Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1873 Part III NEXT-1874 Part I    
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
History at a Glance
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
1870 Part IV
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
Ebert Friedrich
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
Impressionism Timeline
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell

World Exposition 1873 Vienna
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1873 Part IV
Charcot Jean Martin: "Lecons sur les maladies du systeme nerveux"

Charcot Jean Martin:"Lecons sur les maladies du systeme nerveux"
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"

A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by Maxwell James Clerk  in 1873. Maxwell was revising the Treatise for a second edition when he died in 1879. The revision was completed by William Davidson Niven for publication in 1881. A third edition was prepared by J. J. Thomson for publication in 1892.

According to one historian,

The Treatise was notoriously hard to read; it teemed with ideas but lacked the clear focus and orderly presentation that might have enabled it to win converts more readily. Rather than simply expounding his own system, Maxwell had set out to write a comprehensive treatise on electrical science, and so he had allowed his own new distinctive ideas, notably that of the displacement current, to be almost buried under long accounts of miscellaneous phenomena discussed from several points of view. Except for a fuller treatment of the Faraday effect (in which he again invoked the molecular vortices), Maxwell added little to his earlier work on the electromagnetic theory of light; he said nothing, for example, about how electromagnetic waves might be generated, nor did he attempt to derive laws governing reflection and refraction.

Maxwell introduced the use of vector fields, and his labels have been perpetuated:

A (vector potential), B (magnetic induction), C (electric current), D (displacement), E (electric field – Maxwell’s electromotive intensity), F (mechanical force), H (magnetic field –Maxwell’s magnetic force).

On April 24, 1873, Nature announced the publication with an extensive description and much praise. When the second edition was published in 1881, George Chrystal wrote the review for Nature.

Pierre Duhem published a critical essay outlining mistakes he found in Maxwell's Treatise. Duhem's book was reviewed in Nature.

Hermann von Helmholtz (1881): "Now that the mathematical interpretations of Faraday’s conceptions regarding the nature of electric and magnetic force has been given by Clerk Maxwell, we see how great a degree of exactness and precision was really hidden behind Faraday’s words…it is astonishing in the highest to see what a large number of general theories, the mechanical deduction of which requires the highest powers of mathematical analysis, he has found by a kind of intuition, with the security of instinct, without the help of a single mathematical formula."

Oliver Heaviside (1893):”What is Maxwell’s theory? The first approximation is to say: There is Maxwell’s book as he wrote it; there is his text, and there are his equations: together they make his theory. But when we come to examine it closely, we find that this answer is unsatisfactory. To begin with, it is sufficient to refer to papers by physicists, written say during the first twelve years following the first publication of Maxwell’s treatise to see that there may be much difference of opinion as to what his theory is. It may be, and has been, differently interpreted by different men, which is a sign that is not set forth in a perfectly clear and unmistakable form. There are many obscurities and some inconsistencies. Speaking for myself, it was only by changing its form of presentation that I was able to see it clearly, and so as to avoid the inconsistencies. Now there is no finality in a growing science. It is, therefore, impossible to adhere strictly to Maxwell’s theory as he gave it to the world, if only on account of its inconvenient form.

Alexander Macfarlane (1902): "This work has served as the starting point of many advances made in recent years. Maxwell is the scientific ancestor of Hertz, Hertz of Marconi and all other workers at wireless telegraphy.

James Clerk Maxwell.
"A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism"
Oliver Lodge (1907) "Then comes Maxwell, with his keen penetration and great grasp of thought, combined with mathematical subtlety and power of expression; he assimilates the facts, sympathizes with the philosophic but untutored modes of expression invented by Faraday, links the theorems of Green and Stokes and Thomson to the facts of Faraday, and from the union rears the young modern science of electricity..."

E. T. Whittaker (1910): "In this celebrated work is comprehended almost every branch of electric and magnetic theory, but the intention of the writer was to discuss the whole from a single point of view, namely, that of Faraday, so that little or no account was given of the hypotheses that had been propounded in the two preceding decades by the great German electricians...The doctrines peculiar to Maxwell ... were not introduced in the first volume, or in the first half of the second."
Albert Einstein (1931): "Before Maxwell people conceived of physical reality–in so far as it is supposed to represent events in nature–as material points, whose changes consist exclusively of motions, which are subject to total differential equations. After Maxwell they conceived physical reality as represented by continuous fields, not mechanically explicable, which are subject to partial differential equations. This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and fruitful one that has come to physics since Newton; but it has at the same time to be admitted that the program has by no means been completely carried out yet."

Richard P. Feynman (1964): "From a long view of the history of mankind—seen from, say, ten thousand years from now—there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics. The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same decade."

L. Pearce Williams (1991): "In 1873, James Clerk Maxwell published a rambling and difficult two-volume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism that was destined to change the orthodox picture of physical reality. This treatise did for electromagnetism what Newton's Principia had done for classical mechanics. It not only provided the mathematical tools for the investigation and representation of the whole of electromagnetic theory, but it altered the very framework of both theoretical and experimental physics.

James Clerk Maxwell.
"A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism"
Although the process had been going on throughout the nineteenth century, it was this work that finally displaced action at a distance physics and substituted the physics of the field."

Mark P. Silverman (1998) "I studied the principles on my own – in this case with Maxwell’s Treatise as both my inspiration and textbook. This is not an experience that I would necessarily recommend to others. For all his legendary gentleness, Maxwell is a demanding teacher, and his magnum opus is anything but coffee-table reading...At the same time, the experience was greatly rewarding in that I had come to understand, as I realized much later, aspects of electromagnetism that are rarely taught at any level today and that reflect the unique physical insight of their creator.

