Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1876 Part II NEXT-1877 Part I    
 
 
     
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870-1879
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
BATTLE OF SEDAN
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part IV
Biogenesis
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
"Kulturkampf"
Ebert Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
"Poems"
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
"Poems"
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Gallium
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Colorado
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
THE SECOND IMPRESSIONIST EXHIBITION
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
"Siddhartha"
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
THE THIRD IMPRESSIONIST EXHIBITION
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Jingoism
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Leo XIII
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Alsace-Lorraine
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
THE FOURTH IMPRESSIONIST EXHIRITION
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell
 
 
 

he Great Sanitary Fair (1864) was the model for the Centennial Exhibition.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1876 Part III
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
 

The Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68, is a symphony written by Brahms Johannes . Brahms spent at least fourteen years completing this work, whose sketches date from 1854. Brahms himself declared that the symphony, from sketches to finishing touches, took 21 years, from 1855 to 1876. The premiere of this symphony, conducted by the composer's friend Felix Otto Dessoff, occurred on November 4, 1876, in Karlsruhe, then in the Grand Duchy of Baden. A typical performance lasts between 45 and 50 minutes.

 
History
Brahms began composing a D minor symphony in 1854, but this work underwent radical change before much of it was finally recast as his first Piano Concerto, also in D minor. The demise of the D minor Piano Concerto and long gestation of the C minor Symphony which would eventually be his first may be attributed to two factors. First, Brahms' self-critical fastidiousness led him to destroy many of his early works. Second, there was an expectation from Brahms' friends and the public that he would continue "Beethoven's inheritance" and produce a symphony of commensurate dignity and intellectual scope—an expectation that Brahms felt he could not fulfill easily in view of the monumental reputation of Beethoven.

It was probably 1868 when Brahms finally realized what would become the final structure of his first Symphony. In September of that year, he sent a card to his lifelong friend Clara Schumann sketching the Alphorn tune which would emerge in the symphony's Finale, along with the famous message "Thus blew the shepherd's horn today!" Despite the evidence of the work's development, the work would not premiere for 8 more years, in 1876.
 
 
The value and importance of Brahms' achievements were recognized by Vienna's most powerful critic, the staunchly conservative Eduard Hanslick. The conductor Hans von Bülow was moved in 1877 to call the symphony "Beethoven's Tenth", due to perceived similarities between the work and various compositions of Beethoven. It is often remarked that there is a strong resemblance between the main theme of the finale of Brahms' First Symphony and the main theme of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Also, Brahms uses the rhythm of the "fate" motto from the opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. This rather annoyed Brahms; he felt that this amounted to accusations of plagiarism, whereas he saw his use of Beethoven's idiom in this symphony as an act of conscious homage. Brahms himself said, when comment was made on the similarity with Beethoven, "any ass can see that." Nevertheless, this work is still sometimes (though rarely) referred to as "Beethoven's Tenth". However, Brahms' horn theme, with the "fate" rhythm, was noted in a letter to Clara Schumann (dated 1868), overheard in an alphorn's playing.

Fritz Simrock, Brahms' friend and publisher, did not receive the score until after the work had been performed in three cities – and Brahms still wished trial performances in at least three more.

The manuscript to the first movement apparently does not survive, yet the remainder has been reproduced in miniature facsimile by Dover Publications. The autograph manuscript of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th movements is held by the Morgan Library & Museum in New York City.

  Musical elements
The symphony begins with a broad introduction wherein three key elements are heard simultaneously: the low drumming, the rising figure in the strings, and the falling figure in the winds. This introduction was constructed after the remainder of the piece had been scored. The Allegro section of the movement is a large orchestral sonata, wherein musical ideas are stated, developed, and restated with altered relationships among them.

The second and third movements are lighter in tone and tension than the first and last movements. The slow movement, Andante sostenuto, exhibits gentle lyricism through three sections, the third of which is a new treatment of the themes from the first. The long violin solo is reminiscent of some of Beethoven's later works: the late quartets and Missa Solemnis. The third, scherzo-like movement, has an easy spirit yet is full of complex rhythms and interwoven textures.

The fourth movement begins with a slow introduction, where a new melody competes with "gloomy dramatic rhetoric."
In the Piu andante section, the horns and timpani introduce a tune that Brahms heard from an Alpine shepherd with the words, "High on the hill, deep in the dale, I send you a thousand greetings!" This movement contains melodies reminiscent of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The last section—Allegro non troppo, ma con brio—contains a grand melody in a major key, as the novel, Beethoven-like main subject of the grand finale.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Johannes Brahms - Symphony No. 01
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Johannes Brahms
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Casals Pablo
 
Pablo Casals, Catalan Pau Casals (born December 29, 1876, Vendrell, Spain—died October 22, 1973, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico), Spanish-born cellist and conductor, known for his virtuosic technique, skilled interpretation, and consummate musicianship.
 

Pablo Casals in 1917 at Carnegie Hall
  Casals made his debut in Barcelona in 1891 after early training in composition, cello, and piano. After further study in Madrid and Brussels he returned to Barcelona in 1896 as principal cellist at the Gran Teatro del Liceo. By this time he had established his innovative technique; by making his left-hand positions more flexible and using a freer bowing technique, he created an individual style marked by seeming effortlessness and a singing tone.

Casals toured internationally between 1898 and 1917 and formed a celebrated trio with Alfred Cortot (piano) and Jacques Thibaud (violin). Having won an international reputation as a cellist, Casals helped found in 1919 the École Normale de Musique in Paris and also established and conducted the Orquestra Pau Casals in Barcelona.

An outspoken opponent of Fascism, he was forced to move in 1936 to Prades in Catalan France. He refused to return to Spain after the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and announced his retirement from public performance in 1946 to protest worldwide recognition of the Franco regime in Spain; in 1950, however, he returned to recording and conducting, choosing spoken over silent protest. In 1956 he moved to Puerto Rico, from which place he continued his personal musical crusade for peace until his death.

Casals was a romantic who eschewed the drier, literal interpretations of modernism. His love for the works of J.S. Bach formed the core of his sensibilities. He revitalized appreciation of Bach’s cello music, especially with his masterful rendition of the six unaccompanied suites for cello.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Pablo Casals: Bach Cello Solo Nr.1
 
In August 1954, at age of 77 Pablo Casals (1876-1973) performed Bach's G-Major Cello Solo Nr.1, BWV 1007, at Abbaye "Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa", a Catholic monastery located south of the small border town Prades in France (Catalonia of Spain is on the other side of border). Pablo Casals settled in Prades in earlier 1940's after the Spanish civil war in 1930's, and he came back to Prada as the conductor and cellist at "Prades Festival" in 1950's.
 
 
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1876
 
 
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
 

Sylvia, originally Sylvia, ou La nymphe de Diane, is a full-length ballet in two or three acts, first choreographed by Louis Mérante to music by Delibes Leo in 1876. Sylvia is a typical classical ballet in many respects, yet it has many interesting features that make it unique. Sylvia is notable for its mythological Arcadian setting, creative choreographies, expansive sets and, above all, its remarkable score.

