Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1872 Part II NEXT-1872 Part IV    
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
History at a Glance
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
1870 Part IV
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
Ebert Friedrich
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
Impressionism Timeline
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell

Whistler. Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1: Portrait of the Painter's Mother
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"

Bocklin Arnold. "Self-Portrait with Death"
Arnold Bocklin
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"

The work was shown at the 104th Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Art in London (1872)

Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1, best known under its colloquial name Whistler's Mother, is a painting in oils on canvas created by the American-born painter James McNeill Whistler (Whistler James McNeill ) in 1871. The painting is 56.81 by 63.94 inches (144.3 cm × 162.4 cm), displayed in a frame of Whistler's own design. It is exhibited in and held by the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, having been bought by the French state in 1891. It is one of the most famous works by an American artist outside the United States. It has been variously described as an American icon and a Victorian Mona Lisa.

Whistler. Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1: Portrait of the Painter's Mother
Anna McNeill Whistler posed for the painting while living in London with her son at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.

Several unverifiable stories relate to the painting of the work; one is that Anna Whistler acted as a replacement for another model who couldn't make the appointment. It is also said that Whistler originally envisioned painting the model standing up, but that his mother was too uncomfortable to pose standing for an extended period.

Another story associated with the painting is that Whistler called upon his beautiful young neighbour, Helena Amelia Lindgren (1855-1931), of number 5, Lindsey Row, to sit in Anna's place when she grew too tired. Well into her old age, Helena talked of secretly modelling for Whistler, who was especially enamoured of her hands.

According to a surviving letter of 1935 (now in the possession of Helena's great-great-great-grandson, David Charles Manners), Anna had first called on the Lindgrens to ask that Helena's older sister, Christina, be her stand-in.
However, Christina's mother, Eliza Lyle née Warlters, forbade it. Ever a free spirit, Helena secretly offered herself instead and modeled for the portrait without her mother's knowledge.

The work was shown at the 104th Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Art in London (1872), after coming within a hair's breadth of rejection by the Academy. This episode worsened the rift between Whistler and the British art world; Arrangement was the last painting he submitted for the Academy's approval.

The sensibilities of a Victorian era viewing audience would not accept what was apparently a portrait being exhibited as an "arrangement"; thus the explanatory title Portrait of the Artist's Mother was appended. From this the work acquired its popular name.

Anna Whistler circa 1850s.
After Thomas Carlyle viewed the painting, he agreed to sit for a similar composition, this one titled Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 2. Thus the previous painting became Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1 more or less by default.

Whistler. Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 2
: Portrait of Thomas Carlyle
Whistler eventually pawned the painting, which was acquired in 1891 by Paris' Musée du Luxembourg. Whistler's works, including this one, had attracted a number of imitators, and numerous similarly posed and restricted-colour palette paintings soon appeared, particularly by American expatriate painters.
For Whistler, having one of his paintings displayed in a major museum helped attract wealthy patrons.

In December 1884, Whistler wrote:

Just think — to go and look at one's own picture hanging on the walls of Luxembourg — remembering how it had been treated in England — to be met everywhere with deference and respect...and to know that all this is ... a tremendous slap in the face to the Academy and the rest! Really it is like a dream.

As a proponent of art for art's sake, Whistler professed to be perplexed and annoyed by the insistence of others upon viewing his work as a "portrait."

In his 1890 book The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, he wrote:

Take the picture of my mother, exhibited at the Royal Academy as an "Arrangement in Grey and Black." Now that is what it is. To me it is interesting as a picture of my mother; but what can or ought the public do to care about the identity of the portrait?

  The image has been used since the Victorian era, especially in the United States, as an icon for motherhood, affection for parents, and "family values" in general. For example, in 1934 the U.S. Post office issued a stamp engraved with a stylized image of Whistler's Mother, accompanied by the slogan "In Memory and In Honor of the Mothers of America." Both "Whistler's Mother" and "Thomas Carlyle" were engraved by the English engraver Richard Josey. In the Borough of Ashland, Pennsylvania, an eight-foot high statue based on the painting was erected by the Ashland Boys' Association in 1938 during the Great Depression as a tribute to mothers.

The image has been repeatedly appropriated for commercial advertisements and parodies, such as doctored images of the subject watching a television, and sometimes accompanied by captions such as "Whistler's Mother is Off Her Rocker."

In summing up the painting's influence, author Martha Tedeschi has stated:

Whistler's Mother, Wood's American Gothic, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Edvard Munch's The Scream have all achieved something that most paintings—regardless of their art historical importance, beauty, or monetary value—have not: they communicate a specific meaning almost immediately to almost every viewer. These few works have successfully made the transition from the elite realm of the museum visitor to the enormous venue of popular culture.

