and gets away with it. His wife greets the news that he only married her for money as a sign there is now hope for their marriage.


List of characters
Karsten Bernick, a shipbuilder.
Mrs. Bernick, his wife.
Olaf, their son, thirteen years old.
Martha Bernick, Karsten Bernick's sister.
Johan Tønnesen, Mrs. Bernick's younger brother.
Lona Hessel, Mrs. Bernick's elder half-sister.
Hilmar Tønnesen, Mrs. Bernick's cousin.
Dina Dorf, a young girl living with the Bernicks.
Rørlund, a schoolmaster.
Rummel, a merchant.
Vigeland and Sandstad, tradesman
Krap, Bernick's confidential clerk.
Aune, foreman of Bernick's shipbuilding yard.
Mrs. Rummel.
Hilda Rummel, her daughter.
Mrs. Holt.
Netta Holt, her daughter.
Mrs. Lynge.
Townsfolk and visitors, foreign sailors, steamboat passengers, etc.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Henry James: "The American"

The American is a novel by James Henry, originally published as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly in 1876–1877 and then as a book in 1877. The novel is an uneasy combination of social comedy and melodrama concerning the adventures and misadventures of Christopher Newman, an essentially good-hearted but rather gauche American businessman on his first tour of Europe. Newman is looking for a world different from the simple, harsh realities of 19th-century American business. He encounters both the beauty and the ugliness of Europe, and learns not to take either for granted. The core of the novel concerns Newman's courtship of a young widow from an aristocratic Parisian family.

On a lovely day in May, 1868, Christopher Newman, a wealthy American businessman, sits down in the Louvre with an aesthetic headache, having seen too many paintings. A young Parisian copyist, Noémie Nioche, catches his eye, and he agrees to buy the painting she is working on for the extravagant price of 2,000 francs. Shortly thereafter, Newman recognizes Tom Tristram, an old friend from the Civil War, wandering the gallery.

Newman explains that he has made quite a fortune and now, having realized the inanity of seeking competitive revenge on his fellow businessmen, has decided to move to Europe to enjoy his wealth. Over dinner, Newman admits to the Tristrams that he has come to Europe to find a wife to complete his fortune. Mrs. Tristram suggests Claire de Cintré, the beautiful and widowed daughter of an impossibly aristocratic family, the Bellegardes. Several days later, Newman stops by the Tristram house only to find the visiting Claire, who politely invites him to call on her. When Newman stops by the Bellegarde home, a pleasant young man promises to go get Claire, but is checked by an imposing older figure who claims she is not at home.

Shortly thereafter, M. Nioche, Noémie's father, appears at Newman's hotel with his daughter's heavily varnished and framed picture. When the timid, bankrupt Nioche admits his fear that his beautiful daughter will come to a bad end, Newman offers to let her earn a modest dowry by painting. When he meets Noémie in the Louvre to commission the paintings, however, she tells him bluntly that she cannot paint and will only marry if she can do so very well. Mrs. Tristram encourages Newman to spend the summer traveling, promising that Claire will wait for his return. Newman spends a wonderful summer exploring ruins, monuments, cathedrals, and the countryside with his usual enthusiasm.

Henry James "The American"
On his return to Paris in the fall, Newman calls on Claire and finds her at home with her brother Valentin, the pleasant young man he met on the first visit.