Andrew Warwick (2003): "In developing the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism in the Treatise, Maxwell made a number of errors, and for students with only a tenuous grasp of the physical concepts of basic electromagnetic theory and the specific techniques to solve some problems, it was extremely difficult to discriminate between cases where Maxwell made an error and cases where they simply failed to follow the physical or mathematical reasoning."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Euler-Chelpin Hans

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (15 February 1873 – 6 November 1964) was a German-born Swedish biochemist. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1929 with Arthur Harden for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and enzymes. He was a professor of general and organic chemistry at Stockholm University (1906–1941) and the director of its Institute for organic-chemical research (1938–1948). Von Euler-Chelpin married Astrid Cleve, the daughter of the Uppsala chemist Per Teodor Cleve and was the great-great-great grandson of Leonhard Euler. In 1970, his son Ulf von Euler, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.


Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
  Personal life
Euler-Chelpin was born on February 15, 1873 at Augsburg, Germany. His father was a captain in the Royal Bavarian Regiment, who was soon transferred to Munich. During his childhood, he spent most of his time with his grandmother at Wasserburg am Inn. He went to the Royal Junior High School in Augsburg (predecessor of Holbein Gymnasium ), also in Würzburg and Ulm.

After serving as a one-year volunteer in the Bavarian first Field Artillery Regiment, he took interest in the color theory and began studying art at the Munich Academy of Painting (1891-1893). He was taught under Schmid-Reutte and Lenbach, a German painter of realist style. He therefore went to attend the University of Berlin to study chemistry under Emil Fischer and A. Rosenheim, and physics under E. Warburg and Max Planck; where in 1895 he received his doctorate.

In 1899, Euler-Chelpin was appointed to teach Privatdozent in the Royal University at Stockholm where he began visiting the laboratory of van 't Hoff, one of the many who influenced Euler-Chelpin's interest in science along with Nernst.

In 1902, he took out Swedish citizenship. Nevertheless, during the First World War, Euler Chelpin took part in voluntary service in the German Air Force. During the Second World War, the professor worked in a diplomatic mission on the German side.

In 1906, he was appointed Professor of General and Organic Chemistry in the Royal University, Stockholm. In 1929, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the International Education Board of the Rockefeller Foundation established in Stockholm the Vitamin Institute and Institute of Biochemistry, and Von Euler-Chelpin was appointed as its director. In 1941 he retired from teaching, but continued his researches.

Hans Von Euler-Chelpin married twice. His first wife was Astrid Cleve, who was the first Swedish women to obtain a doctoral degree of science. In 1913, he married again to his second wife, Elisabeth Baroness af Ugglas (1887-1973), whose participated in collaborations with Euler-Chelpin. His son, Ulf von Euler (1905 - 1983), was a well-known physiologist and in 1970 he received a Nobel Prize for his research on the chemical nature of nor epinephrine on the synapses. In 1931, his daughter Karin von Euler Chelpin married the writer Sven Stolpe.

During his life, Euler-Chelpin created a series of monographs such as Biochemistry of Tumours, written in collaboration with Boleslaw Skarzynski, published in 1942 and the other entitled The Chemotherapy and Prophylaxis of Cancer, published in 1962.

At the age of 91, Euler-Chelpin died in Stockholm on November 6, 1964.


Nobel Prize
In 1929, Euler Chelpin and Arthur Harden received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for research on alcoholic fermentation of carbohydrates and the role of enzymes. Arthur Harden dealt only with the chemical effects of bacteria from 1903 with alcoholic fermentation. Harden discovered that the enzyme zymase, discovered by Eduard Buchner, only produces fermentation in interaction with the coenzyme cozymase. Euler Chelpin, in turn, convincingly described what happens in sugar fermentation and the action of fermentation enzymes using physical chemistry. This explanation led to the understanding of the important processes taking place in the muscles for the supply of energy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Frobenius Leo

Leo Viktor Frobenius (29 June 1873 – 9 August 1938) was an ethnologist and archaeologist and a major figure in German ethnography.


Leo Viktor Frobenius
He was born in Berlin as the son of a Prussian officer and died in Biganzolo, Lago Maggiore, Piedmont, Italy. He undertook his first expedition to Africa in 1904 to the Kasai district in Congo, formulating the African Atlantis theory during his travels.

Until 1918 he travelled in the western and central Sudan, and in northern and northeastern Africa. In 1920 he founded the Institute for Cultural Morphology in Munich. In 1932 he became honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt, and in 1935 director of the municipal ethnographic museum.

In 1897/1898 Frobenius defined several "culture areas" (Kulturkreise), cultures showing similar traits that have been spread by diffusion or invasion. With his term paideuma, Frobenius wanted to describe a gestalt, a manner of creating meaning (Sinnstiftung), that was typical of certain economic structures.

Thus, the Frankfurt cultural morphologists tried to reconstruct "the" world-view of hunters, early planters, and megalith-builders or sacred kings. This concept of culture as a living organism was continued by his most devoted disciple, Adolf Ellegard Jensen, who applied it to his ethnological studies. It also later influenced the theories of Oswald Spengler.

During World War I in 1916/1917, Leo Frobenius spent almost an entire year in Romania, travelling with the German army for scientific purposes. His team performed archaeological and ethnographic studies in the country, as well as documenting the day-to-day life of the ethnically diverse inmates of the Slobozia prisoner camp. Numerous photographic and drawing evidences of this period exist in the image archive of the Frobenius Institute.

