Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1871 Part III NEXT-1872 Part I    
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
History at a Glance
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
1870 Part IV
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
Ebert Friedrich
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
Impressionism Timeline
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell

Artist's rendering of the fire, by John R. Chapin, originally printed in Harper's Weekly;
the view faces northeast across the Randolph Street Bridge.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1871 Part IV
George A. Schweinfurth, German traveler in Africa (discovered pygmies)
Schweinfurth Georg August

Georg August Schweinfurth (December 29, 1836 – September 19, 1925) was a Baltic German botanist, traveller in East Central Africa and ethnologist.


Georg August Schweinfurth
  He was born at Riga, Latvia, then part of the Russian Empire. He was educated at the universities of Heidelberg, Munich and Berlin (1856–1862), where he particularly devoted himself to botany and palaeontology.
Commissioned to arrange the collections brought from the Sudan by Freiherr von Barnim and Dr Hartmann, his attention was directed to that region; and in 1863 he travelled round the shores of the Red Sea, repeatedly traversed the district between that sea and the Nile, passed on to Khartoum, and returned to Europe in 1866.

His researches attracted so much attention that in 1868 the Humboldt-Stiftung of Berlin entrusted him with an important scientific mission to the interior of East Africa. Starting from Khartoum in January 1869, he went up the White Nile to Bahr-el-Ghazal, and then, with a party of ivory dealers, through the regions inhabited by the Diur (Dyoor), Dinka, Bongo and Niam-Niam; crossing the Congo-Nile watershed he entered the country of the Mangbetu (Monbuttu) and discovered the river Uele (March 19, 1870), which by its westward flow he knew was independent of the Nile. Schweinfurth formed the conclusion that it belonged to the Chad system, and it was several years before its connection with the Congo was demonstrated.

The discovery of the Uele was Schweinfurth's greatest geographical achievement, though he did much to elucidate the hydrography of the Bahr-el-Ghazal system. Of greater importance were the very considerable additions he made to the knowledge of the inhabitants and of the flora and fauna of Central Africa.

He described in detail the cannibalistic practices of the Mangbetu, and his discovery of the pygmy Akka settled conclusively the question as to the existence of dwarf races in tropical Africa. Unfortunately nearly all his collections made up to that date were destroyed by a fire in his camp in December 1870. He returned to Khartoum in July 1871 and published an account of the expedition, under the title of Im Herzen von Afrika (Leipzig, 1874; English edition, The Heart of Africa, 1873, new ed. 1878).

In 1873-1874 he accompanied Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs in his expedition into the Libyan Desert. Settling at Cairo in 1875, he founded a geographical society, under the auspices of the khedive Ismail, and devoted himself almost exclusively to African studies, historical and ethnographical. In 1876 he penetrated into the Arabian Desert with Paul Güssfeldt, and continued his explorations therein at intervals until 1888, and during the same period made geological and botanical investigations in the Fayum, in the valley of the Nile. In 1889 he removed to Berlin; but he visited the Italian colony of Eritrea in 1891, 1892 and 1894. Schweinfurth died in Berlin.

The accounts of all his travels and researches have appeared either in book or pamphlet form or in periodicals, such as Petermanns Mitteilungen, the Zeitschrift für Erdkunde. Among his works may be mentioned Artes Africanae; Illustrations and Descriptions of Productions of the Industrial Arts of Central African Tribes (1875).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
see also: The Desert

Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth


The Heart of Africa by George Schweinfurth, 1873

Extracts from The Heart of Africa

The most important weapon of the Dinka is the lance. Bows and arrows are unknown: the instruments that some travellers have mistaken for bows are only weapons of defence for parrying the blows of clubs. But really their favourite weapons are clubs and sticks, which they cut out of the hard wood of the Hegelig (Balanites), or from the native ebony (Diospyrus mespiliformis). This mode of defence is ridiculed by other nations, and the Niam-niam, with whom the Dinka have become acquainted by accompanying the Khartoomers in their ivory expeditions, deride them as 'A-Tagbondo' or stick-people.

Similar conditions of life in different regions, even among dissimilar races, ever produce similar habits and tendencies. This is manifest in the numerous customs that the Dinka possess in common with the far-off Kaffirs. They have the same predilection for clubs and sticks, and use a shield of the same long oval form, cut out of buffalo-hide, and which, in order to insure a firmer hold, is crossed by a stick, secured by being passed through slips cut in the thick leather. But the instruments for parrying club-blows depicted in the accompanying illustration are quite peculiar to the Dinka. As far as I know, no previous traveller has drawn attention to these strange contrivances for defence. They are of two kinds. One consists of a neatly-carved piece of wood, rather more than a yard long, with a hollow in the centre for the protection of the hand: these are called 'quayre'. The other, which has been mistaken for a bow, is termed 'dang' of which the substantial fibres seem peculiarly fitted for breaking the violence of any blow...