Newman is deeply drawn to Claire's presence, her peace, and her intense yet mild eyes. About a week later, Valentin calls on Newman at home. The two talk late into the night and soon become fast friends. Valentin explains to Newman that Claire was married at eighteen, against her will, to the disagreeable old Count de Cintré. Valentin tried to stop the wedding, but his mother, the Marquise and his brother, Urbain—the imposing older figure who barred Newman's first visit—coveted the Count's pedigree and fortune. When the Count died and his questionable business practices were exposed, Claire was so horrified that she withdrew her claim to his money. The Marquise and Urbain allowed this withdrawal on the condition that Claire obey them completely for ten years on every issue but marriage.
Newman tells Valentin that he would like to marry Claire. Valentin promises to help Newman's cause, out of both friendship and a spirit of mischief. The following day, Newman calls on Claire and finds her alone. He frankly details his love, his assets, and his desire to marry her. Fascinated but hesitant, Claire tells him she has decided not to marry, but agrees to get to know him if he promises not to speak of marriage for six months. Delighted by Newman's success, Valentin arranges an audience with the heads of the family—the forbidding Marquise and Urbain—later that week. On the appointed evening, after some painful small talk, Newman horrifies the assembled company with a long and candid speech about his poor adolescence and the makings of his fortune. When the others have left for a ball, Newman bluntly tells the Marquise that he would like to marry her daughter.
After inquiring with equal frankness about his wealth, the Marquise grudgingly agrees to consider his proposal. Several days later, M. Nioche unexpectedly appears at Newman's hotel room, clearly worried about Noémie's antics. Newman decides to visit Noémie at the Louvre to discern the trouble. He encounters Valentin en route and brings him along. Valentin, completely charmed by Noémie and her ruthless, sublime ambition, resolves to pursue her. Shortly thereafter, Newman receives an invitation to dinner at the Bellegarde house. After dinner, Urbain confirms that the family has decided to accept Newman as a candidate for Claire's hand.
Henry James "The American"
Over the next six weeks Newman comes often to the Bellegarde house, more than content to haunt Claire's rooms and attend her parties. One afternoon as he awaits Claire, Newman is approached by Mrs. Bread, the Bellegardes' old English maid, who secretly encourages him in his courtship. Meanwhile, the Bellegardes' long-lost cousin Lord Deepmere arrives in Paris. Upon the expiration of the six-month period of silence about marriage, Newman proposes to Claire again, and she accepts. The next day, Mrs. Bread warns Newman to lose no time in getting married. The Marquise is evidently displeased by the engagement, but agrees to throw an engagement ball. The following few days are the happiest in Newman's life, as he sees Claire every day, exchanging longing glances and tender words. Meanwhile, the Marquise and Urbain are away, taking Deepmere on a tour of Paris. On the night of the Bellegarde ball, Newman suffers endless introductions gladly and feels elated. He surprises first the Marquis and then Claire in heated discussions with Lord Deepmere, but thinks little of it. Afterwards, he and Claire exchange declarations of happiness. Shortly thereafter, Newman attends a performance of the opera Don Giovanni, and sees that several of his acquaintances are also there. During the second act, Valentin and Stanislas Kapp, who have both been sitting in Noémie's box, exchange insults and agree to a duel as a point of honor. Noémie is thrilled, knowing that being dueled over will do wonders for her social standing. Against Newman's protests, Valentin leaves for the duel, which is held just over the Swiss border.
The next morning, Newman arrives at the Bellegardes' to find Claire's carriage packed. In great distress, Claire confesses that she can no longer marry him. The Marquise and Urbain admit that they have interfered, unable to accept the idea that a commercial person should marry into their family. Newman visits Mrs. Tristram, who guesses that the Bellegardes want Claire to marry the rich Lord Deepmere instead, though the honest Deepmere ruined things by telling Claire everything at the ball. Returning home to a note that Valentin has been mortally wounded in the duel, Newman packs his bags and heads for the Swiss border. Newman arrives in Geneva to find Valentin near death. When Newman reluctantly recounts the broken engagement with Claire, Valentin formally apologizes for his family and tells Newman to ask Mrs. Bread about a skeleton in the Bellegarde family closet that Newman can use to get revenge. Newman attends Valentin's funeral, but cannot bear to watch the actual burial and leaves. Three days later, he calls on Claire at the family château in Fleurières, hoping to extract a rational justification for her rejection. But she hides behind dark hints of a curse on the family, ruing her own vain attempts at happiness and declaring her intention to become a Carmelite nun. Newman threatens the Bellegardes with his superficial knowledge of their secret, but they refuse to budge. That night, Newman secretly meets Mrs. Bread, who tells him the full secret—the Marquise and Urbain killed the Marquis, Claire's father, at the family's country home because he opposed Claire's first marriage to the Comte de Cintré. Mrs. Bread gives Newman a secret testament to these circumstances that the Marquis wrote just before he died.

The next week in Paris, Mrs. Bread comes to work for Newman as his housekeeper. Newman goes to mass at the Carmelite convent, but, horrified by the nuns' joyless chanting, he leaves.
Henry James "The American"
After the service, he confronts the Marquise and Urbain with the details of their crime and a copy of the Marquis' letter. The Bellegardes are clearly stunned, but regain their composure and leave. The next morning, Urbain visits Newman to ask his price for destroying the note. Newman wants Claire, but Urbain refuses to give her. The two part in stalemate. Newman decides to ruin the Bellegardes by telling all their friends about the murder. But when Newman calls on a rich Duchess, the first person he intends to tell, he is overwhelmed by the folly of his errand. Instead, he leaves for London to think. One day in Hyde Park, Newman see Noémie on Lord Deepmere's arm, attended by her miserable father. After several months in London, Newman returns to the States. He makes it to San Francisco before the weight of his unfinished business in France becomes unbearable. Returning to Paris, Newman walks to Claire's convent and finds only a high, blank wall. Realizing that Claire is completely lost to him, Newman destroys the Marquis' incriminatory note in Mrs. Tristram's fireplace and packs his bags for America.
Major themes
The plot summary alone should alert the reader to the split in the book. The first half of the novel - Newman's courtship of Claire and his efforts to ingratiate himself with her family - is a witty and perceptive treatment of the clash between Newman's brash and assertive American nature and the haughty, traditionalist views of the French aristocracy.

This portion of the novel delights most readers with its humor and grace.

Unfortunately, the second half of the book descends into dubious and sometimes laughable melodrama, with the duel, the convent, and the deep dark family secret.

James still writes with vigor and a sure eye for detail, especially in Valentin's death scene. But many readers have found it impossible to take all the plot material seriously.

The American was popular as one of the first international novels contrasting the rising and forceful New World and the cultured but sinful Old World.

James originally conceived the novel as a reply to Alexandre Dumas, fils' play L'Étrangère, which presented Americans as crude and disreputable. While Newman is occasionally too forward or cocksure, his honesty and optimism offer a much more favorable view of America's potential.

Henry James "The American"

"Ugly, my dear sir? It is magnificent."

“That is the same thing, I suppose,” said Newman. “Make yourself comfortable. Your coming to see me, I take it, is an act of friendship. You were not obliged to. Therefore, if anything around here amuses you, it will be all in a pleasant way. Laugh as loud as you please; I like to see my visitors cheerful. Only, I must make this request: that you explain the joke to me as soon as you can speak. I don’t want to lose anything, myself.”