Frobenius taught at the University of Frankfurt. In 1925, the city acquired his collection of about 4700 prehistorical African stone paintings, which are currently at the University's institute of ethnology, which was named the Frobenius Institute in his honour in 1946.

His writings with Douglas Fox were a channel through which some African traditional storytelling and epic entered European literature. This applies in particular to Gassire's lute, an epic from West Africa which Frobenius had encountered in Mali. Ezra Pound corresponded with Frobenius from the 1920s, initially on economic topics. The story made its way into Pound's Cantos through this connection.

In the 1930s, Frobenius claimed that he had found proof of the existence of the lost continent of Atlantis.


Rock carving known as "Meercatze" (named by Frobenius) in Wadi Methkandoush
African Atlantis
"African Atlantis" is a now-discredited hypothetical civilization thought to have once existed in southern Africa, initially proposed Leo Frobenius around 1904. Named for the mythical Atlantis, this lost civilization was conceived to be the root of African culture and social structure. Frobenius surmised that a white civilization must have existed in Africa prior to the arrival of the European colonisers, and that it was this "white residue" that enabled native Africans to exhibit traits of "military power, political leadership and... monumental architecture." Frobenius's theory stated that "historical contact with immigrant 'whites' of Mediterranean origin" was responsible for "advanced" native African culture. He stated that such a civilizations must have disappeared long ago, to allow for the perceived "dilution" of their civilization to the "levels" that were encountered during the period.
Due to his studies in African history, Frobenius is a figure of renown in many African countries even today. In particular, he influenced Léopold Sédar Senghor, one of the founders of Négritude, who once claimed that Frobenius had "given Africa back its dignity and identity." Aimé Césaire also quoted Frobenius as praising African people as being "civilized to the marrow of their bones", as opposed to the degrading vision encouraged by colonial propaganda.

On the other hand, Wole Soyinka, in his 1986 Nobel Lecture, criticized Frobenius for his "schizophrenic" view of Yoruba art versus the people who made it. Quoting Frobenius's statement that "I was moved to silent melancholy at the thought that this assembly of degenerate and feeble-minded posterity should be the legitimate guardians of so much loveliness," Soyinka calls such sentiments "a direct invitation to a free-for-all race for dispossession, justified on the grounds of the keeper's unworthiness."

Otto Rank relied on Frobenius' reports of the Fanany burial in South Africa to develop his idea of macrocosm and microcosm in his book Art and Artist (Kunst und Künstler [1932])

“Certainly the idea of the womb as an animal has been widespread among different races of all ages, and it 'furnishes an explanation of (for instance) the second burial custom discovered by Frobenius along with the Fanany burial in South Africa. This consisted in placing the dead king's body in an artificially emptied hull's skin in such a manner that the appearance of life was achieved.

African art taken to Europe by Frobenius.

Kuba Mask (Congo)
This bull-rite was undoubtedly connected with the moon-cult (compare our "mooncalf," even today) and belongs therefore to the above-mentioned maternal culture-stage, at which the rebirth idea also made use of maternal animal symbols, the larger mammals being chosen. Yet we must not overlook the fact that this "mother's womb symbolism" denotes more than the mere repetition of a person's own birth: it stands for the overcoming of human mortality by assimilation to the moon's immortality. This sewing-up of the dead in the animal skin has its mythical counterpart in the swallowing of the living by a dangerous animal, out of which he escapes by a miracle. Following an ancient microcosmic symbolism, Anaximander compared the mother's womb with the shark. This conception we meet later in its religious form as the Jonah myth, and it also appears in a cosmological adaptation in the whale myths collected in Oceania by Frobenius. Hence, also, the frequent suggestion that the seat of the soul after death (macrocosmic underworld) is in the belly of an animal (fish, dragon). The fact that in these traditions the animals are always those dangerous to man indicates that the animal womb is regarded not only as the scene of a potential rebirth but also as that of a dreaded mortality, and it is this which led to all the cosmic assimilations to the immortal stars."
Frobenius also confirmed the role of the moon cult in african cultures, according to Rank:

"Bachofen was the first co point out this connexion in the ancient primitive cultures in his Muttemcht (x86x), but it has since received widespread corroboration from later researchers, in particular Frobenius, who discovered traces of a matriarchal culture in prehistoric Africa (Das unbekanntt Afrika, Munich, 191.3)."

Frobenius' work gave Rank insight into the double meaning of the king's ritual murder, and the cultural development of soul belief:

"Certain African traditions (Frobenius: Erythraa) lead to the assumption that the emphasizing of one or another of the inherent tendencies of the ritual was influenced by the character of the slain king, who in one case may have been feared and in another wanted back again."

"The Fanany myth, mentioned below, of the Betsileo in Madagascar shows already a certain progress from the primitive worm to the soul-animal. The Betsileo squeeze the putrefying liquid out of the bodies of the dead at the feet and catch it in a small jar.

After two or three months a worm appears in it and is regarded as the spirit of the dead. This jar is then placed in the grave, where the corpse is laid only after the appearance of the Fanany. A bamboo rod connects the jar with the fresh air (corresponding to the " soulholes" of Northern stone graves).

African art taken to Europe by Frobenius.
Ife (Nigeria)
After six to eight months (corresponding possibly to the embryonic period) the Fanany (so the Betsileo believe) then appears in daylight in the form of a lizard. The relatives of the dead receive it with great celebrations and then push it back down the rod in the hope that this ancestral ghost will prosper exceedingly down below and become the powerful protector of the family and, for that matter, the whole village.