 

The ballet's origins are in Tasso's 1573 play Aminta, which provides the basic plot of Delibes' work. Jules Barbier and Baron de Reinach adapted this for the Paris Opera. The piano arrangement was composed in 1876 and the orchestral suite was done in 1880.

When Sylvia premièred on Wednesday, June 14, 1876, at the Palais Garnier, it went largely unnoticed. In fact, the first seven productions of Sylvia were not commercially successful. It was the 1952 revival, choreographed by Sir Frederick Ashton, that popularized the ballet. Ashton's success set the stage for the 1997, 2004, 2005 and 2009 productions, all of which were based on his 1952 choreography.

 
 
History    
Preparations
In 1875 the Paris Opera chose Barbier and Reinach's libretto for Sylvia. Mérante was also chosen to choreograph Sylvia based primarily on his extensive experience in the field and position as the premier maître de ballet at Paris Opera. All other reasonable choreographers were at the time unavailable.

Rehearsals for Sylvia begin on August 15, 1875, with only the first third of the music intact. Throughout the rehearsal period the score was under constant revision by Delibes, often with the "aid" of Mérante and Rita Sangalli who would each dance a lead rôle. This development of the score was a grueling process of many revisions and restarts. Mérante was especially demanding of Delibes and would regularly request changes to the score to accommodate his choreography, yet Léo Delibes made the changes requested of him in a timely fashion.

1876: Paris Opera Ballet; Mérante
Sylvia, ou la nymphe de Diane, as it was originally titled, was the first ballet to be shown at the newly constructed Opera Garnier and it did so with extravagance. This approach proved at times excessive. The lavish scenery of Jules Chéret was poorly lit, detracting from the quality of the production. The costumes designed by Lacoste were well appreciated, however. In the end it was Delibes' score that saved the production. Without such highly esteemed music, the ballet would have soon drifted into obscurity.

 
Rita Sangalli as Sylvia in the 1876 production
 
 
At the age of 27, Rita Sangalli was the principal ballerina at the Opéra, and thus the obvious choice to star as Sylvia. Sangalli was described as having a "superb physique",[citation needed] but not spectacular dancing skills. Nonetheless, she was the only ballerina taught the rôle, and on one occasion the ballet had to be temporarily closed when she injured herself.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Delibes - Sylvia - American Ballet Theatre
 
Pas de deux do bailado Sílvia de Leo Delibes, por Martine van Hamel e Patrick Bissel. Coreografia de George Balanchine. Regente: Alan Barker.
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Leo Delibes
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1876
 
 
Falla Manuel
 

Manuel de Falla, (born November 23, 1876, Cádiz, Spain—died November 14, 1946, Alta Gracia, Argentina), the most distinguished Spanish composer of the early 20th century. In his music he achieved a fusion of poetry, asceticism, and ardour that represents the spirit of Spain at its purest.

 

Manuel de Falla
  Falla took piano lessons from his mother and later went to Madrid to continue the piano and to study composition with Felipe Pedrell, who inspired him with his own enthusiasm for 16th-century Spanish church music, folk music, and native opera, or zarzuela.

In 1905 Falla won two prizes, one for piano playing and the other for a national opera, La vida breve (first performed in Nice, France, 1913).

In 1907 he moved to Paris, where he met Claude Debussy, Paul Dukas, and Maurice Ravel (whose orchestration influenced his own) and published his first piano pieces and songs.

In 1914 he returned to Madrid, where he wrote the music for a ballet, El amor brujo (Love, the Magician; Madrid, 1915), remarkable for its distillation of Andalusian folk music.

Falla followed this with El corregidor y la molinera (Madrid, 1917), which Diaghilev persuaded him to rescore for a ballet by Léonide Massine called El sombrero de tres picos (The Three-Cornered Hat; London, 1919).

Noches en los jardines de España (Nights in the Gardens of Spain; Madrid, 1916), a suite of three impressions for piano and orchestra, evoked the Andalusian atmosphere through erotic and suggestive orchestration. All these works established Falla internationally as the leading Spanish composer.

Falla then retired to Granada, where in 1922 he organized a cante hondo festival and composed a puppet opera, El retablo de Maese Pedro.

 
 
Like the subsequent Harpsichord Concerto (1926), containing echoes of Domenico Scarlatti, the Retablo shows Falla much influenced by Igor Stravinsky. Falla’s style was then Neoclassical instead of Romantic, still essentially Spanish, but Castilian rather than Andalusian. After 1926 he wrote little, living first in Mallorca and, from 1939, in Argentina.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
 
Violin: Katica Illenyi (Illényi Katica)
Dohnányi Orchestra Budafok
Conductor: Istvan Sillo (Silló István)
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Manuel de Falla
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

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1876
 
 
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
 

La Gioconda is an opera in four acts by Ponchielli Amilcare set to an Italian libretto by Arrigo Boito, based on Angelo, Tyrant of Padua, a play in prose by Victor Hugo, dating from 1835. (This is the same source as Gaetano Rossi had used for his libretto for Mercadante's Il giuramento in 1837).

 

First performed in 1876, La Gioconda was a major success for Ponchielli, as well as the most successful new Italian opera between Verdi's Aida (1871) and Otello (1887). It is also a famous example of the Italian genre of Grande opera, the equivalent of French Grand-Opéra.

Ponchielli revised the work several times; the version that is played today was first given in 1880. There are several complete recordings of the opera, and it is regularly performed, especially in Italy. It is one of only a few operas that features a principal role for each of the six major voice types.

Performance history

La Gioconda was first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan, on 8 April 1876. It was especially successful in its third and final version first seen at the same theatre on 28 March 1880. The opera had its American premiere at the Metropolitan Opera on 20 December 1883.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
Amilcare Ponchielli - Dance of the Hours - La Gioconda
 
Hungarian State Orchestra - Janos Ferencsik
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Amilcare Ponchielli
 
     
 
 
     
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1876
 
 
Wagner: "Siegfried"
 

Siegfried, WWV 86C, is the third of the four operas that constitute Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Wagner Richard . It premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus on 16 August 1876, as part of the first complete performance of The Ring. This part of the opera is primarily inspired by the story of the legendary hero Sigurd in Norse mythology.

 

Composition history
Sources
Siegfried is a man without fear, and he expresses to his foster father Mime his wish to learn to fear. Mime tells him that the wise learn fear quickly, but the stupid find it more difficult. In a letter to his friend Theodor Uhlig, Wagner recounted The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, about a boy so stupid he had never learned to be afraid. Wagner wrote that the boy and Siegfried are the same character. The boy is taught to fear by his wife, and Siegfried learns it when he discovers the sleeping Brünnhilde.