M. de Bellegarde stared, with a look of unresentful perplexity. He laid his hand on Newman’s sleeve and seemed on the point of saying something, but he suddenly checked himself, leaned back in his chair, and puffed at his cigar. At last, however, breaking silence,—“Certainly,” he said, “my coming to see you is an act of friendship. Nevertheless I was in a measure obliged to do so. My sister asked me to come, and a request from my sister is, for me, a law. I was near you, and I observed lights in what I supposed were your rooms. It was not a ceremonious hour for making a call, but I was not sorry to do something that would show I was not performing a mere ceremony.”

Literary significance & criticism
When James came to revise the book in 1907 for inclusion in the New York Edition of his fiction, he realized how fanciful much of the plot was. He made enormous revisions in the book to try to make all the goings-on more believable, but he was still forced to confess in his preface that The American remained more of a traditional romance rather than a realistic novel.

Most critics have regretted the New York Edition revisions as unfortunate marrings of the novel's original exuberance and charm. The earlier version of the book has normally been used in modern editions. Critics generally concede that the second half of the novel suffers from improbability, but still find the book a vivid and attractive example of James' early style.

More recently, some pundits have taken Newman to task as an obnoxious and even imperialistic westerner. But James' hero still finds many supporters, among critics and readers in general.

The American generally flows well and is easily accessible to today's reader, more so than some of James's later novels. Newman's friendship with Valentin de Bellegarde is particularly well-drawn, and the descriptions of upper-class Parisian life are vivid. The modern reader may be somewhat taken aback, however, that in a lengthy novel primarily about courtship and marriage, James totally ignores the theme of sexual attraction.

Henry James "The American"
 Newman seems to see Claire de Cintre only in terms of her elegance and suitability as a consort for a rich and accomplished man like himself. As for Claire, we learn nothing about what transpired between her and her first (much older) husband, nor is anything significant revealed about her feelings for Newman. Only the mercenary Mademoiselle Nioche is presented as a sexual being, and this only in the most oblique and negative terms. Even by Victorian standards, James's reticence on sexual matters is striking.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
see also: Henry James
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
L'Assommoir (1877) is the seventh novel in Émile Zola's (Zola Emile ) twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. Usually considered one of Zola's masterpieces, the novel—a study of alcoholism and poverty in the working-class districts of Paris—was a huge commercial success and helped establish Zola's fame and reputation throughout France and the world.
Plot summary
The novel is essentially the story of Gervaise Macquart, who was featured briefly in the first novel in the series, La Fortune des Rougon, running away to Paris with her shiftless lover Lantier to work as a washerwoman in a hot, busy laundry in one of the seedier areas of the city. L'Assommoir begins with Gervaise and her two young sons being abandoned by Lantier, who takes off for parts unknown; she later takes up with Coupeau, a teetotal roofing engineer, and they are married in one of the most famous set-pieces of Zola's fiction; the account of the wedding party's chaotic trip to the Louvre is perhaps the novelist's most famous passage. Through a combination of happy circumstances Gervaise is able to raise enough money to open her own laundry, and the couple's happiness appears to be complete with the birth of a daughter, Anna, nicknamed Nana (the protagonist of Zola's later novel of the same title).

The second half of the novel deals with the downward trajectory of Gervaise's life from this happy high point. Coupeau is injured in a fall from the roof of a new hospital he is working on, and during his lengthy and painful convalescence he takes to drink. Only a few chapters pass before Coupeau is a vindictive alcoholic, with no intention of trying to find more work; Gervaise struggles to keep her home together, but her excessive pride leads her to a number of embarrassing failures and before long everything is going downhill. The home is further disrupted by the return of Lantier, warmly welcomed by Coupeau—by this point losing interest in both Gervaise and life itself, and becoming seriously ill—and the ensuing chaos and financial strain is too much for Gervaise, who loses her laundry-shop and is sucked into debt.

Cover of 1877 Charpentier edition of L'Assommoir
She decides to join Coupeau in the drinking and soon slides into heavy alcoholism too, prompting Nana—already suffering from the chaotic life at home and getting into trouble on a daily basis—to run away from her parents home and become a streetwalker. The novel continues in this unhappy vein until Gervaise dies.
Themes and criticism
Zola spent an immense amount of time researching Parisian street argot for his most realistic novel to that date, using a large number of obscure contemporary slang words and curses to capture an authentic atmosphere. His shocking descriptions of conditions in working-class 19th-century Paris drew widespread admiration for his realism, as it still does.

L'Assommoir was taken up by temperance workers across the world as a tract against the dangers of alcoholism, though Zola always insisted there was considerably more to his novel than that.

The novelist also drew criticism from some quarters for the depth of his reporting, either for being too coarse and vulgar or for portraying working-class people as shiftless drunkards. Zola rejected both these criticisms out of hand; his response was simply that he had presented a true picture of real life.

The title
The title L'Assommoir cannot be properly translated into English. It was a colloquial term popular in late 19th Century Paris, referring to a shop selling cheap liquor distilled on the premises. The word is adapted from the French verb assommer (to stun, bludgeon or render senseless); perhaps the closest equivalent term in English is the slang verb-phrase "to get hammered."