African art taken to Europe by Frobenius
Mask Tyi wara (Mali)
Luba (Congo)
2 From Sibree's Madagascar, pp. 309 et seq., quoted by Frobenius in Der Seelenwurm (1895) and reprinted in Erlebte Erdteile, I (Frankfurt, 192.5), a treatise which deals principally with the "vase-cult" arising out of the storing of decayed remains in jars (see our later remarks on the vase in general).

"Later totemism- the idea of descent from a definite animal species - seems to emerge only from a secondary interpretation of the soul-worm idea or the soul-animal idea in accordance with a " law of inversion " (Frobenius) peculiar to mythical thought; just as the myth of the Creation as the projection backward in time of the myth of the end of the world is in itself only a formal expression of the principle of rebirth."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Justus von Liebig (Liebig Justus), German chemist, d. (b. 1803)

Justus, baron von Liebig
Austro-Hungarian explorers Payer and Weyprecht discover Franz Josef Land, islands in the Arctic Ocean
Payer Julius

Julius Johannes Ludovicus Ritter von Payer (2 September 1841 – 29 August 1915) was an Austro-Hungarian military officer, mountaineer, arctic explorer, cartographer, landscape artist and professor at the military academy.


Julius Johannes Ludovicus Ritter von Payer
  Early life and military career
Born Julius Payer, his father Franz Anton Rudolf Payer was a retired officer who died when Julius was only fourteen. Payer attended k.k. cadet school in Łobzów near Cracow (now Poland). Between 1857 and 1859 he studied at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt (near Vienna). In 1859 he served as a sub-lieutenant with the 36th infantry regiment in Verona, Northern Italy. He participated in the 1859 Battle of Solferino. Between 1860 and 1863 he served at the garrison in Verona, Italy. In 1863 Payer was assigned as a history teacher to the cadet school in Eisenstadt, Austria. After promotion to the rank of lieutenant first class he was posted to the garrison of Venetia.

On 24 June 1866 he was heroic at the Battle of Custoza, seizing two guns, and was decorated.

Alpine exploration
In 1862 he started exploratory tours of the Tyrolean Alps and Hohe Tauern in his free time. After 1864 he explored the Adamello-Presanella Group and the Ortler Alps, making more than 60 first ascents. In 1864 he was, with his guide Giovanni Caturani, the first to climb Adamello (3,554 m) and missed making the first ascent of the Presanella (3,558 m) by just three weeks. All his explorations in the Ortler massif (from 1865 to 1868) were guided by de:Johann Pinggera from Sulden.

Together, often accompanied by a porter, they ascended almost all significant unclimbed summits, including the Hoher Angelus (3,521 m), Vertainspitze (3,545 m), Palon de la Mare (3,703 m), Monte Zebru (3,735), and Monte Cevedale (3,769 m). Their new approach to the Ortler (3,905 m) became the normal route of ascent ever since.

His tours resulted in creating a detailed topographical map at a scale 1:56,000. Due to his achievements, Payer was transferred to the Austrian Military Cartographical Institute in Vienna. When in 1875, the first Alpine club hut above 3000 m was built on the normal route to the Ortler, it was named de: Payerhütte in his honor.

Julius von Payer
  Arctic exploration
In 1868 he was invited by the German geographer August Petermann to participate in the 1869-1870 2nd German North Polar Expedition (Germania under Carl Koldewey).

In 1871 he participated in the preliminary Austro-Hungarian expedition to Novaya Zemlya, with Karl Weyprecht.

From 1872-1874 he led the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition with Karl Weyprecht, who was Commander at sea, while Payer was Commander at shore. During this voyage he made the discovery of Franz Joseph Land, however upon his return to Vienna many critics voiced doubts about its existence and about the experiences of other participants in the expedition.

Payer could have proven his statements using testimonies, diaries and sketches, however his efforts were thwarted, including his promotion to Captain.

In 1874 he resigned from the army because of political maneuvers against him and his brother officers' doubts about his discovery and his sledge journeys. He was awarded 44 Austro-Hungarian gulden on 1 October 1874 for the discovery of Franz Joseph Land (about equal to the monthly salary of a Sub-lieutenant at the time). He was also awarded the 1975 Royal Geographical Societys Patron's Gold Medal.

However, on 24 October 1876 he was elevated to the Austrian nobility which entitled him and his descendants to the style of Ritter von in the case of male and von in the case of female offspring.


Later life
In 1877 Ritter von Payer married the ex-wife of a banker from Frankfurt am Main. They later had two children, Jules and Alice.

From 1877-1879 he studied painting at the Städelsches Institut in Frankfurt / Main. From 1880-1882 he continued his study of art at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in München.

From 1884-1890 he worked as a painter in Paris.

In 1890 he divorced his wife, returned to Vienna and founded a painting school for ladies.

In 1895 he planned a trip for painting to Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord in northeastern (Greenland).

In 1912 he planned (at the age of seventy) an expedition in a submarine to the North Pole.

He died in 1915.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Location of Franz Josef Land
Weyprecht Karl

Karl Weyprecht, also spelt Carl Weyprecht, (8 September 1838 – 2 March 1881[inconsistent]) was an Austro-Hungarian explorer. He was an officer (k.u.k. Linienschiffsleutnant) in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. He is most famous as an Arctic explorer, and an advocate of international cooperation for scientific polar exploration. Although he did not live to see it occur, he is associated with the organisation of the first International Polar Year.


Karl Weyprecht
  In 1856, he joined the Austro-Hungarian Navy (Kriegsmarine) as a provisional sea cadet. He served in the Austro-Sardinian War. From 1860 to 1862, he served on the frigate Radetzky under the command of Admiral Tegetthoff. From 1863 to 1865, he was instructional officer on the training ship Hussar.