Text from Vol 1, p.53-54; image from Vol 1, p.51

Niam-Niam warriors. From "Au coeur de l'Afrique:
trois ans de voyages et d'aventures dans les régions
inexplorées de l'Afrique centrale",
by George Schweinfurth in Le Tour du Monde, 1874

Extracts from The Naim-naim Warriors

...The name Niam-niam is borrowed from the dialect of the Dinka, and means 'eaters' or rather 'great eaters', manifestly betokening a reference to the cannibal propensities of the people. This designation has been so universally incorporated into the Arabic of the Soudan, that it seems inadvisable to substitute for it the word 'Zandey', the name by which the people are known amongst themselves...

...The principal weapons of the Niam-niam are their lances and their trumbashes. The word 'trumbash' which has been incorporated into the Arabic of the Soudan, is the term employed in Sennaar to denote generally all the varieties of missiles that are used by the negro races; it should, however, properly be applied solely to that sharp flat projectile of wood, a kind of boomerang, which is used for killing birds or hares, or any small game: when the weapon is made of iron, it is called 'kulbeda'. The trumbash of the Niam-niam consists ordinarily of several limbs of iron, with pointed prongs and sharp edges. Iron missiles very similar in their shape are found among the tribes of the Tsad basin; and a weapon constructed on the same principle, the 'changer manger' is in use among the Marghy and the Musgoo.

The trumbashes are always attached to the inside of the shields, which are woven from the Spanish reed, and are of long oval form, covering two-thirds of the body; they are ornamented with black and white crosses or other devices, and are so light that they do not in the least impede the combatants in their wild leaps. An expert Niam-niam, by jumping up for a moment, can protect his feet from the flying missiles of his adversary. Bows and arrows, which, as handled by the Bongo, give them a certain advantage, are not in common use among the Niam-niam, who possess a peculiar weapon of attack in their singular knives, that have blades like sickles. The Monbuttoo, who are far more skilful smiths than the Niam-niam, supply them with most of these weapons, receiving in return a heavy kind of lance, that is adapted for the elephant and buffalo chase...

...Notwithstanding the general warlike spirit displayed by the Niam-niam, it is a singular fact that the chieftains very rarely lead their own people into actual engagement, but are accustomed, in anxious suspense, to linger about the environs of the 'mbanga', ready, in the event of tidings of defeat, to decamp with their wives and treasures into the most inaccessible swamps, or to betake themselves for concealment to the long grass of the steppes. In the heat of combat each discharge of lances is accompanied by the loudest and wildest of battle-cries, every man as he hurls his weapon shouting aloud the name of his chief. In the intervals between successive attacks the combatants retire to a safe distance, mounting any eminence that may present itself, or climbing to the summit of the hills of the white ants, which sometimes rise to a height of 12 or 15 feet, they proceed to assail their adversaries, for the hour together, in the most ludicrous manner, with every invective and every epithet of contempt and defiance they can command. During the few days that we were obliged to defend ourselves by an abattis against the attacks of the natives in Wando's southern territory, we had ample opportunity of hearing these accumulated opprobriums. We could hear them vow that the 'Turks' should perish, and that not one of them should quit the country alive; and then we recognised the repeated shout. 'To the caldron [sic] with the Turks!' rising to the eager climax, 'Meat! meat!' It was emphatically announced that there was no intention to do any injury to the white man, because he was a stranger and a newcomer to the land; but I need hardly say that, under the circumstances, I felt little inclination to throw myself upon their mercy...

from The Heart of Africa: Three Years' Travels and Adventures
in the Unexplored Regions of Central Africa from 1868 to 1871,
Vol 1, p.274 et seq.
by Georg August Schweinfurth



Stanley Henry

Sir Henry Morton Stanley, original name John Rowlands, Congolese byname Bula Matari (“Breaker of Rocks”) (born January 28, 1841, Denbigh, Denbighshire, Wales—died May 10, 1904, London, England), British American explorer of central Africa, famous for his rescue of the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone and for his discoveries in and development of the Congo region. He was knighted in 1899.


Henry Morton Stanley
  Early life
Stanley’s parents, John Rowlands and Elizabeth Parry, gave birth to him out of wedlock. He grew up partly in the charge of reluctant relatives, partly in St. Asaph Workhouse. Modern research has shown his own account of ill treatment and a dramatic escape to be almost entirely a fantasy.

There seem to have been no extraordinary events attending his departure from the workhouse at age 15, after receiving a reasonable education. The humiliations of institutional life and his mother’s consistent neglect did, however, leave deep marks on his personality. After an interlude of dependence on relatives, he sailed from Liverpool as a cabin boy and landed at New Orleans in 1859.