In the absence of a corresponding noun, English translators' attempts to render the title often fail to have the same bluntly onomatopoeic effect, resulting in translations with titles like The Dram Shop, The Gin Palace, The Drunkard, and The Drinking Den. Most translators nowadays choose to retain the original French title.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1879 poster for an American theatre production of L'Assommoir by Augustin Daly
Emile Zola

J'accuse" (I accuse)
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
The "Hermes" of Praxiteles found at Olympia, Greece
Praxiteles: "Hermes"

Hermes and the Infant Dionysus, also known as the Hermes of Praxiteles or the Hermes of Olympia is an ancient Greek sculpture of Hermes and the infant Dionysus discovered in 1877 in the ruins of the Temple of Hera, Olympia, in Greece. It is displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia.

It is traditionally attributed to Praxiteles and dated to the 4th century BC, based on a remark by the 2nd century Greek traveller Pausanias, and has made a major contribution to the definition of Praxitelean style. Its attribution is, however, the object of fierce controversy among art historians.

The sculpture is unlikely to have been one of Praxiteles' famous works, as no ancient replicas of it have been identified. The documentary evidence associating the work with Praxiteles is based on a passing mention by the 2nd-century AD traveller Pausanias.


In 1874, the Greek state signed an agreement with Germany for an archaeological exploration of the Olympia site, which was first dug in the French Morea expedition of 1829.

The German excavations in 1875 were led by Ernst Curtius. On 8 May 1877, in the temple of Hera, he uncovered the body (head, torso, legs, left arm) of a statue of a young man resting against a tree trunk covered by a mantle. Protected by the thick clay layer above it, it was in an exceptionally good state of preservation.

It took six more separate discoveries to uncover the rest of the statue as it is displayed today. Hermes is still missing his right forearm, two fingers of his left hand, both forearms below the elbow, the left foot and his penis, whilst Dionysus is missing his arms (except the right hand on Hermes's shoulder) and the end of his right foot.

Much of the tree trunk and the plinth are also lost. However, an ancient base survives, made of a grey limestone block between two blocks of marble.

Praxiteles. Hermes and the Infant Dionysus
Technical considerations
The group is sculpted from a block of the best quality of Parian marble. Hermes measures 2.10/2.12 m, 3.70 m with the base. The right foot of Hermes is integral with a section of the base, which has undergone some adjustment in antiquity.

Praxiteles. Hermes and the Infant Dionysus (detail)
The face and torso of Hermes are striking for their highly polished, glowing surface, which John Boardman half-jokingly attributed to generations of female temple workers. The back, by contrast, shows the marks of the rasp and chisel, and the rest of the sculpture is incompletely finished.

At the time of its discovery, the hair retained slight traces of cinnabar, a form of mercury sulfate with a red color, perhaps a preparation for gilding. Cinnabar tints are retained on the sandal straps of the original foot, with traces of gilding. The sandal also bears the motif of a Heraclean knot, which was probably extended in paint.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Ancient Greek Sculpture

  Ancient Greek Sculpture


Portrait of Socrates. Marble, Roman artwork (1st century), perhaps a copy of a lost bronze statue made by Lysippos.

Hermes carrying the young Dionysus, marble statue from Olympia, Greece, now in the Archaeological Museum at Olympia.
It was sculpted in the 4th century bc and is attributed to Praxiteles.

Greatest of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century and one of the most original of Greek artists. By transforming the detached and majestic style of his immediate predecessors into one of gentle grace and sensuous charm, he profoundly influenced the subsequent course of Greek sculpture.

Nothing is known of his life except that he apparently was the son of the sculptor Cephisodotus the Elder and had two sons, Cephisodotus the Younger and Timarchus, also sculptors. The only known surviving work from Praxiteles’ own hand, the marble statue “Hermes Carrying the Infant Dionysus,” is characterized by a delicate modeling of forms and exquisite surface finish. A few of his other works, described by ancient writers, survive in Roman copies...

Courbet Gustave, French painter, d. (b. 1819)

Gustave Courbet c. 1860s
(Portrait by Étienne Carjat)
Gustave Courbet
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramics and textiles, as well as decorative schemes for public buildings. He is noted for scenes of open-air social events. He was also a draftsman, printmaker, book illustrator, Scenic designer, a designer of furniture, and a planner of public spaces.

Raoul Dufy. Self Portrait. 1898
Raoul Dufy was born into a large family at Le Havre, in Normandy. He left school at the age of fourteen to work in a coffee-importing company. In 1895, when he was 18, he started taking evening classes in art at Le Havre's École des Beaux-Arts (municipal art school). The classes were taught by Charles Lhuillier, who had been, forty years earlier, a student of the French portrait-painter, Ingres. There, Dufy met Raymond Lecourt and Othon Friesz with whom he later shared a studio in Montmartre and to whom he remained a lifelong friend. During this period, Dufy painted mostly Norman landscapes in watercolors.

In 1900, after a year of military service, Raoul Dufy won a scholarship to the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where again he crossed paths with Othon Friesz. (He was there when Georges Braque also was studying.) He concentrated on improving his drawing skills. The impressionist landscape painters, such as Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro, influenced Dufy profoundly. His first exhibition (at the Exhibition of French Artists) took place in 1901. Introduced to Berthe Weill in 1902, Dufy showed his work in her gallery. Then he exhibited again in 1903 at the Salon des Independants. A boost to his confidence: the painter, Maurice Denis, bought one of his paintings.