Act 3, Scene 1 (between The Wanderer and Erda) is based on the Eddic poem Baldrs draumar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
Richard Wagner - Der Ring Des Nibelungen - Zweiter Tag - Siegfried
 
October 1, 1994 - April 23, 1995
Siegfried, Wolfgang Neumann
Mime, Hans-Jörg Weinschenk
Brünnhilde, Carla Pohl
Wanderer, John Wegner
Albericht, Oleg Bryjak
Fafner, Simon Yang
Erda, Ortrun Wenkel
Waldvogel, Tiny Peters
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Richard Wagner
     
 
 
     
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1876
 
 
Walter Bruno
 

Bruno Walter, original name Bruno Walter Schlesinger (born Sept. 15, 1876, Berlin, Ger.—died Feb. 17, 1962, Beverly Hills, Calif., U.S.), German conductor known primarily for his interpretations of the Viennese school.

 
  Though out of step with 20th-century trends, he was such a fine musician that he became a major figure—filling the wide gulf between the extremes of his day, Arturo Toscanini and Wilhelm Furtwängler.

He began his career as a pianist but made his debut as a conductor in 1894 at the Cologne Opera.

By 1900 he was at the State Opera in Berlin, and in the following year he became Gustav Mahler’s associate in Vienna—the beginning of what was to be a lifetime spent in promotion of the master’s music.

He conducted the premieres of Das Lied von der Erde (1911) and the Ninth Symphony (1912).

Walter moved to the Munich Opera (1914–22) and from 1922 conducted at Salzburg, where his interest in Mozart developed.

Other appointments followed: at the Berlin Municipal Opera (1925–29) and as Furtwängler’s successor in Leipzig with the Gewandhaus Orchestra (1929–33).

The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced him to leave Leipzig and his Berlin concerts; he moved first to Vienna (1936–38), then to Paris, and finally to the United States (1939).

He conducted frequently at the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic (musical adviser, 1947–49).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
Bruno Walter - Sinfonia n° 5 di Gustav Mahler - Parte 1
 
Bruno Walter dirige la Sinfonia n° 5 di Gustav Mahler nel 1947
 
 
 
 
     
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1876
 
 
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
 
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (January 12, 1876 – January 21, 1948) was an Italian composer and teacher. He is best known for his comic operas such as Il segreto di Susanna (1909). A number of his works were based on plays by Carlo Goldoni, including Le donne curiose (1903), I quatro rusteghi (1906) and Il campiello (1936).
 

Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
  Life
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari was born in Venice in 1876, the son of an Italian mother and a German father. Ferrari was his mother's maiden-name, which he added to his own surname in 1895. Although he studied piano from an early age, music was not the primary passion of his young life. As a teenager Wolf-Ferrari wanted to be a painter like his father; he studied intensively in Venice and Rome and traveled abroad to study in Munich. It was there that he decided to concentrate instead on music, taking lessons from Josef Rheinberger. He enrolled at the Munich conservatory and began taking counterpoint and composition classes. These initially casual music classes eventually completely eclipsed his art studies, and music took over Wolf-Ferrari’s life. He wrote his first works in the 1890s.

At age 19, Wolf-Ferrari left the conservatory and traveled home to Venice. There he worked as a choral conductor, married, had a son called Federico Wolf-Ferrari, and met both Arrigo Boito and Verdi. In 1900, having failed to have two previous efforts published, Wolf-Ferrari saw the first performance of one of his operas, Cenerentola, based on the story of Cinderella. The opera was a failure in Italy, and the humiliated young composer moved back to Munich. German audiences would prove more appreciative of his work; a revised version of Cenerentola was a hit in Bremen in 1902, while the cantata La vita nuova brought the young composer international fame.

Wolf-Ferrari now began transforming the wild and witty farces of the 18th-century Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni into comic operas.

 
 

The resulting works were musically eclectic, melodic, and utterly hilarious; every single one became an international success. In fact, until the outbreak of World War I, Wolf-Ferrari’s operas were among the most performed in the world. In 1902 he became professor of composition and director of the Liceo Benedetto Marcello.

In 1911 Wolf-Ferrari tried his hand at full bloodied Verismo with I gioielli della Madonna; a story of passion, sacrilege and madness. It was quite popular in its day and for a period after, especially in Chicago, where the great Polish soprano Rosa Raisa made it a celebrated vehicle. Maria Jeritza (and, later, Florence Easton) triumphed in it at the Metropolitan Opera, in an all-out spectacular production in 1926.

World War I, however, was a nightmare for Wolf-Ferrari. The young composer, who had been dividing his time between Munich and Venice, suddenly found his two countries at war with each other. With the outbreak of the War, he moved to Zurich and composed much less, though he still wrote another comedy, Gli amanti sposi (1916). A new melancholy vein appeared in his post-war work; his operas grew darker and more emotionally complex.

He did not really pick up his rate of output until the 1920s, when he wrote Das Himmelskleid (1925) and Sly (1927), the latter based on William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In 1939 he became professor of composition at the Mozarteum in Salzburg. In 1946 he moved again to Zürich before returning to his home city of Venice. He died in Venice at Palazzo Malipiero and is buried in the Venetian cemetery Island of San Michele.

 
 

Music
As well as his operas, Wolf-Ferrari wrote a number of instrumental works, mainly at the very beginning and very end of his career. Only his violin concerto has ever been performed with anything approaching regularity, though he also wrote Idillio-concertino (essentially a chamber symphony), various pieces of chamber music including a piano quintet and two piano trios, three violin sonatas and a number of works for the organ amongst others.

Wolf-Ferrari's work is not performed very widely (with the exception of several of his overtures and his Jewels of the Madonna intermezzo) although he is generally thought of probably the finest writer of Italian comic opera of his time. His works often recall the opera buffa of the 18th century, although he also wrote more ambitious works in the manner of Pietro Mascagni, which are thought of less well.

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Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
 
"Intermezzo" from I Gioielli della Madonna
by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari
Symphony Orchestra of the Bavarian Radio
Jan Kotsier, conductor
 
 
 
 
     
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1876
 
 
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
 

In 1875, Bell Alexander Graham developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).

 
Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.

That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.

Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February 26.

Bell's patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically ... by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound" Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray's patent caveat.

On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.

Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the famous sentence "Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter, Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.

 
Bell's telephone patent drawing, March 7, 1876.
 
 
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray, Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment, to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" (Bell's words) could be electrically transmitted. After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray's liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.

The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in Bell's previous application in which Bell described a cup of mercury, not water. Bell had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, 1875, long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, 1876. Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.

The patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray's caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details. Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.

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1876
 
 
Johns Hopkins University
 
The Johns Hopkins University (commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named after its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest—of which half financed the establishment of The Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States at the time.

Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States.
 

Johns Hopkins is organized into ten divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C. with international centers in Italy, China, and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, the nursing school, and the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the education school, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

A founding member of the American Association of Universities, Johns Hopkins has been considered one of the world’s top universities throughout its history. The University stands among the top 10 in US News' Best National Universities Rankings and top 20 on a number of international league tables. Over the course of almost 140 years, thirty-six Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014.

 
 

Hopkins Hall circa 1885, on the original downtown Baltimore campus
 
 
History
The philanthropist and the founding

On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (approximately $140,000,000 today with consumer price inflation) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.

At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.

The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor.

Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."

The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge.

  Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman
The trustees worked alongside three notable university presidents - Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan – who each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University as its first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment. In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Johns Hopkins would become the first American university committed to research by the German education model of Alexander von Humboldt.

Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated.[32] To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester; the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris; the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.

Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate education and support of faculty research. The new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering.

 
 

Johns Hopkins Hospital
 
 
Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations. The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation.

With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelor's degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and became a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training.

In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to, as it has been paraphrased "build men, not buildings. " In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton.

 
 

Gilman Hall, flagship building of the Homewood campus
 
 
Move to Homewood and early 20th century history
In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and 30 acres of the estate had to be sold to the city as public park. A solution was achieved by a team of prominent locals who acquired the estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood. On February 22, 1902, this land was formally transferred to the university. The flagship building, Gilman Hall, was completed in 1915. The School of Engineering relocated in Fall of 1914 and the School of Arts and Sciences followed in 1916. These decades saw the ceding of lands by the university for the public Wyman Park and Wyman Park Dell and the Baltimore Museum of Art, coalescing in the contemporary area of 140 acres (57 ha).

Prior to becoming the main Johns Hopkins campus, the Homewood estate had initially been the gift of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a Maryland planter and signer of the Declaration of Independence, to his son Charles Carroll Jr. The original structure, the 1801 Homewood House, still stands and serves as an on-campus museum. The brick and marble Federal style of Homewood House became the architectural inspiration for much of the university campus. This fact explains the distinctively local flavour of the campus as compared to the Collegiate Gothic style of other historic American universities.

In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health.

Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas.

  The post-war era
Since 1942, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has served as a major governmental defense contractor. In tandem with on-campus research, Johns Hopkins has every year since 1979 had the highest federal research funding of any American university.

Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university.

In the twenty-first century
The early decades of this century have seen expansion across the university's institutions in both physical and population sizes. Notably, a planned 88-acre expansion to the medical campus is well underway as of 2013.

Completed construction on the Homewood campus has included a new biomedical engineering building, a new library, a new biology wing, and an extensive renovation of the flagship Gilman Hall, while the reconstruction of the main university entrance is currently underway and expected to be completed by the end of 2014.

These years also brought about the rapid development of the university's professional schools of education and business. From 1999 until 2007, these disciplines had been joined together within the School of Professional Studies in Business and Education (SPSBE), itself a reshuffling of several earlier ventures. The 2007 split, combined with new funding and leadership initiatives, has led to the simultaneous emergence of the Johns Hopkins School of Education and the Carey Business School.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Hopkins Johns
 

Johns Hopkins, (born May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel County, Md., U.S.—died Dec. 24, 1873, Baltimore), U.S. millionaire merchant and investor who in his will left large endowments to found Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital.

 

Johns Hopkins
  The son of a Quaker tobacco planter, Johns Hopkins quit school at the age of 12 to work the family fields after his parents—in accord with their Quaker conscience—had emancipated their slaves. Awareness of his own educational limitations and of the needs of the newly freed blacks would stay with him and influence him for the rest of his life.

At the age of 17, Hopkins went to live with his uncle in Baltimore and learn the wholesale grocery business. He managed the business well but quarreled with his uncle in 1819 when the uncle refused to permit farmers to pay for goods in whiskey. Johns Hopkins thereupon went into business with a partner and later with three of his brothers.

Hopkins Brothers prospered, delivering goods throughout Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and even into Ohio. The firm freely accepted payment in whiskey, which it then sold as Hopkins’ Best. Johns Hopkins devoted himself entirely to the business, never traveling, never marrying, and seldom spending money on personal pleasures. When he retired in 1847, he was a very wealthy man.

He increased his wealth through farsighted investments in Baltimore real estate and businesses, becoming the largest private individual stockholder in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

 
 
He was also a director of several banks and a major investor in insurance companies, warehouses, and steamship lines, and he exerted a major influence on the development of Baltimore’s commerce.

Six years before his death, Johns Hopkins organized two corporations, one for a hospital and one for a university, and his will (1870) divided $7,000,000 equally between them. He also endowed an orphanage for black children. Johns Hopkins University opened its doors in 1876, the hospital in 1889; and a medical school utilizing the facilities of both held its first class—admitting women on the same basis as men—in 1893.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1876
 
 
Koch Robert discovers anthrax bacillus
 
 
Bacillus anthracis
 

Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus. B. anthracis is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, with a width of 1.0–1.2 µm and a length of 3–5 µm. It can be grown in an ordinary nutrient medium under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

 

B. anthracis belongs to the B. cereus group of strains.
 
 
Structure of B. anthracis
It is one of few bacteria known to synthesize a protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid). Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as (edema factor), along with lethal factor. It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. All three species share cellular dimensions and morphology. All form oval spores located centrally in an unswollen sporangium. B. anthracis spores, in particular, are highly resilient, surviving extremes of temperature, low-nutrient environments, and harsh chemical treatment over decades or centuries.

The spore is a dehydrated cell with thick walls and additional layers that form inside the cell membrane. It can remain inactive for many years, but if it comes into a favorable environment, it begins to grow again. It is sometimes called an endospore because it initially develops inside the rod-shaped form. Features such as the location within the rod, the size and shape of the endospore, and whether or not it causes the wall of the rod to bulge out are characteristic of particular species of Bacillus. Depending upon the species, the endospores are round, oval, or occasionally cylindrical. They are highly refractile and contain dipicolinic acid. Electron micrograph sections show they have a thin outer spore coat, a thick spore cortex, and an inner spore membrane surrounding the spore contents. The spores resist heat, drying, and many disinfectants (including 95% ethanol). Because of these attributes, B. anthracis spores are extraordinarily well-suited to use (in powdered and aerosol form) as biological weapons. Such weaponization has been accomplished in the past by at least five state bioweapons programs—those of the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, Russia, and Iraq—and has been attempted by several others.

 
 

CapD protein crystal structure of B. anthracis
 
 
Historical background
French physician Casimir Davaine (1812-1882) demonstrated the symptoms of anthrax were invariably accompanied by the microbe B. anthracis. German physician Aloys Pollender (1799–1879) is also credited for this discovery. B. anthracis was the first bacterium conclusively demonstrated to cause disease, by
Koch Robert in 1876. The species name anthracis is from the Greek anthrax (ἄνθραξ), meaning "coal" and referring to the most common form of the disease, cutaneous anthrax, in which large, black skin lesions are formed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1876
 
 
Macleod John James Rickard
 
John James Rickard Macleod, FRS (6 September 1876 – 16 March 1935) was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist. He devoted his career to diverse topics in physiology and biochemistry, but was chiefly interested in carbohydrate metabolism. He is noted for his role in the discovery and isolation of insulin during his tenure as a lecturer at the University of Toronto, for which he and Frederick Banting received the 1923 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine. Awarding the prize to Macleod was controversial at the time, because according to Banting's version of events, Macleod's role in the discovery was negligible. It was not until decades after the events that an independent review acknowledged a far greater role than was attributed to him at first.
 

ohn James Rickard Macleod
  J.J.R. Macleod, in full John James Rickard Macleod (born Sept. 6, 1876, Cluny, near Dunkeld, Perth, Scot.—died March 16, 1935, Aberdeen), Scottish physiologist noted as a teacher and for his work on carbohydrate metabolism.
Together with Sir Frederick Banting, with whom he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1923, and Charles H. Best, he achieved renown as one of the discoverers of insulin.