There Rowlands was befriended by a merchant, Henry Hope Stanley, whose first and last names the boy adopted in an apparent effort to make a fresh start in life with a new identity; “Morton” was added later. Passages in Stanley’s Autobiography concerning this period contain serious misstatements, particularly in regard to the movements of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Hope Stanley and the degree of intimacy that existed between them and young Rowlands.
For some years Stanley led a roving life, as a soldier in the American Civil War, a seaman on merchant ships and in the U.S. Navy, and a journalist in the early days of frontier expansion; he even managed a trip to Turkey, recorded in My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia (1895).

In 1867 Stanley offered his services to James Gordon Bennett of the New York Herald as a special correspondent with the British expeditionary force sent against Tewodros II of Ethiopia, and Stanley was the first to report the fall of Magdala in 1868. An assignment to report on the Spanish Civil War followed, and in 1869 he received instructions to undertake a roving commission in the Middle East, which was to include the relief of Dr. David Livingstone, of whom little had been heard since his departure for Africa in 1866 to search for the source of the Nile.

Stanley and Kalulu, 1872
  Relief of Livingstone David
On January 6, 1871, Stanley reached Zanzibar, the starting point for expeditions to the interior, and, intent on a scoop, left on March 21 without disclosing his intentions. His secretive conduct caused much offense to the authorities, especially to Sir John Kirk, the British consul, who had been having difficulty in making contact with Livingstone. Leading a well-equipped caravan and backed by American money, Stanley forced his way through country disturbed by fighting and stricken by sickness to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, Livingstone’s last known port of call. There he found the old hero, ill and short of supplies, and greeted him with the famous words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” (The exact date of their meeting is unclear, as both men recorded different dates in their journals; according to Stanley, they met on November 10, 1871, while Livingstone’s journal suggests that the event occurred sometime between October 24 and 28.)

A cordial friendship sprang up between the two men, and, when Stanley returned to the coast, he dispatched fresh supplies to enable Livingstone to carry on. The older man’s quest ended a year later with his death in the swamps of Lake Bangweulu, still vainly seeking the Nile in a region that in fact gives rise to the Congo River. How I Found Livingstone was published soon after Stanley’s arrival in England in the late summer of 1872, when the exploits of this hitherto unknown adventurer gave rise to controversy.

Members of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) resented an American journalist having succeeded in relieving the famous traveler when they, his friends, had failed. Stanley did, however, receive the RGS Patron’s Gold Medal. In 1873 Stanley went to Asante (Ashanti; now part of modern Ghana) as war correspondent for the New York Herald and in 1874 published his Coomassie and Magdala: The Story of Two British Campaigns in Africa.

"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" A contemporary illustration.
Henry Morton Stanley, raising his hat at left, meeting
Livingstone David  at Ujiji
(now in Tanzania), 1871.
see also: Explorations of David Livingstone

Henry Morton Stanley, 1884
  Discovery and development of the Congo
When Livingstone died in 1873, Stanley resolved to take up the exploration of Africa where he had left off. The problem of the Nile sources and the nature of the central African lakes had been only partly solved by earlier explorers. Stanley secured financial backing from the New York Herald and the Daily Telegraph of London for an expedition to pursue the quest, and the caravan left Zanzibar on November 12, 1874, heading for Lake Victoria. His visit to King Mutesa I of Buganda led to the admission of Christian missionaries to the area in 1877 and to the eventual establishment of a British protectorate in Uganda. Circumnavigating Lake Victoria, Stanley confirmed the explorer John H. Speke’s estimate of its size and importance.
Skirmishes with suspicious tribespeople on the lakeshore, which resulted in a number of casualties, gave rise in England to criticism of this new kind of traveler with his journalist’s outlook and forceful methods. Lake Tanganyika was next explored and found to have no connection with the Nile system. Stanley and his men pressed on west to the Lualaba River (the very river that Livingstone had hoped was the Nile but that proved to be the headstream of the Congo). There they joined forces with the Arab trader Tippu Tib, who accompanied them for a few laps downriver, then left Stanley to fight his way first to Stanley Pool (now Malebo Pool) and then (partly overland) down to the great cataracts he named Livingstone Falls. Stanley and his men reached the sea on August 12, 1877, after an epic journey described in Through the Dark Continent (1878).
Failing to enlist British interests in the development of the Congo region, Stanley took service with the king of Belgium, Leopold II, whose secret ambition it was to annex the region for himself. From August 1879 to June 1884 Stanley was in the Congo basin, where he built a road from the lower Congo up to Stanley Pool and launched steamers on the upper river. (It is from this period, when Stanley persevered in the face of great difficulties, that he earned, from his men, the nickname of Bula Matari [“Breaker of Rocks”]).