On 23 July 1865, he became known to the German geographer August Petermann at a meeting of the "Geographic Society" in Frankfurt.

He served in the 20 July 1866 sea battle at Lissa, aboard the battleship Drache.

He met Julius von Payer in 1870, and made a preliminary expedition with Payer to Novaya Zemlya in 1871.

On 18 February 1872, Weyprecht gained citizenship in Austria-Hungary.

He co-led, with Julius von Payer, the 1872-1874 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition which discovered the archipelago Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Ocean. The expedition's ship Admiral Tegetthoff was abandoned in the pack ice.

The expedition then moved on sledges to go further north, then to open water, where they used boats to reach the Black Cape of Novaya Zemlya and would eventually contact a Russian schooner, "Nikolaj", under Captain Feodor Veronin, and get to Vardø, Norway, where they took the mail boat south and eventually returned to Vienna. He was awarded the 1875 Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal.

On 18 September 1875, he addressed the 48th Meeting of German Scientists and Physicians in Graz, Austria. He reported the "basic principles of Arctic research" and suggested that fixed Arctic observation stations should be established. According to Weyprecht, it was important to organize a network of Arctic stations taking regular measurements of weather and ice conditions with identical devices and at preestablished intervals.

In 1879, he presented these ideas, along with George Neumayer's to the 2nd International Congress of Meteorologists in Rome.

Karl Weyprecht died of tuberculosis in 1881.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land, Russian Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa, archipelago of 191 islands in the northeastern Barents Sea, the northernmost territory of Russia. It falls administratively into Arkhangelsk oblast (province). The islands, with a land area of 6,229 square miles (16,134 square km), consist of three groups.

The easternmost includes Rudolf Island, whose Fligeli Cape is the northernmost point in Russia, and the large islands of Zemlya Vilcheka and Greem-Bell (Graham Bell). This group is separated from the central group, which contains most of the islands, by the Avstriysky (Austrian) Strait.

The western group, divided from the rest of the archipelago by the Britansky Channel (British Channel), contains two large islands, Zemlya Georga (the largest, with an area of about 1,120 square miles [2,900 square km]) and Zemlya Aleksandry.

Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land is mainly low-lying; the highest point, on Viner-Nyoyshtadt Island, reaches 2,034 feet (620 metres). It comprises a series of lowland plateaus, 85 percent of whose surface is covered by ice. The islands are formed from marine deposits of Early and Middle Jurassic age (about 160 to 200 million years old) and are covered by thick basaltic crusts. Elsewhere are Late Cretaceous deposits (about 65 to 100 million years old) with occasional lignite also overlain by basalt. During the Early Jurassic, Franz Josef Land was a single landmass; it was dislocated during the Quaternary Period (the past 2.6 million years) by severe faulting. As a result, the straits between the islands are often very deep, up to 1,650 feet (500 metres) deeper than the surrounding Barents Sea.

The climate is severe, the average winter temperature being -8° F (-22° C), the average summer temperature 35° F (2° C), though summer temperatures of up to 54° F (12° C) have been recorded. Vegetation consists primarily of lichens, mosses, and about three dozen species of Arctic flowering plants. Fauna include polar bears and the Arctic fox, with numerous bird species, of which perhaps 15 nest in the islands. Marine fauna include the walrus, seal, and bearded seal.

Franz Josef Land was discovered by an Austro-Hungarian expedition under Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht in 1873; it was named after the Austrian emperor. The Soviet Union annexed the islands in 1926 and maintained permanent weather stations there.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard was a German geographer, explorer, author and adventurer.

Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs
see also: The Desert

Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs 1873-1874
Cameron Verney Lovett

Verney Lovett Cameron (1 July 1844 – 24 March 1894) was an English traveller in Central Africa and the first European to cross (1873-1875) equatorial Africa from sea to sea.


Verney Lovett Cameron
He was born at Radipole, near Weymouth, Dorset. He entered the Royal Navy in 1857, served in the Abyssinian campaign of 1868, and was employed for a considerable time in the suppression of the East African slave trade.

The experience thus obtained led to his being selected to command an expedition sent by the Royal Geographical Society in 1873, to assist Dr Livingstone. He was also instructed to make independent explorations, guided by Livingstone's advice. Soon after the departure of the expedition from Zanzibar, Chuma and Susi were met bearing the dead body of the reverend doctor. Cameron's two European companions, Dr. William Edward Dillon, surgeon in the Royal Navy, and Lieutenant Cecil Murphy of the Royal Artillery, turned back with the task of returning Livingstone's body to the coast. Cameron continued his march and reached Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, in February 1874, where he found and sent to England Livingstone's papers. Cameron spent some time determining the true form of the south part of the lake, and solved the question of its outlet by the discovery of the Lukuga River. From Tanganyika he struck westward to Nyangwe, the Arab town on the Lualaba previously visited by Livingstone.
This river Cameron rightly believed to be the main stream of the Congo, and he endeavoured to procure canoes to follow it down.


In this he was unsuccessful, owing to his refusal to countenance slavery, and he therefore turned south-west. After tracing the Congo-Zambezi watershed for hundreds of miles he reached Bihe and finally arrived at the coast on 28 November 1875, being the first European to cross equatorial Africa from sea to sea. He was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal in 1876.

His travels, which were published in 1877 under the title Across Africa, contain valuable suggestions for the opening up of the continent, including the utilization of the great lakes as a Cape to Cairo Road connection. In recognition of his work he was promoted to the rank of Commander.