Exhibits in American museums
Whistler's Mother has been exhibited several times in the United States. It was shown at the Atlanta Art Association in the fall of 1962,[9] the National Gallery of Art in 1994, and the Detroit Institute of Arts in 2004. It was exhibited at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts from June to September 2006.[citation needed] From May 22 and to September 6, 2010, it was shown at the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco.[citation needed] The painting was exhibited at the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, California, from March 27 to June 22, 2015,  and then at the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Massachusetts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James McNeill Whistler
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Mondrian Piet

Piet Mondrian, original name Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan (born March 7, 1872, Amersfoort, Neth.—died Feb. 1, 1944, New York, N.Y., U.S.), painter who was an important leader in the development of modern abstract art and a major exponent of the Dutch abstract art movement known as De Stijl (“The Style”). In his mature paintings, Mondrian used the simplest combinations of straight lines, right angles, primary colours, and black, white, and gray. The resulting works possess an extreme formal purity that embodies the artist’s spiritual belief in a harmonious cosmos.


Piet Mondrian
  Early life and works
Pieter was the second child of Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan, Sr., who was an amateur draftsman and headmaster of a Calvinist primary school in Amersfoort.

The boy grew up in a stable yet creative environment; his father was part of the Protestant orthodox circle that formed around the conservative Calvinist politician Abraham Kuyper, and his uncle, Frits Mondriaan, belonged to the Hague school of landscape painters. Both uncle and father gave him guidance and instruction when, at age 14, he began to study drawing.

Mondrian was determined to become a painter, but at the insistence of his family he first obtained a degree in education; by 1892 he was qualified to teach drawing in secondary schools. That same year, instead of looking for a teaching position, he took painting lessons from a painter in a small town not far from Winterswijk, where his family resided, and then moved to Amsterdam to register at the Rijksacademie.

He became a member of the art society Kunstliefde (“Art Lovers”) in Utrecht, where his first paintings were exhibited in 1893, and in the following year he joined the two local artist societies in Amsterdam.

During this period he continued to attend evening courses at the academy for drawing, impressing his professors with his self-discipline and effort. In 1897 he exhibited a second time.

Up to the turn of the century, Mondrian’s paintings followed the prevailing trends of art in the Netherlands: landscape and still-life subjects chosen from the meadows and polders around Amsterdam, which he depicted using subdued hues and picturesque lighting effects. In 1903 he visited a friend in Brabant (Belgium), where the calm beauty and clean lines of the landscape proved to be an important influence on him. When he stayed on in Brabant the following year, he experienced a period of personal and artistic discovery; by the time he returned to Amsterdam in 1905, his art had visibly changed. The landscapes he began to paint of the surroundings of Amsterdam, mainly of the Gein River, show a pronounced rhythmic framework and lean more toward compositional structure than toward the traditional picturesque values of light and shade. This vision of harmony and rhythm, achieved through line and colour, would develop toward abstraction in later years, but during this period his painting still remained more or less within the traditional boundaries of contemporary Dutch art.

Piet Mondrian. Self-portrait

  Influence of Post-Impressionists and Luminists
In 1907 Amsterdam sponsored the Quadrennial Exhibition, featuring such painters as Kees van Dongen, Otto van Rees, and Jan Sluijters, who were Post-Impressionists using pure colours in bold, nonliteral ways. Their work was strongly influenced by the forceful expression and use of colour in the art of Post-Impressionist Vincent van Gogh, whose work had been featured in a large exhibition in Amsterdam in 1905. Such daring use of colour was reflected in Mondrian’s Red Cloud, a rapidly executed sketch from 1907. By the time he painted Woods near Oele in 1908, new values began to appear in his work, including a linear movement that was somewhat reminiscent of the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch and a colour scheme—based on hues of yellow, orange, blue, violet, and red—that was suggestive of the palette of contemporary German Expressionist painters. With this vigorous painting of considerable size, Mondrian broke away from the national tradition of Dutch painting.

His new style was reinforced by his acquaintance with the Dutch artist Jan Toorop, who led the Dutch Luminist movement, an offshoot of French Neo-Impressionism. The Luminists, like the Neo-Impressionists, rendered light through a series of dots or short lines of primary colours.

Mondrian concentrated on this use of colour and limited his palette to the primary hues: he proved his mastery of this evocation of strong, radiant sunshine in paintings such as Windmill in Sunlight (1908), executed mainly in yellow, red, and blue. But he moved beyond the tenets of the movement and expressed visual concerns that would remain constant in his oeuvre. In a painting such as The Red Tree, also dated from 1908, he expressed his own vision of nature by creating a balance between the contrasting hues of red and blue and between the violent movement of the tree and the blue sky, thus producing a sense of equilibrium, which would remain his prevailing aim in representing nature. In 1909 Mondrian’s Luminist works were exhibited in a large group show at Amsterdam’s Stedelijk Museum, which firmly established him as part of the Dutch avant-garde.