Originally under international auspices, Stanley’s work was to pave the way for the creation of the Congo Free State, under the sovereignty of King Leopold. These strenuous years are described in The Congo and the Founding of Its Free State (1885).

Henry Morton Stanley, 1890
  Relief of Emin Paşa
Stanley’s last expedition in Africa was for the relief of Mehmed Emin Paşa, governor of the Equatorial Province of Egypt, who had been cut off by the Mahdist revolt of 1882 in the environs of Lake Albert.

Stanley was appointed to lead a relief expedition and decided to approach Lake Albert by way of the Congo River, counting on Tippu Tib to supply porters. Stanley left England in January 1887 and arrived at the mouth of the Congo in March.

The expedition reached the navigable head of the river in June, and there, at Yambuya, Stanley left a rear column with orders to await Tippu Tib’s porters. The failure of the rear column to rejoin the main body later gave rise to controversy harmful to Stanley’s reputation. Eventually the expedition was assembled at Lake Albert, and, despite Emin’s initial reluctance to leave his province, some 1,500 persons set out for the east coast on April 10, 1889, and arrived at Bagamoyo on December 4.

On the way, the Ruwenzori Range was revealed to explorers for the first time (identified as Ptolemy’s Mountains of the Moon), and the Semliki River was shown to link Lakes Edward and Albert; thus were cleared up the few doubtful geographic points regarding the Nile sources.

In Darkest Africa (1890) is Stanley’s own account of his last adventure on the African continent. He received a Special Gold Medal from the RGS.
Stanley married Dorothy Tennant on July 12, 1890, and they adopted a son, Denzil. Stanley was renaturalized a British subject in 1892 (he had become a U.S. citizen on May 15, 1885) and sat in Parliament as Liberal Unionist for North Lambeth from 1895 to 1900. In 1897 he visited South Africa and wrote Through South Africa (1898). He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1899, becoming Sir Henry Morton Stanley. The remaining years before his death were spent mainly at Furze Hill near Pirbright, Surrey, a small estate that he bought in 1898.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) was keen to exploit Africa's resources for the sake of European entrepreneurs and for the good of the local people. He never became popular with the Establishment, but was accepted and even admired for his drive and efficiency.

He was born illegitimately at Denbigh in North Wales and at the age of five was consigned to the St Asaph Workhouse where he received a fair education. He ran away to sea and led a roving life in America, eventually finding his true vocation as a reporter. He worked as a war correspondent for the New York Herald, and was commissioned by them to "find Livingstone."

Stanley's relief of Livingstone in 1871 changed his life; he conceived a devotion for the older man and at the same time learned the rudiments of exploration techniques. On hearing of his hero's death in 1873, he decided to follow up Livingstone's researches on the Congo (Zaire) and Nile river systems, and at the same time to
examine the findings of Speke, Burton, arid Baker. It was a grandiose project, funded by the New York Herald and London's Daily Telegraph.
Expedition to the Congo and Nile
On November 17, 1874, a well-equipped caravan marched out of Bagamoyo. Over 350 strong, it included just three Europeans and was led by the experienced Manua Sera as chief captain. The route was by Lake Victoria, where Stanley visited the kingdom of Buganda, "discovered" by Speke and Grant in 1862. The Lady Alice, a boat carried by the expedition in sections and named after Stanley's American fiancee (who married someone else in his absence), was launched and the lake explored, confirming Speke's estimate of its extent and importance. There were some rough encounters with the lake people, for which Stanley was to be severely criticized, especially for his actions at Bumbiri, where casualties were inflicted on the local population.

Stanley then headed south for Lake Tanganyika, noting Lake Edward on the way. His circumnavigation of Tanganyika finally proved that it had no connection with the Nile, its only outlet (as Cameron had observed) being the Lukuga River, which in turn drains into the Lualaba River. He then set himself to examine Livingstone's theories on the Lualaba, and from Nyangwe, the Arab trading post on the river which had been Livingstone's and Cameron's furthest point north, embarked on one of the worst journeys in the history of exploration.
With the aid of 22 canoes as well as the Lady Alice, Stanley was to prove that the Lualaba River (which he called the Livingstone) was in truth the Congo (Zaire), flowing north and then west and southwest in a great arc across the Equator and down impassable cataracts to the sea.

Initially he was faced with the turbulent white water of the Stanley Falls (Chutes Boyoma), where the boats had to be constantly pulled out of the water. By the time they reached the foot of the Falls, Stanley and his men had fought 24 battles against the forest people, and there were eight more to come against warriors in war canoes.

The Falls behind them, they embarked on the 1000 miles (1600 kilometers) of the Upper Congo (Zaire) waterway. However, the worst hazard was still to come — the 220 miles (350 kilometers) of the Livingstone Falls, with its 32 murderous cataracts, during which the river descends just under 900 feet (300 meters). Here, Frank Pocock, Stanley's only remaining European companion, and by now a close friend, was drowned.