Dufy continued to paint, often in the vicinity of Le Havre, and, in particular, on the beach at Sainte-Adresse, made famous by Eugène Boudin and Claude Monet. In 1904, with his friend, Albert Marquet, he worked in Fecamp on the English Channel (La Manche).

Henri Matisse's Luxe, Calme et Volupté, which Dufy saw at the Salon des Indépendants in 1905, was a revelation to the young artist, and it directed his interests towards Fauvism. Les Fauves (the wild beasts) emphasized bright color and bold contours in their work. Dufy's painting reflected this aesthetic until about 1909, when contact with the work of Paul Cézanne led him to adopt a somewhat subtler technique. It was not until 1920, however, after he had flirted briefly with yet another style, cubism, that Dufy developed his own distinctive approach. It involved skeletal structures, arranged with foreshortened perspective, and the use of thin washes of color applied quickly, in a manner that came to be known as stenographic.

Dufy's cheerful oils and watercolors depict events of the time period, including yachting scenes, sparkling views of the French Riviera, chic parties, and musical events.
The optimistic, fashionably decorative, and illustrative nature of much of his work has meant that his output has been less highly valued critically than the works of artists who have addressed a wider range of social concerns.

Dufy completed one of the largest paintings ever contemplated, a huge and immensely popular ode to electricity, the fresco La Fée Electricité for the 1937 Exposition Internationale in Paris.

Dufy also acquired a reputation as an illustrator and as a commercial artist. He painted murals for public buildings; he also produced a huge number of tapestries and ceramic designs. His plates appear in books by Guillaume Apollinaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and André Gide.

In 1909, Raoul Dufy was commissioned by Paul Poiret to design stationery for the house, and after 1912 designed textile patterns for Bianchini-Ferier used in Poiret's and Charvet's garments.

Raoul Dufy. Jeanne Aux Fleurs

In the late 1940s and early 1950s Dufy exhibited at the annual Salon des Tuileries in Paris. By 1950, his hands were struck with rheumatoid arthritis and his ability to paint diminished, as he has to fasten the brush to his hand. In April he went to Boston to undergo an experimental treatment with cortisone and corticotropin, based on the work of Philip S. Hench. It proved successful, and some of his next works were dedicated to the doctors and researchers in the United States. In 1952 he received the grand prize for painting in the 26th Venice Biennale. Dufy died at Forcalquier, France, on 23 March 1953, of intestinal bleeding, which is a likely result of his continuous treatment. He was buried near Matisse in the Cimiez Monastery Cemetery in Cimiez, a suburb of the city of Nice.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raoul Dufy. Paddock en Deauville
Raoul Dufy
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"

The Cotton Pickers, 1876-1877 is an oil painting by Homer Winslow  of two young African-American women in a cotton field.

Stately, silent and with barely a flicker of sadness on their faces, the two black women in the painting are unmistakable in their disillusionment: they picked cotton before the war and they are still picking cotton afterward.

It is oil on canvas, 24 1/16 x 38 1/8 in. (61.12 x 96.84 cm).

The painting is in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Winslow Homer. "The Cotton Pickers"
Winslow Homer
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Kubin Alfred

Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin (10 April 1877 – 20 August 1959) was an Austrian printmaker, illustrator, and occasional writer. Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism.


Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin
Kubin was born in Bohemia in the town of Leitmeritz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Litoměřice). From 1892 to 1896, he was apprenticed to the landscape photographer Alois Beer, although he learned little. In 1896, he attempted suicide on his mother's grave, and his short stint in the Austrian army the following year ended with a nervous breakdown. In 1898, Kubin began a period of artistic study at a private academy run by the painter Ludwig Schmitt-Reutte, before enrolling at the Munich Academy in 1899, without finishing his studies there. In Munich, Kubin discovered the works of Odilon Redon, Edvard Munch, James Ensor, Henry de Groux, and Félicien Rops. He was profoundly affected by the prints of Max Klinger, and later recounted: "Here a new art was thrown open to me, which offered free play for the imaginative expression of every conceivable world of feeling. Before putting the engravings away I swore that I would dedicate my life to the creation of similar works". The aquatint technique used by Klinger and Goya influenced the style of his works of this period, which are mainly ink and wash drawings of fantastical, often macabre subjects. Kubin produced a small number of oil paintings in the years between 1902 and 1910, but thereafter his output consisted of pen and ink drawings, watercolors, and lithographs. In 1911, he became associated with the Blaue Reiter group, and exhibited with them in the Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin in 1913. After that time, he lost contact with the artistic avant-garde.
Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism and is noted for dark, spectral, symbolic fantasies, often assembled into thematic series of drawings. Like Oskar Kokoschka and Albert Paris Gütersloh, Kubin had both artistic and literary talent. He illustrated the works of Edgar Allan Poe, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Fyodor Dostoevsky, among others. Kubin also illustrated the German fantasy magazine Der Orchideengarten. The best known of Kubin's own books is Die andere Seite (The Other Side) (1909), a fantastic novel set in an oppressive imaginary land. The Other Side has an atmosphere of claustrophobic absurdity reminiscent of the writings of Franz Kafka, who admired Die andere Seite. The illustrations for Die andere Seite were originally intended for The Golem by Gustav Meyrink, but as that book was delayed Kubin instead worked his illustrations into his own novel.