That year was important for Mondrian’s career from another point of view: in May he joined the Theosophical Society, a group that believed in a harmonious cosmos in which spirit and matter are united. Inspired by these ideas, Mondrian began to free the objects depicted in his paintings from naturalistic representation: these objects became formal components of the overall harmony of his paintings, or, in other words, the material elements began to merge with the overall spiritual message of his work. He concentrated on depicting large forms in nature, such as the lighthouse in Westcapelle. In Evolution (1910–11), a triptych of three standing human figures, the human figure and architectural subjects look surprisingly similar, thus stressing Mondrian’s move toward a painting grounded more in forms and visual rhythms than in nature. In 1910 Mondrian’s Luminist works attracted considerable attention at the St. Lucas Exhibition in Amsterdam. The next year he submitted one of his more abstract paintings to the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, his first bid for international recognition.

Cubist period in Paris
Concurrent with the spiritual influence of theosophy was Mondrian’s exposure to new visual ideas. Dutch artists were increasingly aware of the radical work of Paul Cézanne and of the Cubist painters. The Dutch avant-garde began to call for new standards in their national art that would incorporate such trends and move beyond traditional landscape painting. Active in avant-garde circles, Mondrian was very influenced by these ideas. In 1911 he saw for the first time the early Cubist works of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. He was profoundly impressed, so much so that early in 1912 he moved to Paris, where he settled in the Montparnasse district.

Almost immediately he began to adapt the precepts of Cubism to his own use, as evidenced in two versions of Still Life with Gingerpot, done during the winter months of 1911–12. In the first version, the objects are rendered as recognizable forms from everyday life; in the second, he transformed the same objects into compositional structures, taking his drive toward abstraction further than he ever had before. Mondrian’s Cubist period lasted from 1912 to 1917. His compositions of trees, architectural facades, and scaffoldings during this period are proof of his urge to reduce individual forms to a general formula. Mondrian kept somewhat within the boundaries of Cubism by utilizing the Cubists’ limited colour palette of ochre, brown, and gray, so as not to distract from form, and by painting large blocks of colour. He also observed the Cubist scheme of composition, in which geometric divisions are used and the painting gravitates toward a central focus, leaving the corners of the canvas almost untouched; the result of this scheme was his series of oval compositions.

Piet Mondrian. Composizione ovale con colori chiari
But in an attempt to reduce the elements of his composition even further, Mondrian avoided curved lines and diagonal accents and increasingly used only vertical and horizontal lines. He went beyond Analytical Cubism’s tendency to break individual objects into their component parts by instead striving for a vision of reality that surpassed depicting the individual object altogether: from 1913 onward his style began its evolution toward total abstraction.

In the summer of 1914 Mondrian returned to the Netherlands to visit his father, who was seriously ill, and the outbreak of World War I prevented him from returning to Paris. He settled at Laren, where he became acquainted with M.H.J. Schoenmaekers, a theosophical philosopher whose works on the symbolical meaning of lines and on the mathematical construction of the universe had a decisive influence on Mondrian’s vision of painting. In his work, the artist had long been moving toward seeing the canvas as a site of spiritual awakening for the viewer; this achieved theosophy’s goal of bringing about a state of heightened consciousness during the experience of everyday life. With the ideas of Schoenmaekers, he now had a distinct set of graphic rules, closely related to his own developing formal vocabulary, through which he could achieve this goal of merging art and life. These discoveries pushed his Cubist style to its extreme limits, particularly in his painting of the church at Domburg and in a new theme, captured in a series of works known as Pier and Ocean. The ultimate version of this theme, completed in 1917 and shown at the Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, marks the final stage of his Cubist style: an oval painting composed of black vertical and horizontal line fragments on a white background.

The birth of De Stijl
Continuing these radical developments, in 1917 Mondrian and three other painters—Theo van Doesburg, Bart van der Leck, and Vilmos Huszar—founded the art periodical and the movement of De Stijl. The group advocated the complete rejection of visually perceived reality as subject matter and the restriction of a pictorial language to its most basic elements of the straight line, primary colours, and the neutrals of black, white, and gray. In the movement’s journal, De Stijl, Mondrian essentially laid out all his visual theories; because he contributed so extensively to the first issues of the journal, the early style of De Stijl has become synonymous with his own (in later years the movement was more a reflection of the ideas of van Doesburg, the true leader of the movement). The scope of this new style of line and colour, for which Mondrian coined the name neoplasticism, was to free the work of art from representing a momentary visual perception and from being guided by the personal temperament of the artist. The vision that Mondrian had moved toward for so long now seemed to be within reach: he could now render “a true vision of reality” in his painting, which meant deriving a composition not from a fragment of reality but rather from an overall abstract view of the harmony of the universe. A painting no longer had to begin from an abstracted view of nature; rather, a painting could emerge out of purely abstract rules of geometry and colour, since he found that this was the most effective language through which to convey his spiritual message. Mondrian’s first neoplastic paintings were composed of rectangles in soft hues of primary colours painted on a white background with no use of line. His compositions were based on colour and appear to expand over the borders of the canvas into space beyond the picture.
Piet Mondrian. Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and Blue
In 1918 he reintroduced lines into his painting, linking the colour planes to one another and to the background by a series of black vertical and horizontal strips, thus creating rectangles of colour or noncolour. In 1918 and 1919 he executed a series of rhomboid compositions, subdivided into a pattern of regular squares differentiated by thick black lines and by soft hues of ochre, gray, and rose. Also in 1919, he created two versions of a checkerboard composition, one in dark and one in light colours, in which the difference of the hues transforms this common pattern into a rhythmic sequence of squares, which play off each other to suggest vibrancy and movement. The titles of his works reflect this move to pure abstraction: whereas his earlier work had titles invoking the abstracted elements of nature or architecture depicted, his work during this period generally had titles such as Composition with Gray, Red, Yellow, and Black (c. 1920–26) and Diagonal Composition (1921). He returned to Paris in 1919, but he retained his close collaboration with De Stijl. By publishing his theories in the booklet Le Néo-plasticisme in Paris in 1920, Mondrian began to spread his ideas throughout Europe.
Later years
Some of Mondrian’s friends organized an exhibition of his works at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam on the occasion of his 50th birthday. It was a retrospective progression of his paintings, tracing the path from his beginnings in the Dutch traditional style to his abstract paintings, firmly establishing the artist’s pivotal role in the international art world’s move toward abstraction. He had reached his goal, but he did not stand still: he continued to explore the relationship between lines and blocks of colour, achieving an ever-increasing purity in his paintings.