Macleod held posts in physiology and biochemistry at the London Hospital (1899–1902) and as professor of physiology at Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. (1903–18).

In 1918 he joined the University of Toronto, Ont., Can., as associate dean of medicine and subsequently became director of its physiological laboratory. It was in this laboratory that Banting and Best began investigating the secretions of the pancreas and eventually succeeded in isolating and preparing insulin in 1921. Macleod subsequently was made dean of the faculty of medicine.

His publications include Practical Physiology (1902) and Physiology and Biochemistry in Modern Medicine (1918).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Schliemann Heinrich excavates Mycenae
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Charles Doughty's (Doughty Charles Montagu) travels in Arabia Deserta (1876-1878)
 
 

Doughty Charles Montagu (19 August 1843 – 20 January 1926) was an English poet, writer, and traveller born in Theberton Hall, Saxmundham, Suffolk and educated at private schools in Laleham and Elstree, and at a school for the Royal Navy, Portsmouth.

 
 

Charles Doughty's travels: 1876-1878
 
 
see also: The Arabian Desert
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Bakunin Mikhail, Russian socialist, politician, and writer, d. (b. 1814)
 
 

Nadar - Mikhail Bakunin, russian Anarchist
 
 
 
1876
 
 
First tennis tournament in U.S. (Nehant)
 
 
 
1876
 
 
U.S. National Baseball League founded
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Reformatory for juvenile offenders founded at Elmira, N.Y., by Z. R. Brockway
 
 
Brockway Zebulon Reed
 

Zebulon Reed Brockway (April 28, 1827 –October 21, 1920) was a penologist and is sometimes regarded as the "Father of prison reform" and " Father of American Parole" in the United States.

 
Early life
Brockway was born in Lyme, Connecticut in 1827. He married Caroline Brockway.
 
 

Zebulon Reed Brockway
  Career
He began his career as a prison guard or[citation needed] assistant warden at the state prison in Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1848. Brockway became a clerk at the Wethersfield prison by 23 years old. Later he worked as assistant superintendent of the Municipal Alms House in Albany, New York for four years.[citation needed] He was made the Monroe County, New York Penitentiary superintendent in 1854. There, he focused upon rehabilitation of the prisoners. In 1861, Brockway became the superintendent of the prison in Detroit, where he attempted to introduce work and release supervision programs and "indeterminate sentences". Brockway's chief innovation, though, was his attempt to establish the country's first indeterminate sentencing system. In 1869, Brockway drafted a law, passed by the Michigan legislature but overturned by the state Supreme Court, that would allow for the conditional and discretionary release of “common prostitutes.”

When he was in Detroit, he got the inspiration for his prison reforms from Moses and Amos Pilsbury, who also brought about prison reforms. He began his reforms in Detroit however, resigned in 1872 when his ideas were no longer accepted.

Before the Elmira Reformatory was built, Brockway was already made the superintendent in 1876.

While warden at the Elmira Reformatory in Upstate New York from 1876 to 1900, Brockway introduced a program of education, training in useful trades, physical activity, indeterminate sentences, inmate classification, and an incentive program.

 
 
Brockway believed that the primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply just to punish. By giving them the moral and spiritual guidance that they needed, Brockway believed that this was the key to helping them become better and useful citizens. He also used the idea of indeterminate sentence which would allow a prisoner to get parole sooner than he expected, because Brockway did not believe in fixed sentences either. His rules had two sides. One side was if a prisoner was well behaved and abided by the rules, then he would be rewarded. If a prisoner did not abide by the rules then he would be punished. These sets of rules came under scrutiny.

In 1893, his administration endured investigation into accusations of brutality at Elmira, but he retired at the age of 72 in 1900 after further criticism. Brockway was such a popular man in Elmira that he was elected mayor five years later at 77.

In 1912, he wrote Fifty Years of Prison Service: An Autobiography (1912).

Death
Zebulon Brockway died in 1920 at the age of 92.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1876
 
 
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
 

The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. Officially named the International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures and Products of the Soil and Mine, it was held in Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River on fairgrounds designed by Herman J. Schwarzmann. Nearly 10 million visitors attended the exhibition and thirty-seven countries participated in it.

 
Precedent
The Great Central Fair of 1864, one of the many fairs held during the Civil War, anticipated the combination of public, private, and commercial efforts that were necessary for the Centennial. The Great Central Fair, held on Logan Square, had a similar gothic appearance, the waving flags, the huge central hall, the "curiosities" and relics, handmade and industrial exhibits, and also a visit from the President and his family, provided a creative and communal means for ordinary citizens to promote the welfare of Union soldiers and dedicate themselves to the survival of the nation. They also made Philadelphia a vital center in the Union war effort.
 
 

The Great Sanitary Fair (1864) was the model for the Centennial Exhibition. It had raised $1,046,859 for medicine and bandages during the American Civil War.
 
 
Planning the great gathering
The idea of the Centennial Exposition is credited to John L. Campbell, a professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. In December 1866, Campbell suggested to Philadelphia's mayor that the United States Centennial be celebrated with an exposition in Philadelphia. Detractors said the project would not be able to find funding, other nations might not attend, and U.S. exhibitions might compare poorly to foreign exhibits.

The Franklin Institute became an early supporter of the exposition and asked the Philadelphia City Council for use of Fairmount Park. With reference to the numerous events of national importance that were held in the past and related to the City of Philadelphia, the City Council resolved in January 1870, to hold the Centennial Exposition in the city in 1876.

The Philadelphia City Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a committee to study the project and seek support of the U.S. Congress. Congressman William D. Kelley spoke for the city and state and Daniel Johnson Morrell introduced a bill to create a United States Centennial Commission. The bill, which passed on March 3, 1871, provided that the U.S. government would not be liable for any expenses.
 

 

Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exhibition
 
 
The United States Centennial Commission organized on March 3, 1872, with Joseph R. Hawley of Connecticut as president. The Centennial Commission's commissioners included one representative from each state and territory in the United States. On June 1, 1872, Congress created a Centennial Board of Finance to help raise money. The board's president was John Welsh, brother of philanthropist William Welsh, who had raised funds for The Great Sanitary Fair in 1864. The board was authorized to sell up to US$10 million in stock via US$10 shares. The board sold US$1,784,320 ($35,245,276 today) worth of shares by February 22, 1873. Philadelphia contributed US$1.5 million and Pennsylvania gave US$1 million. On February 11, 1876, Congress appropriated US$1.5 million in a loan. Originally, the board thought it was a subsidy, but after the Centennial ended, the government sued for the money back, and the United States Supreme Court ultimately forced the commission to repay the government. John Welsh enlisted help from the women of Philadelphia who had helped him in The Great Sanitary Fair. A Women's Centennial Executive Committee was formed with Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, a descendant of Benjamin Franklin, as president. In its first few months, the group raised US$40,000. When the group learned the planning commission was not doing much to display the work of women, the group raised US$30,000 for a women's exhibition building.