The remainder of Cameron's life was chiefly devoted to projects for the commercial development of Africa, and to editing and writing. His last work was the editing of the personal adventure narrative of the Master Mariner James Choyce, who had sailed as a teenager in 1797 aboard a whaler to the Pacific Ocean. Choyce's narrative covering 26 years of seafaring life is one of the earliest works of an Englishman's experiences in South America.

Cameron visited the Euphrates valley in 1878-1879 in connection with a proposed railway to the Persian Gulf, and accompanied Sir Richard Burton in his West African journey of 1882. At the Gold Coast Cameron surveyed the Tarkwa region, and he was joint author with Burton of To the Gold Coast for Gold (1883). In the 1880s he published several books for boys emulating his sister in law Mrs. Lovett Cameron who wrote romantic fiction.

He was killed, near Leighton Buzzard, by a fall from horseback when returning from hunting in 1894.

A second edition of Across Africa, with new matter and corrected maps, appeared in 1885. A summary of Cameron's great journey, from his own pen, appears in Dr Robert Brown's The Story of Africa, vol. II, pp. 266–279 (London, 1893).

Across Africa was republished in 2005.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Further Exploration of the Nile

Verney Lovett Cameron 1873-1875
Gunsmith firm of E. Remington and Sons begins to produce typewriters
E. Remington and Sons

E. Remington and Sons (1816–1896) was a manufacturer of firearms and typewriters. Founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, on March 1, 1873 it became known for manufacturing the first commercial typewriter.


Remington factory circa 1840
The rifle barrel

There are two versions of the origin of the first Remington rifle barrel. One holds that the younger Remington wanted to purchase a rifle and lacked the money to buy one so he made his own. The other states that he forged a barrel from wrought iron to see if he could build a better rifle than he could buy. Both versions have him taking the barrel to a gunsmith to have it rifled.

Eliphalet II forged his first rifle barrel as a young blacksmith in 1816 and finished second place in a local shooting match with it. Despite not winning the match, he proceeded to make barrels to meet the growing demand for flintlock rifles in the Mohawk Valley. With the completion of the Erie Canal, connecting Buffalo with Albany, commerce in the Mohawk Valley expanded remarkably as did the demand for rifle barrels.

To meet the increased demand for rifle barrels, in 1828 the Remingtons moved their forge and foundry from its rural setting to 100 acres (0.4 km²) of land they had purchased astride the canal and abutting the Mohawk River near a town then called Morgan's Landing (later Ilion), New York. The move coincided with the elder Eliphalet's death, and Eliphalet II assumed control of the business.


Remington .46 Conversion display
Becoming "E. Remington & Sons"
In 1839 Elipalet was joined by his oldest son, Philo Remington (to make the business "E. Remington & Son"), and in 1845 his second son, Samuel, also joined the company, afterwards called "E. Remington & Sons". Remington's third son, Eliphalet III, would later join the company as well. During this period, the Remingtons specialized almost exclusively in the manufacture of rifle barrels. These barrels, marked with the distinctive "REMINGTON" stamp near their breeches, were recognized for their quality and reasonable price. Many, if not most, of the independent gunsmiths in the Mohawk Valley purchased completed (but not rifled) barrels from Remington and assembled them into firearms custom ordered by their customers.
As demand increased, the Remingtons added other parts to their inventory, first percussion locks made in Birmingham, England but marked with their stamp "REMINGTON", and later sets of brass gun furniture, including trigger guards, butt plates, and patch boxes. After 1846, first martial longarm and then revolver production dominated the company's workforce.

In 1848 purchased gun making machinery from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, MA and took over a contract for Jenks breechloading percussion carbines for the U.S. Navy. Remington supplied the U.S. Navy with its first breech-loading rifle. Remington supplied the U.S. Army with rifles in the Mexican-American War (1846 to 1848). Shortly after Remington took over a defaulted contract (by John Griffith of Cincinnati) for 5000 U.S. Model 1841 Percussion Mississippi rifles. Based on the success of filling these orders, subsequent contracts followed in the 1850s.

In 1856 the business was expanded to include the manufacture of agricultural implements. Upon Eliphalet's death in 1861, his son, Philo, took over the firm during the Civil War, and diversified the product line to include sewing machines (manufactured from 1870 to 1894) and typewriters (1873), both of which were exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876.

Sholes & Glidden Typewriter, 1876
Remington's typewriter
On June 23, 1867 a patent was granted to Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and Samuel W. Soule for a "Type-Writer" which was eventually developed into the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first device that allowed an operator to type substantially faster than a person could write by hand. The patent (U.S. 79,265) was sold for $12,000 to Densmore and Yost, who made an agreement with E. Remington and Sons (then famous as a manufacturer of sewing machines), to commercialize what was known as the Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer. Remington started production of their first typewriter on March 1, 1873 in Ilion, New York. The Type-Writer introduced the QWERTY, designed by Sholes, and the success of the follow-up Remington No. 2 of 1878 – the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters via a shift key – led to the popularity of the QWERTY layout.
Successor companies
Remington Arms
E. Remington & Sons supplied a large proportion of the small arms used by the United States government in the Civil War (1861 to 1865). On March 7, 1888, ownership of E. Remington & Sons left possession of the Remington family and was sold to new owners, Hartley and Graham of New York, New York and the Winchester Repeating Arms Company of New Haven, Connecticut. At which time the name was formally changed to the Remington Arms Company.

Remington in addition was one of the most successful gun manufacturers in the world arms trade between 1867 and 1900, specifically through the export of the Remington Rolling Block action rifle.