Although he did not exhibit frequently and rarely held a one-man show, in the early 1930s he became affiliated with Cercle et Carré and with Abstraction-Création, both of which were influential international groups of artists who promoted and exhibited abstract art. In 1934 he met the American artist Harry Holtzman and the English painter Ben Nicholson. Nicholson urged him to publish his essay “Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art,” Mondrian’s first essay in English, in the international publication Circle, of which Nicholson was coeditor.

In this way, Mondrian’s ideas continued to gain an even broader audience. When Mondrian decided to leave Paris in 1938, under the shadow of the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler, he was welcomed in London by members of the Circle group. For two years he worked and lived in a London suburb, but the bombardment of the city forced him to flee to New York City in 1940, where he was welcomed by Holtzman, the art collector Peggy Guggenheim, art critic and museum director James Johnson Sweeney, and other members of the American artistic vanguard.

Piet Mondrian and Pétro (Nelly) van Doesburg in Mondrian's Paris studio, 1923
There, Mondrian’s style entered its last phase. Throughout the 1930s, Mondrian’s work had become increasingly severe. Inspired by his regained freedom, New York City’s pulsating life, and the new rhythms of American music, after 1940 he broke away first from the austere patterns of black lines, replacing them with coloured bands. Then, in place of the continuous flow of these bands, he substituted a series of small rectangles that coalesced into a rhythmic flow of colourful vertical and horizontal lines. His late masterpieces—New York City I and Broadway Boogie Woogie, exhibited in 1943–44, in his first personal exhibition in more than two decades—express this new vivacity through the autonomous, joyous movement of colour blocks. Buoyed by his hope for a better future, Mondrian started his Victory Boogie Woogie in 1942; it remained unfinished when he succumbed to pneumonia in 1944.

Piet Mondrian. Red Tree
The consistent development of Mondrian’s art toward complete abstraction was an outstanding feat in the history of modern art, and his work foreshadowed the rise of abstract art in the 1940s and ’50s. But his art goes beyond merely aesthetic considerations: his search for harmony through his painting has an ethical significance. Rooted in a strict puritan tradition of Dutch Calvinism and inspired by his theosophical beliefs, he continually strove for purity during his long career, a purity best explained by the double meaning of the Dutch word schoon, which means both “clean” and “beautiful.” Mondrian chose the strict and rigid language of straight line and pure colour to produce first of all an extreme purity, and on another level, a Utopia of superb clarity and force. When, in 1920, Mondrian dedicated Le Néo-plasticisme to “future men,” his dedication implied that art can be a guide to humanity, that it can move beyond depicting the casual, arbitrary facts of everyday appearance and substitute in its place a new, harmonious view of life.

Hans L.C. Jaffé

Encyclopædia Britannica


Piet Mondrian
  Art of the 20th century

Art of the 20th century Timeline (1900-1999)
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley, in full Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (born August 21, 1872, Brighton, Sussex, England—died March 16, 1898, Menton, France), the leading English illustrator of the 1890s and, after Oscar Wilde, the outstanding figure in the Aestheticism movement.

Aubrey Beardsley, 1895
  Drawing was a strong interest from early childhood, and Beardsley practiced it while earning his living as a clerk. Beardsley’s meeting with the English artist Sir Edward Burne-Jones in 1891 prompted him to attend evening classes at the Westminster School of Art for a few months, his only professional instruction.