In 1873, the Centennial Commission named Alfred T. Goshorn as the director general of the Exposition. The Fairmount Park Commission set aside 450 acres (1.8 km2) of West Fairmount Park for the exposition, which was dedicated on July 4, 1873, by Secretary of the Navy George M. Robeson.
 
 
The Commission decided to classify the exhibits into seven departments: agriculture, art, education and science, horticulture, machinery, manufactures, and mining and metallurgy. Newspaper publisher John W. Forney agreed to head and pay for a Philadelphia commission sent to Europe to invite nations to exhibit at the exposition. Despite fears of a European boycott and high American tariffs making foreign goods not worthwhile, no European country declined the invitation. To accommodate out-of-town visitors, temporary hotels were constructed near the Centennial's grounds. A Centennial Lodging-House Agency made a list of rooms in hotels, boarding houses and private homes and then sold tickets for the available rooms in cities promoting the Centennial or on trains heading for Philadelphia. Philadelphia streetcars increased service and the Pennsylvania Railroad ran special trains from Philadelphia's Market Street, New York City, Baltimore and Pittsburgh. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad ran special trains from the Center City part of Philadelphia. A small hospital was built on the Exposition's grounds by the Centennial's Medical Bureau, but despite a heat wave during the summer, no mass deaths or epidemics occurred.
The Centennial National Bank was chartered on January 19, 1876, to be the "financial agent of the board at the Centennial Exhibition, receiving and accounting for daily receipts, changing foreign moneys into current funds, etc.," according to an article three days later in the Philadelphia Inquirer. Its main branch, designed by Frank Furness, was opened that April on the southeast corner of Market Street and 32nd Street. A branch office operated during the Centennial on the fairgrounds.
 
The Centennial Tower, a 1,000-foot-tall (300 m) tower conceived in 1874 by engineers Clarke and Reeves for the 1876 Exposition, was featured in the January 24, 1874 edition of Scientific American but never built.
 
 
Structures
More than 200 buildings were constructed within the Exposition's grounds, which were surrounded by a fence nearly three miles long. There were five main buildings in the exhibition. They were the Main Exhibition Building, Memorial Hall, Machinery Hall, Agricultural Hall, and Horticultural Hall. Apart from these buildings, there were separate buildings for state, federal, foreign, corporate, and public comfort buildings. This strategy of numerous buildings in one exposition, set it apart from the previous fairs around the world that relied exclusively on having one or a few large buildings.

The Centennial Commission sponsored a design competition for the principal buildings, conducted in two rounds; winners of the first round had to have details such as construction cost and time prepared for the runoff on September 20, 1873. After the ten design winners were chosen, it was determined that none of them allowed enough time for construction and limited finances.

The Architecture of the Exhibition mainly consisted of two ways of building, the traditional masonry monuments and building of structural framework of Iron and Steel.

 
 

Map of the Exhibition complex.
 
 
Main Building
The Centennial Commission turned to third-place winner's architect Henry Pettit and engineer Joseph M. Wilson for design and construction of the Main Exhibition Building. A temporary structure, the Main Building was the largest building in the world by area, enclosing 21.5 acres (8.7 ha). It measured 464 ft in width and 1880 ft in length.

It was constructed using prefabricated parts, with a wood and iron frame resting on a substructure of 672 stone piers, the wrought iron roof trusses were supported by the columns of the superstructure.

The building took eighteen months to complete and costed $1,580,000. The building was surrounded by portals on all four sides, the east entrance of the building was used as an access way for carriages and the south entrance of the building served as a primary entrance to the building for street cars. The North side related the main building to the Art Gallery and the west side served as a passageway to the Machinery and Agricultural Halls.

In the Main Building, Columns were placed at a uniform distance of 24 feet. The entire structure consisted of 672 columns, the shortest column 23 ft in length and the longest 125 ft in length. The construction included red and black brick-laid design with stained glass or painted glass decorations. The Interior walls were whitewashed and woodwork was decorated with shades of green, crimson, blue and gold. The flooring of the building was made of wooden planks that rested directly on the ground without any space underneath it.

 
 

Main Exhibition Building, Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia (1875–76, disassembled and sold 1881).
In terms of total area enclosed, 21½ acres, it was the largest building in the world.
 
 
The orientation of the building was East-West in direction making it well lit and Glass was used between the frames to let in light. Skylights were introduced within the structure, over the central aisles. The corridors of the building were separated by fountains, that were aesthetic and also served the purpose of cooling.

The structure of the building, the central avenue was a series of parallel sheds that were 120 ft (37 m) wide, 1,832 ft (558 m) long, and 75 ft (23 m) high. It was the longest nave ever introduced into an exhibition building. On either sides of the nave, were avenues of 100 feet in width and 1832 feet in length. Aisles of 48 ft wide were between the nave and the side avenues, and smaller aisles of 24 ft in width were on the outer sides of the building.

The exterior of the building consisted of 4 towers of 75 feet in height that stood at each of the building's corners. These towers served as small balconies or galleries of observation at different heights.

Within the building, Exhibits were arranged in a grid, in a dual arrangement of type and national origin. Exhibits from the United States were placed in the center of the building, and foreign exhibits were arranged around the center, based on the nation's distance from the United States. Exhibits inside the Main Building dealt with mining, metallurgy, manufacturing, education and science. Offices for foreign commissioners were placed along the sides of the building, in the side aisles, in proximity to the products exhibited. The walkways leading to the exit doors were 10 feet in width.

After the Exposition, the building was turned into a permanent building for the International Exhibition. During the auction held on December 1, 1876 the building was bought for $250,000. It quickly ran into financial difficulty but continued to remain open through 1879, before being finally demolished in 1881.

 
 

Horticultural Hall, Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia (1875–76, demolished 1954). Stereoscopic view from Robert N. Dennis Collection, New York Public Library.
 
 
Agricultural Hall
The third largest structure at the Centennial was Agricultural Hall. Designed by James Windrim, Agricultural Hall was 820 ft (250 m) long and 540 ft (160 m) wide. Made of wood and glass, the building was designed to look like various barn structures pieced together. The building's exhibits included products and machines in agriculture and other related businesses.
 
 
Herman J. Schwarzmann
Herman J. Schwarzmann, an engineer for the Fairmount Park Commission, was assigned as the main designer of the exposition. Schwarzmann began working for the Fairmount Park Commission in 1869, which became the site of the 1876 Centennial Exposition. It is one of the great urban parks of America, its importance in landscape history exceeded only by Central Park. He was the chief architect for the Centennial Exposition, designing Memorial Hall, Horticultural Hall, other small buildings and landscape around them. The work done for the Centennial Exhibition was in reference to the Vienna International Exhibition in 1873, for which Schwarzmann visited the exhibition to analyse the buildings and the ground layout. Taking the Vienna International Exhibition in 1873 as a caution, the exhibition was planned in order to avoid the disastrous logistic planning that the vienna exposition demonstrated.