From 1906 until his death, he lived a withdrawn life in a small castle on a 12th-century estate in Zwickledt, Upper Austria. In 1938, at the Anschluss of Austria and Nazi Germany, his work was declared entartete Kunst or "degenerate art," but he managed to continue working during World War II.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Alfred Kubin. War. 1901
Alfred Kubin
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Manet: "Nana"
Nana is a painting by French painter Manet Edouard. It was completed in 1877 and was refused at the Salon of Paris the same year. The work is now at the Kunsthalle Hamburg art museum in Germany.
The painting shows a young and beautiful woman who stands before a mirror with two extinguished candles, her face turned to the spectator. Her dress is incomplete; she wears a white chemise, blue corset, silk stockings and high-heeled footwear. The interior suggests that it is a boudoir. Behind the woman is a sofa with two pillows. An elegantly dressed man, sitting on the sofa, can be partly seen on the right of the painting. On the left side, there is a chair, a table and a flowerpot.

Edouard Manet. Nana. 1877 (detail)
oil on canvas
264 cm × 115 cm (104 in × 45 in)
Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg
Both the title and the numerous details suggest that the picture represents a high class prostitute and her client. Nana was a popular name in the second half of the 19th century for a woman who was a harlot and the French word "nana" is still used to describe a frivolous woman (or simply "a female" in argot).

Manet wanted to present the painting at the Salon of Paris but it was rejected because it was deemed to be contemptuous of the morality of the time. French society was not prepared for such frank depictions of prostitution, and the critics did not see the artistic qualities of the work and concentrated solely on the scene which was represented. One of the defenders of Manet was Émile Zola who in 1880 published a novel of the same name as the ninth volume of Les Rougon-Macquart series. However, there is no clear evidence of mutual inspiration in the choice of the theme and the title as the book was published three years later. Perhaps Manet found inspiration in L'Assommoir, Zola's previous book, in which the character of Nana appears for the first time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  Edouard Manet

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Financial Disaster

Three years after the first exhibition, 1877 brings no improvement in the Impressionists' financial position, and Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley are particularly afflicted. The third exhibition is not a great financial success and begins to sow the seeds of disunity.

Degas pays 20,000 francs to the Bank of Antwerp to cover debts incurred by his brother Rene in managing the family bank.

Caillebotte invites Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley to dinner at his apartment in order to discuss plans for the third Impressionist exhibition.

La Cote des Boeufs, the Hermitage
Oil on canvas
National Gallery, London


15th L'Union — set up by Pissarro and Alfred Meyer (a minor painter and part-time dealer) as an alternative group to the Impressionists - holds an exhibition at the Grand Hotel in the boulevard des Capucines. It is a complete failure, Cezanne, Guillaumin and Pissarro having decided to leave the group shortly before the opening of the exhibition.


Berthe Morisot rents an apartment for painting in Paris, near L'Etoile, in order to free herself from the family environment.

A photograph of Berthe Morisot, taken around 1877

19th Manet asks Albert Wolff, the art critic of Le Figaro, to support a sale of paintings that the Impressionists are planning to hold at the Hotel Drouot by writing a favourable preview.

Gauguin moves to 74 rue des Fourneaux. Influenced by his landlord, the sculptor Bouillot, he begins to sculpt and produces a bust of his wife Mette.
Cezanne stays with Pissarro at Pontoise.

4th The third Impressionist exhibition opens in an apartment at 6 rue Le Peletier, near Durand-Ruel's gallery.



The front page of the first edition of the journal L'Impressionniste, which appeared weekly and ran to four issues during the third Impressionist exhibition.

The first issue contained a letter to the editor of Le Figaro, attacking the paper's art critic Albert Wolff for his venomous opposition to the movement.

Publication of the first issue of L'Impressionniste, journal d'art - a weekly journal edited by 22-year-old Georges Riviere, a friend of Renoir's who features in his painting Dancing at the Moulin de la Galetk. (The journal appeared regularly throughout the exhibition. Renoir, who had actively supported the idea from the first, was one of the contributors.)


1st Opening of the Salon.

Manet's Fame in the Role of Hamlet is accepted, but the jury rejects his Nana on the grounds of impropriety — as its subject is the prostitute in Zola's novel L'Assommoir, which is currently the talk of Paris. The painting is also criticized for its loose technique and garish colours. All Mary Cassatt's submissions are rejected.


The title suggests that this painting was an illustration for Zola's novel of the same name, but this had in fact yet to be written. The character Nana does, however, appear towards the end of Zola's L'Assommoir of 1877: 'Since the morning, she had spent hours in her chemise before the bit of looking glass hanging above the bureau.' This is a young, fresh Nana, at the beginning of her career and the model for the painting was Henriette Hauser, a young actress who was the mistress of the Prince of Orange.

10th Manet's Nana is exhibited in the window of Giroux's, a fashionable millinery shop in the boulevard des Capucines.

19th Van Gogh begins to study for the ministry in Amsterdam.

21st Degas, deeply depressed, writes to the wife of Giuseppe de Nittis: 'To live alone without a family is too hard. I never thought that I would suffer so much. Here I am, getting old, and almost penniless. I have organized my life in this world very badly.'