The exhausted band left the Lady Alice to rot on the bank above the Isangila Cataract and staggered on. They managed to send a message to Boma at the mouth of the river, which brought help in the form of four friendly European traders and plentiful refreshment.

Of the 350 who had marched so bravely out of Bagamoyo three years before, only 114 reached the sea at Boma, having proved once and for all that there is no connection between the Nile and the rivers to the south.
Stanley posed for this photograph in London, after returning from his successful expedition to find Livingstone. At his side is Kalulu, the African child "given" to him by an Arab trader. Kalulu drowned in a canoeing accident in 1877, on the expedition down the Congo (Zaire) River.
The aftermath
Stanley emerged from the Congo (Zaire) expedition eager to interest the British Government in the development of this huge and fertile region. Rebuffed by the cautious Conservative administration, he was more than ready to respond to the advances of the Belgian King Leopold, who had been quick to see in the Congo (Zaire) basin the empire he sought.

In July 1879 Stanley was back at the river mouth, with instructions from the Belgians to build a railroad up the side of the Falls and to launch steamers on the Pool Malebo, from where the river was navigable for 1000 miles (1600 kilometers) upstream. Leopold was only just in time, barely ahead of France in the person of Count Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza.

De Brazza had in fact come through Gabon and up the Ogooue River in 1878 while Stanley was circumnavigating Lake Victoria, and could have reached the Congo (Zaire) and claimed it all for France. But by failing to branch into the Alima River, the Frenchman came out on the right bank of the Congo (Zaire) in Pool Malebo and found the other man was in control of the region.

Brazzaville, capital of today's Congo, therefore stands on one side of the Pool, with Kinshasa (as Leopoldville is now called) on the other.

Zaidi, one of Stanley's boat captains, became trapped on a rock above the Stanley Falls after his canoe had capsized. During the attempted rescue, the two men in the canoe also became trapped on the rock. All three were forced to spend the night there above "half a mile of Falls and Rapids and great whirlpools, and waves rising like hills in the middle of the terrible stream," before being rescued in the morning.
Emin Pasha Relief Expedition
Stanley was to return to the Congo (Zaire) on the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1887-89), the aim of which was to rescue the German botanist Dr Emin, who was stranded at Wadelai near Lake Albert. He was the one surviving provincial officer in Egypt's short-lived empire in southern Sudan (hence the title "Pasha") which had been destroyed by the Madhist uprising of 1881.

For reasons never fully explained Stanley chose to come up the Congo (Zaire) from the west coast rather than by the better-known and shorter road from the east. Having left the river at the Aruwimi confluence, the expedition struggled for five months through dense, dangerous and unexplored forest until they reached open upland country and the western shore of Lake Albert. On the homeward lap, eastward to the coast, they became the first travelers to see the full expanse of the Ruwenzori Mountains. They traced their way round the mountains, up the Semliki River to Lake Edward, from where the water flows into Lake Albert. Thus was the whole geography of the Nile sources at last laid down on the map.

Medical supplies

Malaria and dysentery were among themany dangers faced by African travelers, but their efforts to combat these diseases were somewhat haphazard. Quinine was found to be effective at preventing malaria, but many explorers relied on their own preparations (such as "Livingstone's rousers," fearsome homemade pills) and improvization (such as a charge of gunpowder in warm water as an emetic) to keep them going.

On his return from finding Livingstone in 1871 Stanley, in consultation with the pharmaceutical firm of Burroughs and Wellcome, designed a medicine chest containing "all the medicines required for my black men as well as for my white men, beautifully prepared and in most elegant fashion." The chest included purgatives, emetics and disinfectant, as well as quinine, packed in glass phials which were screwed down to prevent deterioriation.

Further Exploration of the Nile
South of Khartoum the Nile is choked by rotting vegetation or sudd, which comes from the swamps of the Bahr el Ghazal and Lake No. It was into this unhealthy channel that the adventurous young Dutchwoman Alexandrine Tinne determined to penetrate when cruising up the Nile in the 1860s. She was accompanied by her mother and aunt, and a domestic staff which included lady's maids. They were well provisioned in the only steamer available for hire at Khartoum, arousing the envy of Sam Baker and offending his sense of propriety — "A young lady alone among the Dinka tribe! ... They arc naked as the day they were born!" The Tinne party was serious, however, penetrating a long way up the Bahr el Ghazal in 1863 into desolate country where several of them died, including Tinne's mother. Tinne herself was to meet an even sadder fate, for she was murdered in an expedition across the Sahara in 1869.