In the Vienna Exposition, there was no convenient way for visitors to reach the fairgrounds, and exorbitant rates were charged by carriage drivers. With reference to these experiences, the Philadelphia expo was ready for its visitors, with direct rail road connections to service passenger trains for every 30 minutes, trolley lines, street cars, carriage routes and even docking facilities on the river.

 
 

The Ohio House is one of only four buildings remaining from the exposition,
including Memorial Hall and the Centennial comfort stations.
 
 
Horticultural Hall
Situated high atop a hill presiding over Fountain Avenue, Horticultural Hall epitomized floral achievement, which attracted professional and amateur gardeners. Unlike other main buildings, it was meant to be permanent. Horticultural Hall had an iron and glass frame on a brick and marble foundation and was 383 ft (117 m) long, 193 ft (59 m) wide and 68 ft (21 m) tall. The building was styled after Moorish architecture and designed as a tribute to The Crystal Palace from London's Great Exhibition. Inside, nurserymen, florists and novice landscape exhibited a variety of tropical plants, garden equipments, and garden plans. In dramatic fashion, the Centennial introduced the general public to the notion of landscape design, as exemplified the building itself and the grounds surrounding it. In terms landscape around it, a long, sunken parterre leading from Horticultural Hall became the Centennial's Iconic floral feature, reproduced on countless postcards and other memorabilia, This low garden enabled visitors to best see the patterns and shapes of the beds from the raised walkways. The building's exhibits specialized in horticulture and after the Exposition it continued to exhibit plants until it was badly damaged by Hurricane Hazel in 1954 and was demolished.
 
 

Machinery Hall
 
 
Machinery Hall
Machinery Hall, the second largest building in the exposition, located west of the Main Exhibition Building was designed by Joseph M. Wilson and Henry Pettit. This structure consisted of a main hall, 1402 ft long and 360 ft wide, with a wing of 208 ft by 210 ft attached on the south side of the building. The building occupied 558,440 square feet, had 1,900 exhibitors in the Hall and took six months to construct. Much like its name, the exhibits displayed at Machinery Hall focused on machines and evolving industries.

The building was composed of a superstructure made of wood and glass, and rested on a foundation of massive masonry. The building was painted light blue and had 8 different entrances. The length of the building was 18 times its height. Machinery Hall was the show case for the state of the art industrial technology that was being produced at the time. The United States of America alone took up two-thirds of the exhibit space in the building.

One of the major attractions on display in the building was the Corliss Centennial Steam Engine that ran power to all the machinery in the building as well as other parts of the world's fair. The engine was 70 feet tall, produced 1,400 horsepower and weighed 650 tons. It had 5 miles of overhead line belts that connected to the machinery in the building. It symbolized the power of technology that was transforming the United states into an industrial nation.

Amenities available to the visitors within the hall were rolling chairs, telegraph offices and dinner for fifty cents. Machinery Hall had 8,000 operating machines and was filled with a wide assortment of hand tools, machine tools, material handling equipment and the latest fastener technology.

 
 

Memorial Hall
 
 
Memorial Hall
Also designed by Herman J. Schwarzmann, the Art Gallery building (now known as Memorial Hall) is made of brick, glass, iron and granite. Memorial Hall, the only exhibit building to survive on the Centennial site, was designed in the beaux-arts style and housed the art exhibits.

It was the largest art hall in the country when it opened, with a massive 1.5-acre footprint and a 150-foot dome sitting atop a 59-foot-high structure with a 150-foot dome sitting on top. It provided 75,000 square feet of wall surface for paintings and 20,000 square feet of floor space for sculptures. The Centennial received so many art contributions that a separate annex was built to house them all. Another building was built for the display of photography.

Schwarzmann based his design for Memorial Hall on Nicholas Felix Escaliers project for the Prix de Rome published in 1867–69. Constructed of granite, brick, glass and iron, Memorial Hall consisted of a central domed area surrounded by four pavilions on the corners with open arcades east and west of the main entrance. During the exhibition, the building along with the Art Gallery Extension directly to its rear displayed the art of many nations.
Memorial Hall became the prototype, both from a stylistic and organizational standpoint, for other museums such as the Art Institute of Chicago (1892–1893), Milwaukee Public Museum (1893–1897), Brooklyn Museum (1893–1924), and Detroit Institute of Art (1920–1927). Libraries like the Library of Congress, New York Public Library and Free Library of Philadelphia also emulated its form.

After the Exposition, Memorial Hall reopened in 1877 as the Pennsylvania Museum of Art and included the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art.

  In 1928 the museum moved to Fairmount at the head of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, and in 1938 was renamed the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Memorial Hall continued to house the school, and afterward was taken over by the Fairmount Park Commission in 1958. The museum school is now the University of the Arts. The building was later used as a police station and has now been renovated to house the Please Touch Museum.

The British buildings were extensive and among other things showed to America the evolved bicycle with Tension Spokes and a large front wheel. Two English manufacturers displayed their high wheel bikes (called "Ordinary bikes" or slang "penny farthings") at the Exposition: Bayless Thomas and Rudge. It was these displays that caused Col. A. Pope to decide to begin making high wheel bikes in the USA. He started the Columbia Bike Company and within a few years was publishing a journal "LAW Bulletin and Good Roads". This was the beginning of the Good Roads Movement.

Eleven nations beside the U.S. had their own exhibition buildings. So did 26 of the 37 U.S. states. (Ohio House alone survives.) The United States government had a cross-shaped building that held exhibits from various government departments. The Women's Pavilion was the first structure at an international exposition devoted to showing off the work of women. The exhibits in this building were created and operated by women. Domestic labor saving devices invented by women were also displayed. The items that were exhibited included a dishwasher, a reliance stove, a stocking and glove darner, etc. The goals of the exhibit was to promote labor saving household gadgets that would provide women relief from household work so that they can focus on other leisurely activities of interest. The rest of the structures at the Centennial were corporate exhibitions, administration buildings, restaurants, and other buildings designed for public comfort.

 
 

Women's Pavilion
 
 
Woman's Pavilion
The Women's Pavilion a project of the Women's Centennial Executive Committee, was appointed in 1873 by the United States Centennial Board of Finance. They hoped the Women's Pavilion would generate greater enthusiasm in the celebration of the fair by increasing subscriptions to Centennial stock. Much of the pavilion was devoted to what would be classified as woman's domestic production.