This single-shot, large-caliber black-powder cartridge rifle was exported in the millions all over the world, including shipments to France, Egypt, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Argentina, Mexico and the Papal States.

It was an important gun supplier of small arms used by the United States government in World War I (U.S. involvement 1917 to 1918) and World War II (U.S. involvement 1941 to 1945)
Remington Typewriter Company
In 1886, E. Remington and Sons sold its typewriter business to the Standard Typewriter Manufacturing Company, Inc. Included were the rights to use the Remington name.

The buyers were William O. Wyckoff, Harry H. Benedict and Clarence Seamans, all of whom worked for Remington.

Standard Typewriter changed its name in 1902 to Remington Typewriter Company.

This company merged in 1927 with Rand Kardex Bureau to form Remington Rand, which continued to manufacture office equipment and later became a major computer company, as well as manufacturing electric razors.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Remington Model 1892
Remington Eliphalet

Eliphalet Remington (October 28, 1793 – August 12, 1861) designed the Remington rifle and founded what is now known as the Remington Arms Co., L.L.C. Originally the company was known as E. Remington followed by E. Remington & Son and then finally E. Remington and Sons.


Eliphalet Remington
  Early years
Eliphalet Remington II was born in 1793 in the town of Suffield, Connecticut. He was the second child of four surviving children (but the only son) of Eliphalet and Elizabeth (Kilbourn) Remington, whose family origins lay in Yorkshire, England.

Eliphalet II followed in his father's footsteps and entered the blacksmith trade at the family's rural forge in Herkimer County, New York.

The original family home at Kinne Corners, New York, built about 1810 and known as Remington House, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.

Remington Company co-founder
The younger Remington worked with his father in the forge, and at 23 he hand-made a flintlock rifle using a firing mechanism bought from a gunsmith, but constructing the barrel himself.

The rifle received such a response that Remington decided to manufacture it in quantity.

By 1840, when his three sons began to take a more active role in the family business, he formed the firm of E. Remington and Sons, which he headed until his death in 1861.

The company continued to grow and to develop its product and gradually began the manufacture of other sporting goods, such as bicycles. At the present time, the company is known as the Remington Arms Co., Inc.

Personal life
Eliphalet Remington was married to Abigail Paddock, and they had three sons, Philo Remington, Eliphalet Remington II, and Samuel Remington, all of whom followed their father into the family business.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wundt Wilhelm: "Physiological Psychology"

Wilhelm Wundt "Physiological Psychology"
G. A. Hansen discovers leprosy bacillus
Hansen Gerhard Armauer

Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (29 July 1841 – 12 February 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.


Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen
Hansen was born in Bergen and studied medicine at the Royal Frederik's University (now the University of Oslo), gaining his degree in 1866. He served a brief internship at the National Hospital in Christiania (Oslo) and as a doctor in Lofoten. In 1868 Hansen returned to Bergen to study leprosy while working with Daniel Cornelius Danielssen, a noted expert.

Leprosy was regarded as largely hereditary or otherwise miasmic in origin. Hansen concluded on the basis of epidemiological studies that leprosy was a specific disease with a specific cause. In 1870–71 Hansen travelled to Bonn and Vienna to gain the training necessary for him to prove his hypothesis.

In 1873, he announced the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae in the tissues of all sufferers, although he did not identify them as bacteria, and received little support. The discovery was done with a "new and better" microscope.

In 1879 he gave tissue samples to Albert Neisser who successfully stained the bacteria and announced his findings in 1880, claiming to have discovered the disease causing organism. There was some quarreling between Neisser and Hansen, Hansen as discoverer of the bacillus and Neisser as identifier of it as the etiological agent. Neisser put in some effort to downplay the assistance of Hansen. Hansen's claim was injured by his failure to produce a pure microbiological culture in an artificial medium or to prove that the rod-shaped organisms were infectious.

Further Hansen had attempted to infect at least one female patient without consent and although no damage was caused, that case ended in court and Hansen lost his post at the hospital.

Hansen remained medical officer for leprosy in Norway and it was through his efforts that the leprosy acts of 1877 and 1885 were passed, leading to a steady decline of the disease in Norway from 1,800 known cases in 1875 to just 575 cases in 1901. His distinguished work was recognized at the International Leprosy Congress held at Bergen in 1909.

Hansen had suffered from syphilis since the 1860s but died of heart disease.


In Bergen, a medical museum that is often referred to as the Leprosy Museum, has been dedicated to Hansen. The University of Bergen has dedicated a research facility to him—Armauer Hansen Building—located at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen.

In Jerusalem, a 19th-century leprosarium has born Hansen's name since 1950. It has been reconstructed into an art center while preserving the physician's surname in its title.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American Football clubs adopt uniform rules
Initiation of modern cricket county championship

Germany adopts the mark as its unit of currency

World Exposition 1873 Vienna

Weltausstellung 1873 Wien (English: World Exposition 1873 Vienna) was the large world exposition that was held in 1873 in the Austria-Hungarian capital of Vienna. Its motto was Kultur und Erziehung (English: Culture and Education).


The Rotunde, centre of the exhibition
There were almost 26,000 exhibitors housed in different buildings that were erected for this exposition, including the Rotunde (English: Rotunda), a large circular building in the great park of Prater designed by the Scottish engineer John Scott Russell. The Rotunde was destroyed by fire on September 17, 1937.