Georg Schweinfurth
Some years later, between 1869 and 1871, the Bahr el Ghazal, with its many affluents, was more thoroughly explored by the genial German botanist Georg Schweinfurth. He was primarily in search of plants and other natural specimens, but he also brought back useful geographical information. He made his way on foot into the dense Zaire forest, where he was the first European to meet with the pygmy Akka people. He was the first European, too, to stand on the bank of the Uele River. He realized that it formed no part of the Nile system, instead linking it with the Chan and Lake Chad. In fact it belongs to the Congo (Zaire) system.

In Missionary Travels Livingstone described an incident involving a canoe and a hippopotamus
robbed of her young.
Livingstone's last journey
Back in England, Livingstone and his close friend Sir Roderick Murchison worked out a scheme for finding the sources of the Nile, centering on Lake Tanganyika as the most likely origin. Livingstone was to make his way by the Rovuma River, which was not in Portuguese territory, and then to Lake Nyasa and so north to Lake Tanganyika.
The expedition left in 1867, only modestly equipped, but it was not thought that an experienced traveler like Livingstone need be away long. In the event he spent six years on his last journey, drifting here and there in the wake of the Arab caravans which traded round Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, isolated in an Africa ever more demoralized by the slave trade and swept by disease. His powers, moral and physical, began to fail him, supplies ran out, communications with Zanzibar were cut, and his porters mutinied.

In describing his famous meeting with Livingstone, Stanley explained that he uttered his, by now immortal, words through want of anything better to say: "I would have run to him, only I was a coward in the presence of such a mob - would have embraced him, only, he being an Englishman, I did not know how he would receive me; so I did what cowardice and false pride suggested was the best thing - walked deliberately to him, took off my hat, and said 'Dr Livingstone, I presume?'"
"Dr Livingstone, I presume?"
When Henry Stanley broke through from Zanzibar to Ujiji in late 1871 with supplies and home news, he found a tired and broken man. Livingstone revived in Stanley's bracing company, and together they visited the northern end of Lake Tanganyika and ascertained that the Ruzizi flowed into and not out of the lake, which could not therefore be connected with the Nile. Livingstone became ever more convinced that the Lualaba River - in truth the Congo (Zaire) — to the west of Tanganyika was a headwater of the Nile, and that somewhere at its source were the four fountains from which Herodotus had claimed the great river rose. Yet, he doubted. "1 am oppressed," he wrote, "by the apprehension that it may, after all, turn out that I have been following the Congo, and who would risk being put into a cannibal pot and converted into a black man for it?" Yet he would not take Stanley's advice to return to England to restore his health, but was determined to trudge on until he found the Nile fountains.

Livingstone died early in May 1873 on the shores of Lake Bangweulu, a whole 10°S of the Equator (where the Nile sources lie). Chuma and Susi, Livingstone's devoted African captain and headman, buried his heart and internal organs beside a tree, on which they carved his name and the date. Then with other members of the expedition they carried their master's body (suitably prepared to prevent decomposition) and his precious journals 1400 miles (2250 kilometers) to the coast, so that he might rest among his own people. His body was taken home to England to a hero's welcome and buried in Westminster Abbey.
Stanley's successful relief of Livingstone in 1871 was not well received by the mandarins of the geographical establishment in London, who considered this Yankee journalist to be trespassing on their territory. Moreover, Stanley had returned to Zanzibar at the precise moment that an official search expedition arrived from England. The would-be searchers melted away in discomfiture, to be replaced by one of the most vigorous and successful of the Victorian explorers.
see also: Explorations of David Livingstone

Livingstone's funeral was held in Westminster Abbey in April 1874 - nearly a year after his death. His
faithful companions, Susi and Chuma, made the journey to England, but were too late for the funeral.
Verney Lovett Cameron
Verney Lovett Cameron, an officer in the Royal Navy, had developed a hearty loathing of the slave trade during service in the anti-slavery squadron off the East African coast; he was also a dedicated explorer. He persuaded the Royal Geographical Society that it was worth proceeding into the interior, to see if Livingstone was still in need, and on March 28, 1873, he set off from Bagamoyo on the old trade route to Tabora. There he met Susi and Chuma with their master's body. Cameron resolved to go on to Ujiji to rescue any remaining possessions and papers of Livingstone's.
Having arrived at the explorer's old camp, he decided to continue westward to the Lualaba and perhaps the Congo (Zaire). He first made a thorough survey of Lake Tanganyika, identifying 96 inflowing streams as well as the only outlet from the lake — a channel leading to the Lukuga River and thence to the Lualaba. Marching on from the lake, Cameron became convinced that the Lualaba could have no connection with the Nile, but probably flowed on to become the Congo (Zaire). Unable to secure river transport at the Arab camp of Nyangwe, he abandoned any further search in that direction and turned south. He arrived at the Atlantic coast north of Benguela in Angola on November 7, 1875, the first European to make an east-west crossing of Africa.
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy

Schliemann's first interest of a classical nature seems to have been the location of Troy.