In 1893 Beardsley was commissioned to illustrate a new edition of Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur, and in 1894 he was appointed art editor and illustrator of a new quarterly, The Yellow Book. His illustrations (1894) for Oscar Wilde’s play Salomé won him widespread notoriety. He was greatly influenced by the elegant, curvilinear style of Art Nouveau and the bold sense of design found in Japanese woodcuts. But what startled his critics and the public alike was the obvious sensuality of the women in his drawings, which usually contained an element of morbid eroticism. This tendency became pronounced in his openly licentious illustrations (1896) for Aristophanes’ Lysistrata.

Although Beardsley was not homosexual, he was dismissed from The Yellow Book as part of the general revulsion against Aestheticism that followed the scandal surrounding Wilde in 1895. He then became principal illustrator of another new magazine, The Savoy, and he illustrated numerous books, including in 1896 Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock. During this period he also wrote some poems and a prose parody, Under the Hill (1903; the original, unexpurgated version, The Story of Venus and Tannhauser, appeared in 1907).


Delicate in health from the age of six, when he first contracted tuberculosis, Beardsley again fell victim to the disease when he was 17. From 1896 he was an invalid. In 1897, after being received into the Roman Catholic church, he went to live in France, where he died at age 25. His work has enjoyed periodic revivals, most notably during the 1960s.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Aubrey Beardsley. How Sir Launcelot Was Known by Dame Elaine


Aubrey Beardsley
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Buying in bulk gives the dealer Durand-Ruel the opportunity to purchase works by Degas, Manet, Renoir and Sisley relatively cheaply. This year he also mounts the first exhibitions of Impressionist work to be held in London, though these are not a commercial success.
Sisley stays with Monet at Argenteuil.

Durand-Ruel buys three works from Degas, his first purchase of the artist's work. He also buys twenty-four paintings from Manet for 35,000 francs.

The Square at Argenteuil

This is one of four works that Sisley painted while staying with Monet. The artist uses perspective to lead the eye into the composition, in the background of which appears the tower of the church of Notre-Dame.

4th Cezanne has an illegitimate son, Paul, by Hortense Fiquet and conceals the fact from his father.


12th Durand-Ruel buys his first painting by Sisley. Two days later he also buys his first painting by Renoir, The Pont des Arts, for 200 francs.


12th Renoir's former model Lise Trehot marries the architect George Briere de I'Isle.

29th The singer and collector Jean-Bap tiste Faure sells forty-two Impressionist paintings at auction. Prices are very low, Manet's Pulcinello attracting the highest bid at 2000 francs. Many of the paintings are withdrawn, since they fail to reach their reserves.


1st Opening of the Salon.

Renoir's Parisian Women in Algerian Dress is rejected. Manet's The Battle of the 'Kearsage' and the 'Alabama', on loan from Durand-Ruel (who had bought it in January for 3000 francs), is hung. Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt each have two works accepted. Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley do not submit.


4th The fourth exhibition of Durand-Ruel's Society of French Artists opens in London, including work by Degas, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley.

18th Cezanne, Manet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley and others sign a petition demanding another Salon des Refuses.

25th During one of his regular visits to Holland, Manet visits the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem, where he is greatly impressed by the Vermeers.

Berthe Morisot visits Spain, then stays with her married sister Edma in Maurecourt.

Berthe Morisot

In 1872 Manet painted a portrait of Morisot which was highly praised by Mallarme. Subsequently he produced two lithographs and an etching of her. In this lithograph Manet has emphasized the tonal contrast between Morisot's skin and clothes.

Sisley working in Villeneuve-la-Garonne.
Pissarro moves to the rue de l'Hermitage in Pontoise, where he is joined by Cezanne.


12th Degas and his brother set sail for America on the Scotia. They arrive in New York on October 24th, then go on to New Orleans.


2nd The fifth exhibition of Durand-Ruel's Society of French Artists opens in London. It includes work by Degas, Manet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley.

19th In a letter to Tissot from New Orleans, Degas relates the pleasures of family life and the problems of painting family portraits.

26th Sisley gives Pissarro one of his pictures.
He also suggests organizing a dinner for Durand-Ruel (there is, however, no record of the dinner taking place).

The Seine bursts its banks. Sisley paints his first series of 'flood paintings' at Marly.
Paul Durand-Ruel
Paul Durand-Ruel (31 October 1831, Paris – 5 February 1922, Paris) was a French art dealer who is associated with the Impressionists. He was one of the first modern art dealers who provided support to his painters with stipends and solo exhibitions.

Early life

Born Paul-Marie-Joseph Durand-Ruel in Paris, his father was a picture dealer. In 1865 young Paul took over the family business, which represented artists such as Corot and the Barbizon school of French landscape painting. In 1867 he moved his gallery from 1 rue de la Paix, Paris, to 16 rue Laffitte, with a branch at 111 rue Le Peletier. During the 1860s and early 1870s Paul Durand-Ruel was an important advocate and successful art dealer of the Barbizon School. However Durand-Ruel soon established a relationship with a group of painters who would become known as the Impressionists.