28th The sale at the Hotel Drouot, organized by Renoir, is financially disappointing.
Renoir's fifteen paintings fetch a total of 2005 francs; Pissarro's go for 50 to 260 francs each, and Sisley's for 105 to 165 francs.
Caillebotte is more successful, selling one painting for 635 francs. The forty-five canvases altogether command little more than 7610 francs.

Degas visits the Valpincon family at Menil-Hubert.

15th Renoir meets Leon Gambetta, the successful left-wing politician, who is now Minister of Public Instruction, and asks him for a job as curator of a provincial museum.

25th Degas moves into a new apartment at 50 rue Lepic, off the boulevard Clichy.

The Star

One of a series of pastelized monotypes that Degas started in 1876, The Star was the only work Degas sold at the third Impressionist exhibition. It was bought by Caillebotte.

The patissier Eugene Murer, a new patron of the Impressionists, opens a restaurant at 95 boulevard Voltaire and offers to holds dinners there for his painter friends on Wednesday evenings.


An engraving by Mouchot showing an auction at the Hotel Drouot.
Named after one of Napoleon's marshals, whose home it had been, the Hotel Drouot was the state-controlled auction house often used by artists, not only as a saleroom but as a gallery where they could exhibit their work. For art buyers and dealers, it provided a good guide to the kind of prices works of art were currently fetching. It was also the place where an artist's unsold works were auctioned following his death. When Manet died in 1883, 159 of
his works were sold at the Hotel Drouot for 116,637 francs.

On two occasions, in 1875 and again in 1877, groups of Impressionists - first Monet, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley, then Caillebotte, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley - attempted to circumvent the dealers by offering their work directly to the public. But at the first of the two sales the public jeered and heckled the auctioneer to such an extent that the police had to be summoned, and both events proved to be financially disappointing. Although dealers such as Paul Durand-Ruel and Georges Petit were capable of inflating prices artificially at such auctions, generally the prices at the Hotel Drouot reflected prevailing market conditions.

The Pont de I'Europe

The Pont de I'Europe was one of the major engineering achievements of Baron Haussamann's redevelopment of Paris. It spanned the station and engine-sheds of St-Lazare and was the focal point of the Quartier de I'Europe (so called because many of the streets took their names from European cities). The figure of the top-hatted man walking towards us is based on CaillcboUc himself.

Street in Paris, A Rainy Day

Caillebotte painted this monumental work when he was 29 years old. One of the most remarkable essays in urban Realism produced during the nineteenth century, it gives an insight into the extraordinary effect that the development of this district must have had on the artist — when Caillebotte was born the area was a relatively unsettled hill outside the city limits. Instead of the bustling crowds seen in so many Impressionist street scenes, such as Monet's Boulevard des Capucines, this painting shows a vast expanse peopled by isolated pedestrians.
Entitled simply 'Exposition de peinture par...', the third Impressionist exhibition was held at 6 rue Le Peletier from April 4th to 30th. Only eighteen artists participated, compared with thirty in 1874 and nineteen in 1876. Altogether 241 works were on show, including six by Caillebotte, sixteen by Cezanne, twenty-five by Degas, including The Star, thirty by Monet (mostly painted during the previous year), twenty-eight by Pissarro's friend Ludovic Piette, twenty-two by Pissarro, twenty-one by Renoir and seventeen by Sisley. Many of the works were on loan. Of the Monets, for instance, eleven were lent by Ernest Hoschede, one by Manet and ten by other collectors; and of the Sisleys, three were lent by Hoschede, three by Georges de Bellio (a Romanian doctor who was a keen collector of Impressionist paintings), two by the publisher Charpentier, one by Duret and one (The Bridge at Argenteuit) by Manet.

These two caricatures by Cham ridiculing the third Impressionist exhibition appeared in the magazine Le Charivari. In the first, the critic is saying 'But these are the colours of a corpse', to which the painter replies 'Unfortunately I can't get the smell.' In the second, the gendarme is advising the pregnant lady 'Madame, it would be unwise to go in.'
The exhibition was held in a five-room apartment almost opposite Durand-Ruel's gallery, the rent being paid by Caillebotte, who was to be reimbursed out of the admission charges. Extensive advance publicity had been organized — including widely displayed posters, once again paid for by Caillebotte. It was estimated that there were 8000 visitors; and many of them were harangued by Victor Chocquet - who was in attendance every day, energetically expatiating on the little-appreciated merits of Cezanne. Coverage by the press was extensive, some fifty reviews appearing in an impressive variety of newspapers and journals.

The largest room contained works by Caillebotte, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley. Degas was the only artist to have a room devoted entirely to his own work. In addition to seven paintings of the Gare St-Lazare (the first of Monet's series), Monet exhibited The White Turkeys - a large painting lent by Hoschede, for whose house at Montgeron (which can be seen in the background) it was intended, as part of the decorative scheme. Other significant works included Caillebotte's Street in Paris, A Rainy Day, which he had finished the previous month, and his The Pont de L'Europe, painted in 1876. Renoir's masterpiece Dancing at the Moulin de la Galette, also painted in 1876, which was given the place of honour in the third room, dominated critical comment on the exhibition.

Dancing at the Moulin de la Galette

One of several mills in Montmartre, the Moulin de la Galette ('galette' meaning a small pancake) was close to the rue Cortot, where Renoir had taken a studio specifically to paint this scene. Many of the figures in the painting are recognizable as the artist's friends and acquaintances. Well received at the third Impressionist exhibition, it was bought by Caillebotte, who included it in the background of his Self-Portrait at the Easel.