At the time Schliemann Heinrich  began excavating in Turkey, the site commonly believed to be Troy was at Pınarbaşı, a hilltop at the south end of the Trojan Plain.

The site had been previously excavated by archaeologist and local expert, Frank Calvert. Schliemann performed soundings at Pınarbaşı, but was disappointed by his findings. It was Calvert who identified Hissarlik as Troy and suggested Schliemann dig there on land owned by Calvert's family. In 1868, Schliemann visited sites in the Greek world, published Ithaka, der Peloponnesus und Troja in which he asserted that Hissarlik was the site of Troy, and submitted a dissertation in Ancient Greek proposing the same thesis to the University of Rostock. In 1869, he was awarded a PhD in absentia from the university of Rostock for that submission. David Traill wrote that the examiners gave him his PhD on the basis of his topographical analysis of Ithaca, which were in part simply translations of another author's work or drawn from poetic descriptions by the same author.

Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hissarlik with Troy but was persuaded by Calvert[16] and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hissarlik site. The Turkish government owned the western half. Calvert became Schliemann's collaborator and partner.


The 'Mask of Agamemnon', discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae now exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Schliemann needed an assistant who was knowledgeable in matters pertaining to Greek culture. As he had divorced Ekaterina in 1869, he advertised for a wife in a newspaper in Athens. A friend, the Archbishop of Athens, suggested a relative of his, seventeen-year-old Sophia Engastromenos (1852–1932). Schliemann, age 47, married her in October 1869, despite the 30 year difference in age. They later had two children, Andromache and Agamemnon Schliemann; he reluctantly allowed them to be baptized, but solemnized the ceremony in his own way by placing a copy of the Iliad on the children's heads and reciting one hundred hexameters.

Schliemann began work on Troy in 1871. His excavations began before archaeology had developed as a professional field. Thinking that Homeric Troy must be in the lowest level, Schliemann and his workers dug hastily through the upper levels, reaching fortifications that he took to be his target. In 1872, he and Calvert fell out over this method. Schliemann was angry when Calvert published an article stating that the Trojan War period was missing from the site's archaeological record.

Priam's Treasure
A cache of gold and other objects appeared on or around May 27, 1873; Schliemann named it "Priam's Treasure". He later wrote that he had seen the gold glinting in the dirt and dismissed the workmen so that he and Sophia could excavate it themselves, removing it in her shawl. However, Schliemann's oft-repeated story of the treasure being carried by Sophia in her shawl was untrue. Schliemann later admitted fabricating it; at the time of the discovery Sophia was in fact with her family in Athens, following the death of her father. Sophia later wore "the Jewels of Helen" for the public. Those jewels, taken from the Pergamon Museum in Berlin by the Soviet Army (Red Army) in 1945, are now in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow.

Schliemann published his findings in 1874, in Trojanische Altertümer ("Trojan Antiquities").

This publicity backfired when the Turkish government revoked Schliemann's permission to dig and sued him for a share of the gold. Collaborating with Calvert, Schliemann smuggled the treasure out of Turkey. He defended his "smuggling" in Turkey as an attempt to protect the items from corrupt local officials. Priam's Treasure today remains a subject of international dispute.

Schliemann published Troja und seine Ruinen (Troy and Its Ruins) in 1875 and excavated the Treasury of Minyas at Orchomenus. In 1876, he began digging at Mycenae. Upon discovering the Shaft Graves, with their skeletons and more regal gold (including the so-called Mask of Agamemnon), Schliemann cabled the king of Greece. The results were published in Mykenai in 1878.

Sophia Schliemann (née Engastromenos) wearing treasures recovered at Hisarlik.
Although he had received permission in 1876 to continue excavation, Schliemann did not reopen the dig site at Troy until 1878–1879, after another excavation in Ithaca designed to locate an actual site mentioned in the Odyssey. This was his second excavation at Troy. Emile Burnouf and Rudolf Virchow joined him there in 1879. Schliemann made a third excavation at Troy in 1882–1883, an excavation of Tiryns with Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 1884, a fourth excavation at Troy, also with Dörpfeld (who emphasized the importance of strata), in 1888–1890.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ingersoll Simon

Simon Ingersoll (U.S.) invents pneumatic rock drill in 1871


Simon Ingersoll
  Simon Ingersoll (March 3, 1818 – July 24, 1894) founded the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company in 1871.

In 1905 Ingersoll-Sargeant Drill Company merged with the Rand Drill Company to form Ingersoll-Rand.