During the Franco-Prussian War, of 1870–71, Paul Durand-Ruel left Paris and escaped to London, where he met up with a number of French artists including Charles-François Daubigny, Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro.[2] In December 1870 he opened the first of ten Annual Exhibitions of the Society of French Artists at his new London gallery at 168 New Bond Street, under the management of Charles Deschamps.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Paul Durand-Ruel

He recognized the artistic and fashionable potential of Impressionism as early as 1870, and his first major exhibition of their work took place at his London gallery in 1872. Eventually Durand-Ruel had exhibitions of Impressionism and other works (including the expatriate American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler who lived in London), at his Paris and London galleries. He also brought their work to New York, doing much to establish the popularity of Impressionist art in the United States.

During the final three decades of the 19th century Paul Durand-Ruel became the best known art dealer and most important commercial advocate of French Impressionism in the world. He succeeded in establishing the market for Impressionism in the United States as well as in Europe. Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, are among the important Impressionist artists that Durand-Ruel helped to establish. He represented many lesser known artists including Maxime Dethomas or Hugues Merle amongst others.

Regarding the Americans’ open-mindedness towards impressionism, Durand-Ruel once said, "The American public does not laugh. It buys!"

Durand-Ruel had an intense rivalry with Parisian art dealer Georges Petit (1856–1920).



What do you say to the heading? It is the firm's note paper. Here one speaks of nothing but cotton and exchange. Why do you not speak to me of other things? You do not write to me. What impression did my dance picture [exhibited by Durand-Ruel in London] make on you and the others? Were you able to help in selling it? And the one of the family at the races, what is happening to that? Oh, how far from everything one is.

Excellent journey. Mew York has some charming spots. We spent scarcely two days there. What a degree of civilization! Steamers coming from Europe arrive like omnibuses at a station. We pass carnages, even trains on the water. It's like England in her best mood.

After four days on the train, we arrived in New Orleans. You cannot imagine a wagon-lit 'sliping car' [sic]. A real dormitory. Behind curtains one can undress down to one's vest, if one wants to, and then climb into a proper, well-made bed. Everything is done simply and, except for some details of taste, one says to oneself. 'It's true, just what I needed.'

Children on a Doorstep
(New Orleans)

Degas began this work three weeks after his arrival in New Orleans, and in a letter to Tissot a (right) mentioned the difficulties he found in persuading the children to pose. The painting went virtually unnoticed when shown at the second Impressionist exhibition.

Villas with columns in different styles, painted white, in gardens of magnolias, orange trees, banana trees, negroes in old clothes like the junk from La Jardiniere [a junk shop in Paris] or Marseilles, rosy white children in black arms, charabancs or omnibuses drawn by mules, the tall funnels of the steamboats towering at the end of the main street, that is a bit of local colour, with a brilliant light at which my eyes complain.

Everything is beautiful in this world of the people, but one Paris laundry girl with bare arms is worth it all for such a confirmed Parisian as I am. The right way is to concentrate, and one can only do that by seeing little. I am doing some family portraits, but the big thing will be when I come back.

Rene [the artist's brother] has superb children, an excellent wife, she scarcely seems blind, though her case is almost hopeless, and he has a good position in business. He is happy, and it is his country, even more perhaps than France.
You with your fantastic energy would be able to extract money from this crowd of stockbrokers and cotton dealers. I shall make no attempt to earn money here.

Madame Rene de Gas

Degas painted several portraits of his family while staying in New Orleans. His brother Rene had married his cousin, the young, blind widow Estelle Balfour. When this work was painted she was heavily pregnant with her fourth child, Jeanne, to whom Degas became godfather.

I hope this letter crosses one from you. Did you get my photographs? Here I have acquired the taste for money, and once back I shall know how to earn some, I promise you.

If you see Millais, tell him I'm very sorry to have missed him, and tell him how much I appreciate him. Remember me to young Deschamps, to Legros, to Whistler, who has really struck a truly personal note in that finely balanced power of expression, a mysterious mingling of land and water.

I have not yet written to Manet, and naturally, he has not sent me a line. The arrival of the mail in the morning really excites me. Nothing is more difficult than doing family portraits. To make a cousin sit for you when she is nursing a brat of two months is quite hard work. To get young children to pose on the steps is another job of work which doubles the fatigues of the first. It is the art of giving pleasure, and one must look the part.
A good family! It really is a good thing to be married, to have fine children, to be free of the necessity of always being gallant. I must say it's time one thought about it.
Good-bye. Write to me. I shall not leave the country before the middle of January.

LETTER TO TISSOT, November 19th, 1872
In the early 1870s. thanks to Durand-Ruel, whose gallery showed works by Monet and Pissarro and later by Degas, Renoir and Sisley, Londoners had an opportunity to see Impressionist works before Impressionism was recognizable as a movement. But at first Durand-Ruel appears to have made no sales to British buyers - who seem to have felt little sympathy for the Impressionists' paintings, despite the fact that these owed a great deal to the landscape traditions of Turner and Constable. Nor were collectors willing to offer much for them, even though they were prepared to pay huge sums for paintings by living British artists (Alma-Tadema's Roman Picture Gallery, for example, fetched -£10,000 and Holman-Hunt's The Shadow of the Cross sold for -£11,000).