The president of the Women's Centennial Committee was Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, great grand daughter of Benjamin Franklin. Gillespie led the Women's centennial executive committee in raising money to create the first Women's pavilion in exposition history. With the help of Gillespie, the women's centennial committee reached their goal of 82,000 signatures in 2 days to raise money for the pavilion, she also helped convince Congress to give the committee more money. Female organizers of the event drew upon deeply rooted traditions of separatism and sorority, as they planned, funded and managed their own pavilion and devoted it entirely to the artistic and industrial pursuits of their gender. Their overall goal was to increase female confidence and choices, win woman's social, economic, and legal advancement, abolish unfair restrictions discriminating against their gender, encourage sexual harmony, and gain influence, leverage, and freedom for all women in and outside of the home. They had to build their own building because they lost their spot in one of the larger pavilions (Main Building) due to a large increase in foreign interest. It only took them 4 months to raise the needed funds to build the pavilion. Their goal was to only use women to build their pavilion, even to power their own building. To which they did except for one aspect which was the design of the building. The building was designed by Hermann J. Schwarzmann. The Centennial Women not only showed domestic production but they also employed a popular means for justifying female autonomy outside of the home as well. They did this by demonstrating to visitors what ways women were making a profitable living. When entering the building visitors found exhibits that demonstrated positive achievements and influence such as; industrial and fine arts: wood-carvings, furniture-making, and ceramics; fancy articles: clothing, and woven goods, philanthropy: philosophy, science, and medicine; education; literature; and inventions. The pavilion also exhibited over eighty patented inventions for example: a reliance stove, a hand attachment for a sewing machine, a dish-washer, a fountain griddle- greaser, a self-heating iron, a frame for stretching and drying lace curtains, and a stocking and glove darner.

 
 

Interior of Horticultural Hall. (1876)
 
 
Exposition
The formal name of the Exposition was the International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and products of the Soil and Mine, but the official theme was the celebration of the United States Centennial. This was reinforced by promotional tie-ins, such as the publication of Kate Harrington's Centennial, and Other Poems, which commemorated the Exposition and the centennial. At the same time, the Exposition was designed to show the world the United States' industrial and innovative prowess. The Centennial was originally set to begin in April for the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, but construction delays caused the date to be pushed ahead to May 10. Bells rang all over Philadelphia to signal the Centennial's opening. The opening ceremony was attended by U.S. President Ulysses Grant and his wife and Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and his wife. The opening ceremony ended in Machinery Hall with Grant and Pedro II turning on the Corliss Steam Engine which powered most of the other machines at the Exposition. The official number of first day attendees was 186,272 people with 110,000 entering with free passes.



Italian Dept. Memorial Hall Annex

In the days following the opening ceremony, attendance dropped dramatically, with only 12,720 people visiting the Exposition. The average daily attendance for May was 36,000 and 39,000 for June. A deadly heat wave began in mid-June and continued into July hurting attendance. The average temperature was 81 °F (27.2 °C), and ten times during the heat wave, the temperatures reached 100 °F (37.8 °C). The average daily attendance for July was 35,000, but it rose in August to 42,000 despite the return of high temperatures at the end of the month.

Cooling temperatures, news reports and word of mouth began increasing attendance in the final three months of the Exposition, with many of the visitors coming from farther distances. In September the average daily attendance rose to 94,000 and to 102,000 in October. The highest attendance date of the entire Exposition was September 28. The day, which saw about a quarter of a million people attend, was Pennsylvania Day. Pennsylvania Day celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 and Exposition events included speeches, receptions and fireworks. The final month of the Exposition, November, had an average daily attendance of 115,000. By the time the Exposition ended on November 10, a total of 10,164,489 had visited the fair.[6] Among the attendees who were duly impressed by the exposition were Princeton University sophomore Woodrow Wilson and his minister father, Dr. Joseph Ruggles Wilson, visiting from North Carolina.

Although not financially successful for investors, the Centennial Exposition impressed foreigners in that the country grew industrially and commercially. The number of exports increased, the number of imports decreased, and the balance grew in favor of America.

 
 

Monorail
 
 
Inventions
Mass-produced products and new inventions were on display at the 1867 World Fair, many found within the walls of Machinery hall. Some of the main inventions on display included sewing machines, typewriters, stoves, lanterns and guns, plus horse-drawn wagons, carriages and agricultural equipment.

Some of the most well-known present day features on display at the Centennial Exposition, was a section of the Statue of Liberty (her arm and torch) and the debut of the world's first monorail system which featured a team locomotive and passenger car which straddled a single elevated iron rail that rested several feet off the ground.

The exposition also featured many well-known items of today such as; Alexander Graham Bell's first telephone which was set up on opposite ends of Machinery Hall to demonstrate the transfer of human voice through wires, the Automatic telegraph system and electric pen by Thomas Edison, screw-cutting machines that drastically improved the production of screws and bolts from 8,000 to 100,000 a day, and a universal grinding machine by Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co.

A new technology on display were air-powered tools along with the mechanical calculator by George B. Grant. John A. Roebling's Sons & Co. also displayed their 5 ¾ inch diameter slice of cable that was going to be used for the Brooklyn Bridge. Besides machinery, visitors could also find new foods such as bananas, popcorn and Heinz ketchup.

 
 

Interior, Main Exhibition Building, looking west from grandstand
 
 
Exhibits
Technologies introduced at the fair include the Corliss Steam Engine. Pennsylvania Railroad displayed the John Bull steam locomotive that was originally built in 1831. Waltham Watch Company displayed the first automatic screw making machinery and won the Gold Medal in the first international watch precision competition. Until the start of 2004, many of the fair's exhibits were in the Smithsonian Institution's Arts and Industries Building in Washington, DC, adjacent to the Castle building.

Consumer products first displayed to the public include:

-Alexander Graham Bell's telephone
-Remington Typographic Machine (typewriter)
-Heinz Ketchup
-Wallace-Farmer Electric Dynamo, precursor to electric light
-Hires Root Beer
-Kudzu erosion control plant species
A reconstruction of a "colonial kitchen" replete with spinning wheel and costumed presenters sparked an era of "Colonial Revival" in American architecture and house furnishings. The Swedish Cottage, representing a rural Swedish schoolhouse of traditional style, was re-erected after the Exposition closed, in Central Park, New York. It is now the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre.

 
 

Krupp exhibit
 
 
The New Jersey official State Pavilion was a reconstruction of the Ford Mansion, which served as General George Washington's Headquarters during the winter of 1779–80 in Morristown, New Jersey. The reconstruction had a working "colonial kitchen" featuring a polemical narrative of "old-fashioned domesticity." This quaint hearth and home view of the colonial past was juxtaposed against the theme of progress, the overarching theme of the exhibition serving to reinforce a view of American progress evolving from a small hearty colonial stock and not from a continual influx of multi-ethnic waves of immigration.
 
 

Right Arm and Torch of Statue of Liberty, 1876 Centennial Exposition.
 
 
The right arm and torch of the Statue of Liberty were showcased at the Exposition. For a fee of 50 cents, visitors could climb the ladder to the balcony, and the money raised this way was used to fund the pedestal for the statue.

Also displayed was the exquisite Gothic-style high altar that Edward Sorin (founder of University of Notre Dame) commissioned from the studios of Froc-Robert in Paris. After the exhibit, the altar was installed at the Basilica of the Sacred Heart on Notre Dame's campus where it remains to this day.

The building where visitors picked up official Exposition catalogues was, after the Exposition, dismantled and moved to Wayne, Pennsylvania and later Strafford, Pennsylvania, where it still stands, serving as that community's train station.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 

 
 
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