The hanging — carried out by a committee consisting of Caillebotte, Pissarro and Renoir - had been the subject of considerable thought and discussion. Indeed, unlike the previous shows, the third exhibition was very carefully planned and arranged. Most of the works had been chosen with an artistic audience in mind, and there was even a balanced selection of subjects, rural and urban landscapes, genre scenes, portraits and still lifes being fairly evenly represented.

At Caillebotte's dinner party in January a policy had evidently emerged of making the exhibition not merely an opportunity to display the artists' work, but also to establish the Impressionists as a coherent and clearly recognizable stylistic force. Ironically, however, it succeeded in fostering latent rivalries among them and promoted yearnings for individual recognition rather than for closer association. It is significant that at the next exhibition, two years later, Cezanne, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley did not participate.

The Gare St-Lazare

Monet obtained official permission to paint the engine-sheds at the Gare St-Lazare. In this view he managed to catch perfectly the light, airy atmosphere created by Eugene Flachat, who in 1837 designed the station as the terminus of the first railway built in France.
RENOIR Dancing at the Moulin de la Galette

Renoir exhibits a large canvas showing a dance at the Moulin de la Galette in Montmartre. The painter has very accurately presented the boisterous and slightly disorderly scene at this open-air cafe with dancing, perhaps the last such cafe remaining in Pans. People are dancing in the little garden next to the mill. A great, brutal light falls from the sky through the green, transparent foliage, gilding blonde hair and pink cheeks, and tossing sparks onto the ribbons of the young girls. This light illumines the painting right to the background with a joyful glow which is even reflected on the shadows. In the midst of all this light, a crowd of dancers twists and turns in the many postures of a frantic choreography. It is like the shimmer of a rainbow.

С. FLOR O'SQUARR, Le Courrier de France, April 6th

CAILLEBOTTE Street in Paris, A Rainy Day

This painting shows the intersection made by the rue de Turin and the rue de Moscou, seen on a rainy day. Again this is very well drawn, only Caillebotte has neglected to provide any rain. That day the rain seems to have left
no impression on him at all.

L'Evenement, April 6th

MONET The Gare St-Lazare

Monet loves this station and he has presented it several times before, with less success. This time it is really wonderful. His brush has expressed not only the movement, colour and activity, but the clamour; it is unbelievable. Yet this station is full of din - grindings. whistles - that you can make out through the confusion of clouds of grey and blue smoke. It is a pictorial symphony.

'JACQUES', L'Homme litre, April 11th

DEGAS Portrait

It is hard to understand exactly why Degas categorized himself as an Impressionist. He has a distinct personality and stands apart from the group of so-called innovators. Moreover, Degas does not seek to hide the sources of his talent, and even gives us an autobiographical sketch. Presented on an easel and under a carefully chosen ray of light is a portrait of a woman that evidently was not painted for the good of the cause, as it is dated 1867. The work is serious, with some Italian reminiscences. Its individual character has clearly been sought for; the modelling is simple and broad. We shall not ask ourselves how the Florentine of ten years ago has become today's Impressionist. Proximity does not create kinship. Degas may be exhibiting near Pissarro, Sisley, Cezanne and Claude Monet, but he does not belong to the family. He is an observer; a historian perhaps.

PAUL MANTZ, Le Temps, April 22nd
It cannot be sufficiently stressed that the Impressionists did not possess a strictly defined set of technical rules, nor did they share the same attitudes towards considerations such as composition, brush-work and colour manipulation. There is, for instance, little to link the style and technique of Monet with that of Degas, little even to link an early Manet such as Olympia with a later work such as Argenteuil.

There are, however, certain technical attitudes which are generally assumed to be typical of the Impressionist movement. The most frequently quoted of these is plein-air painting, which is based on the desire to capture the immediate impact of a visual expression by painting a picture out of doors, consistently in the same light. This technique was not quite as innovative as is sometimes claimed. Powered to a certain extent by the essentially Romantic concept of 'Nature', which had been evolving since the late eighteenth century, it was practised extensively not only by Turner and the painters of the Barbizon school but also by academic teachers such as Delaroche and Couture, who took their students on open-air painting excursions. Dr Gachet noted how it was practised by Cezanne; and Monet, its most vocal exponent, would have ten or fifteen paintings of the same site going simultaneously, each one marked on the back with its date and time.

A lithograph by Daumier published in the satirical magazine Le Charivari in 1865. The caption reads 'Landscape Painters: the First copies Nature, the Second copies the First.'
Cezanne setting out on an open-air
painting expedition in Auvers, с 1874.
However, many of Monet's claims to absolute dependence on plein-airisme must be treated with caution. Many of his works were finished in the studio, and there is some evidence to suggest the he occasionally relied on the camera to record certain effects for subsequent reference.

The second technical characteristic of the Impressionists was in their approach to colour. This can be attributed in part to the discoveries of the chemist Eugene Chevreul (1786-1889), predominantly those principles which concerned mixed and successive contrasts. Chevreul demonstrated that if two strips of the same colour but of different shades are placed side by side, then the part of the lighter strip nearest to the darker strip will appear lighter than it is. He also showed that every colour tends to tint its neighbours with its own complementary colour.
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