Probably the first British collector to purchase works by the Impressionists was Henry Hill of Marine Parade, Brighton, to whom Durand-Ruel sold 'five or six very fine pictures' by Degas before he closed his New Bond Street Gallery in 1875. After Hill's death these paintings were auctioned at Christie's in 1889 and 1892 ('pour rien', as Durand-Rucl ruefully remarked), which constituted the first appearance of the Impressionists in the London salerooms.
In 1881 the Greek-born stockbroker Constantine Alexander Ionides bought Degas' The Ballet from 'Robert le
, which had been commissioned by Faure and is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. But in the following years only a few individuals ventured to buy these 'dangerous' new paintings, and even then only on a small scale.

The Ballet from 'Robert le Diable'

This, the second version of Robert к Diable, was commissioned by Faure in 1874. The subject, the most famous scene from an opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, was close to the singer's heart as the composer was Faurc's mentor and friend. Those portrayed include: Desire Dihau, musician (third from the left); Albert Hecht, collector and close friend of Degas (far left with opera glasses): and Ludovic Lepic, painter and engraver (the bearded figure in profile, second from the right).

Sickert bought four or five works by Degas at the Hill sale, but had to sell them on his divorce; Arthur Kay, who had studied art in Paris, bought one of Monet's Haystacks in 1892 for £200; and in the same year an otherwise unknown Mr Burke of London bought two pictures by Pissarro, followed by two Sisleys in 1893 and a Degas in 1898.

The writer George Moore assembled a small collection of relatively minor works by Manet, Monet and Berthc Morisot, and also persuaded his friend Lord Grimthorpe to buy several Impressionist works. Grimthorpe's collection was sold at Christie's on May 12th, 1906, achieving the following amounts: Degas' Dancer with a Tambourine, 35 guineas; Sisley's View on the Seine, 160 guineas; Monet's The Hospice Lighthouse, 195 guineas; Manet's Young Girl with a White Cravat, 245 guineas; and a pastel by Manet, Lady with a Fan, 17 guineas. It is interesting to note that only twelve years later, when the pictures of another of Moore's friends, Sir William Eden, were sold at the same auction rooms, Degas' pastel Tfie Dancer fetched 2000 guineas and The Laundresses 2300 guineas.

Up to the time of Durand-Ruel's magnificent exhibition at the Grafton Galleries in 1905, British collectors had bought only fifty Impressionist paintings - whereas their American counterparts had amassed about 200. Sales at the exhibition itself were disappointing: of the 312 paintings on show. Durand-Ruel only sold about ten. However, one of the buyers was Mr (later Sir) Hugh Lane, who was anxious to acquire a collection of modern French pictures in order to found a gallery of modern art in Dublin; and either then or shortly afterwards he bought a remarkable group of Impressionist paintings, including Manet's Music in the Tuileries Gardens and Portrait of Eva Goniales, Monet's Vetheuil, Renoir's Umbrellas and Pissarro's Spring in Louveciennes. When Lane perished in the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, his pictures were on loan to the National Gallery in London but had been relegated to the cellars. There they remained until 1917, when they became the subject of prolonged litigation between the national galleries of England and Ireland due to the ambiguous wording of Lane's will.


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Scriabin Alexander
Aleksandr Scriabin, in full Aleksandr Nikolayevich Scriabin, Scriabin also spelled Skriabin, or Skryabin (born Dec. 25, 1871 [Jan. 6, 1872, New Style], Moscow, Russia—died April 14 [April 27], 1915, Moscow), Russian composer of piano and orchestral music noted for its unusual harmonies through which the composer sought to explore musical symbolism.

Aleksandr Scriabin
  Scriabin was trained as a soldier at the Moscow Cadet School from 1882 to 1889 but studied music at the same time and took piano lessons. In 1888 he entered the Moscow Conservatory, where he studied the piano with V.I. Safonov and composition with Sergey Taneyev and Anton Arensky. By 1892, when he graduated from the conservatory, he had composed the piano pieces that constitute his opuses 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7. In 1897 he married the pianist Vera Isakovich and from 1898 until 1903 taught at the Moscow Conservatory.

He then devoted himself entirely to composition and in 1904 settled in Switzerland. After 1900 he was much preoccupied with mystical philosophy, and his Symphony No. 1, composed in that year, has a choral finale, to his own words, glorifying art as a form of religion. In Switzerland he completed his Symphony No. 3, first performed under Arthur Nikisch in Paris in 1905. The literary “program” of this work, devised by Tatiana Schloezer, with whom he had formed a relationship after abandoning his wife, was said to represent “the evolution of the human spirit from pantheism to unity with the universe.” Theosophical ideas similarly provided the basis of the orchestral Poem of Ecstasy (1908) and Prometheus (1911), which called for the projection of colours onto a screen during the performance.