The Russian pavilion had a naval section designed by Viktor Hartmann. Exhibits included models of the Port of Rijeka and the Illés Relief model of Jerusalem.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Main entrance to the fair with the Rotunde behind

The Illés Relief


Exhibition hall for art and oriental

Naval section of the Russian pavilion.
Swedish folk costumes displayed at the exposition

Die Eröffnungszeremonie. Holzstich nach einer Zeichnung Vinzenz Katzlers (1873)
Major W. С Wingfield (Britain) introduces the modern game of lawn tennis at a garden party, under the name
Wingfield Walter Clopton

Major Walter Clopton Wingfield MVO (16 October 1833 – 18 April 1912) was a Welsh inventor and a British Army officer who was one of the pioneers of lawn tennis. Inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1997, as the founder of Modern Lawn Tennis, an example of the original equipment for the sport and a bust of Wingfield himself can be seen at the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum.


Walter Clopton Wingfield
  Family and early life
Wingfield was born on 16 October 1833 in Ruabon, Denbighshire, Wales, the son of Clopton Lewis Wingfield, major in the 66th Foot Regiment, and Jane Eliza, daughter of Sir John Mitchell KCB. He was of an English family traceable back to before the Norman conquest. His mother died in 1836 after the birth of her second child and his father died in 1846 of a bowel obstruction.

Walter was brought up by his uncle and great uncle. He was educated at Rossall School, and in 1851 entered the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, on the second attempt through the influence of his great uncle who was a colonel. He was commissioned a Cornet in the 1st Dragoon Guards and served in India. In 1858 Wingfield became a captain and in 1860 he took part in the campaign in China and was present at the capture of Peking. He returned to England in 1861 and retired from the Dragoon Guards a year later.

During the decade he was based at his family estate, Rhysnant, Llandrinio, in Montgomeryshire, Wales, before moving into London in 1867. He was a Justice of the Peace (JP) for the county and served in the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry, joining as Lieutenant in 1864, appointed adjutant of the regiment in 1868, and promoted Major in 1874.

In 1870 he was appointed to the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, giving him some employment at the courts of Queen Victoria and her son Edward VII. He was made MVO in 1902, retiring from the Corps in 1909.

Lawn tennis
In the late 1860s Wingfield was one of the persons experimenting with a lawn version of tennis. Vulcanised bouncing rubber balls offered an opportunity to develop from the indoor game of real tennis and there were many who had the leisure time to pursue the sport and who owned croquet lawns that could be adapted for it. The precise date that Wingfield brought it to the public is uncertain. Lord Lansdowne claimed that in 1869 Major Wingfield gave a demonstration of the game to him in the garden of his Berkeley Square house, although in that year Wingfield was not a major. Another attribution was to a party held at Nantclwyd Hall in Denbighshire, Wales, although that party actually took place in December. Nor was Wingfield the only exponent. At the same time, Harry Gem and Augurio Perera were demonstrating their game of Pelota in Leamington Spa.

Cover of the first edition of the book about Lawn Tennis by Walter Clopton Wingfield,
published in December 1873
Wingfield patented a New and Improved Court for Playing the Ancient Game of Tennis and began marketing his game in the spring of 1874 selling boxed sets that included rubber balls imported from Germany as well as a net, poles, court markers, rackets and an instruction manual. The sets were available from Wingfield's agent, French and Co. in Pimlico and cost between five and ten guineas. In his version the game was played on an hour-glass shaped court and the net was higher (4 feet 8 inches). The service had to be made from a diamond-shaped box at one end only and the service had to bounce beyond the service line instead of in front of it. He adopted the Rackets-based system of scoring where games consisted of 15 points (called 'aces'). In order to differentiate his game, he named it Sphairistikè (which was poor Greek using a feminine adjective meaning "pertaining to a ball game" without an appropriate noun.) Between July 1874 and June 1875 1,050 tennis sets were sold, mainly to the aristocracy.

Lawn tennis was becoming an important adjunct to cricket at the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and was played at Lord's Cricket Ground. In 1875 John Moyer Heathcote instigated a meeting at the MCC to establish a universal set of rules and Wingfield was invited to participate. Wingfield's hourglass court and scoring method were adopted and Wingfield considered his sport was now entrusted to the MCC. During this time he suffered personal tragedies including the developing mental illness of his wife and the death of his three young sons and he lost all interest in the game. In 1877 the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC) launched the Wimbledon Championship and prior to this, in cooperation with the MCC representatives, developed a new set of rules that excluded some of Wingfield's introductions. Wingfield authored two tennis works: The Book of the Game (1873) and The Major's Game of Lawn Tennis (1874).


Blue plaque with the inscription; 'Major Walter Clopton Wingfield' (1833-1912)
Father of lawn tennis lived here, 33 St George's Square, Pimlico, London
Later life
Wingfield became vice-president of "The Universal Cookery and Food Association". In around 1890 he founded a culinary society called "Le Cordon Rouge" which was intended to further the development of the science of cookery. At the same time, he was active again as an inventor and experimented with bicycles. He created a new type of bicycle which he called the "The Butterfly" and developed a form of bicycling riding in unison by several riders to the tunes of martial music.

On 22 November 1902 Edward VII made Wingfield a member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) for "extraordinary, important and personal services to the Sovereign and the Royal family." and for 32 years of faithful service.

Wingfield lived at 112 Belgrave Road, Pimlico, London for a time and died at 33 St Georges Square, London (a Blue plaque commemorates this) at the age of 78 and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1997 for his contribution to tennis. The Wingflied Restaurant at the All England Club is named in his honor.

Wingfield married Alice Lydia Cleveland, daughter of a general. She survived him by many years and died in an asylum in November 1934.

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