From 1906 to 1907 Scriabin toured the United States, where he gave concerts with Safonov and the conductor Modest Altschuler, and in 1908 he frequented theosophical circles in Brussels. In 1909 he was encouraged by the conductor Serge Koussevitzky, who both performed and published his works, to return to Russia. By then he was no longer thinking in terms of music alone; he was looking forward to an all-embracing “Mystery.” This work was planned to open with a “liturgical act” in which music, poetry, dancing, colours, and scents were to unite to induce in the worshipers a “supreme, final ecstasy.” He wrote the poem of the “Preliminary Action” of the “Mystery” but left only sketches for the music.

Scriabin’s reputation stems from his grandiose symphonies and his sensitive, exquisitely polished piano music. His piano works include 10 sonatas (1892–1913), an early concerto, and many preludes and other short pieces. Although Scriabin was an idolater of Frédéric Chopin in his youth, he early developed a personal style. As his thought became more and more mystical, egocentric, and ingrown, his harmonic style became ever less generally intelligible. Meaningful analysis of his work only began appearing in the 1960s, and yet his music had always attracted a devoted following among modernists.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Scriabin - Etudes
Sviatoslav Richter plays Scriabin - Etudes
00:00 - Op.2/1
02:56 - Op.8/5
05:19 - Op.8/11
09:37 - Op.42/2
10:35 - Op.42/3
11:13 - Op.42/4
13:51 - Op.42/5
16:24 - Op.42/6
18:21 - Op.42/8
20:14 - Op.65/1
23:03 - Op.65/2
25:13 - Op.65/3
Alexander Scriabin
  Classical Music Timeline

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Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Williams Vaughan

Ralph Vaughan Williams, (born October 12, 1872, Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, England—died August 26, 1958, London, England), English composer in the first half of the 20th century, founder of the nationalist movement in English music.


Ralph Vaughan Williams

  Vaughan Williams studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, and in London at the Royal College of Music under two major figures of the late 19th-century renaissance of English music, Sir Charles Stanford and Sir Hubert Parry. In 1897–98 he studied in Berlin under the noted composer Max Bruch and in 1909 in Paris under Maurice Ravel. About 1903 he began to collect folk songs, and in 1904–06 he was musical editor of The English Hymnal, for which he wrote his celebrated “Sine Nomine” (“For All the Saints”). After artillery service in World War I, he became professor of composition at the Royal College of Music.

His studies of English folk song and his interest in English music of the Tudor period fertilized his talent, enabling him to incorporate modal elements (i.e., based on folk song and medieval scales) and rhythmic freedom into a musical style at once highly personal and deeply English.

Vaughan Williams’s compositions include orchestral, stage, chamber, and vocal works. His three Norfolk Rhapsodies (numbers 2 and 3 later withdrawn), notably the first in E minor (first performed, 1906), were the first works to show his assimilation of folk song contours into a distinctive melodic and harmonic style. 

His nine symphonies cover a vast expressive range. Especially popular are the second, A London Symphony (1914; rewritten 1915; rev. 1918, 1920, 1934), and the seventh, Sinfonia Antartica (1953), an adaptation of his music for the film Scott of the Antarctic (1949). Other orchestral works include the Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1910); concerti for piano (later arranged for two pianos and orchestra), oboe, and tuba; and the Romance for harmonica and orchestra (1952).

Of his stage works, The Pilgrim’s Progress (1951) and Job (1931), a masque for dancing, reflect his serious, mystical side. Hugh the Drover (1924), a ballad opera, stems from his folk song interest. Riders to the Sea (1937) is a poignant setting of John Millington Synge’s play.

Ralph Vaughan Williams
  He wrote many songs of great beauty, including On Wenlock Edge (1909), set to poems of A.E. Housman and consisting of a cycle for tenor, string quartet, and piano (later arranged for tenor and orchestra) and Five Mystical Songs (1911), set to poems of George Herbert.

Particularly notable among his choral works are the Mass in G Minor, the cantatas Toward the Unknown Region (1907) and Dona Nobis Pacem (1936; Grant Us Peace), and the oratorio Sancta Civitas (1926; The Holy City). He also wrote many part-songs, as well as hymn and folk song settings.

Vaughan Williams broke the ties with continental Europe that for two centuries through George Frideric Handel, Felix Mendelssohn, and lesser German composers had made Britain virtually a musical province of Germany.

Although his predecessors in the English musical renascence, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Hubert Parry, and Sir Charles Stanford, remained within the Continental tradition, Vaughan Williams, like such nationalist composers as the Russian Modest Mussorgsky, the Czech Bedřich Smetana, and the Spanish Manuel de Falla, turned to folk song as a wellspring of native musical style.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
for Double Stringed Orchestra

David Nolan, Leader
London Philharmonic Orchestra
Bryden Thomson

Vaughan Williams
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