Unfortunately, Simon Ingersoll never found a way to make a fortune from his rock drill and died nearly penniless.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rutherford Ernest
Ernest Rutherford, Baron Rutherford of Nelson, in full Ernest Rutherford, Baron Rutherford of Nelson, of Cambridge (born Aug. 30, 1871, Spring Grove, N.Z.—died Oct. 19, 1937, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.), New Zealand-born British physicist considered the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867). Rutherford was the central figure in the study of radioactivity, and with his concept of the nuclear atom he led the exploration of nuclear physics. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908, was president of the Royal Society (1925–30) and the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1923), was conferred the Order of Merit in 1925, and was raised to the peerage as Lord Rutherford of Nelson in 1931.

Ernest Rutherford, Baron Rutherford of Nelson
  Early life and education
Rutherford’s father, James Rutherford, moved from Scotland to New Zealand as a child in the mid-19th century and farmed in that agrarian society, which had only recently been settled by Europeans. Rutherford’s mother, Martha Thompson, came from England, also as a youngster, and worked as a schoolteacher before marrying and raising a dozen children, of whom Ernest was the fourth child and second son.

Ernest Rutherford attended the free state schools through 1886, when he won a scholarship to attend Nelson Collegiate School, a private secondary school. He excelled in nearly every subject, but especially in mathematics and science.
Another scholarship took Rutherford in 1890 to Canterbury College in Christchurch, one of the four campuses of the University of New Zealand. It was a small school, with a faculty of eight and fewer than 300 students. Rutherford was fortunate to have excellent professors, who ignited in him a fascination for scientific investigation tempered with the need for solid proof.

On conclusion of the school’s three-year course, Rutherford received a bachelor of arts (B.A.) degree and won a scholarship for a postgraduate year of study at Canterbury. He completed this at the end of 1893, earning a master of arts (M.A.) degree with first-class honours in physical science, mathematics, and mathematical physics.

He was encouraged to remain yet another year in Christchurch to conduct independent research. Rutherford’s investigation of the ability of a high-frequency electrical discharge, such as that from a capacitor, to magnetize iron earned him a bachelor of science (B.S.) degree at the end of 1894. During this period he fell in love with Mary Newton, the daughter of the woman in whose house he boarded. They married in 1900.

In 1895 Rutherford won a scholarship that had been created with profits from the famous Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. He chose to continue his study at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge, which J.J. Thomson, Europe’s leading expert on electromagnetic radiation, had taken over in 1884.

University of Cambridge
In recognition of the increasing importance of science, the University of Cambridge had recently changed its rules to allow graduates of other institutions to earn a Cambridge degree after two years of study and completion of an acceptable research project. Rutherford became the school’s first research student.

Besides showing that an oscillatory discharge would magnetize iron, which happened already to be known, Rutherford determined that a magnetized needle lost some of its magnetization in a magnetic field produced by an alternating current. This made the needle a detector of electromagnetic waves, a phenomenon that had only recently been discovered. In 1864 the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell had predicted the existence of such waves, and between 1885 and 1889 the German physicist Heinrich Hertz had detected them in experiments in his laboratory.

Rutherford’s apparatus for detecting electromagnetic waves, or radio waves, was simpler and had commercial potential. He spent the next year in the Cavendish Laboratory increasing the range and sensitivity of his device, which could receive signals from half a mile away. However, Rutherford lacked the intercontinental vision and entrepreneurial skills of the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi, who invented the wireless telegraph in 1896.

X-rays were discovered in Germany by physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen only a few months after Rutherford arrived at the Cavendish.

  For their ability to take silhouette photographs of the bones in a living hand, X-rays were fascinating to scientists and laypeople alike. In particular, scientists wished to learn their properties and what they were.
Rutherford could not decline the honour of Thomson’s invitation to collaborate on an investigation of the way in which X-rays changed the conductivity of gases. This yielded a classic paper on ionization—the breaking of atoms or molecules into positive and negative parts (ions)—and the charged particles’ attraction to electrodes of the opposite polarity.

Thomson then studied the charge-to-mass ratio of the most common ion, which later was called the electron, while Rutherford pursued other radiations that produced ions. Rutherford first looked at ultraviolet radiation and then at radiation emitted by uranium. (Uranium radiation was first detected in 1896 by the French physicist Henri Becquerel.) Placement of uranium near thin foils revealed to Rutherford that the radiation was more complex than previously thought: one type was easily absorbed or blocked by a very thin foil, but another type often penetrated the same thin foils. He named these radiation types alpha and beta, respectively, for simplicity. (It was later determined that the alpha particle is the same as the nucleus of an ordinary helium atom—consisting of two protons and two neutrons—and the beta particle is the same as an electron or its positive version, a positron.) For the next several years these radiations were of primary interest; later the radioactive elements, or radioelements, which were emitting radiation, enjoyed most of the scientific attention.


Rutherford at McGill University in 1905
McGill University
Rutherford’s research ability won him a professorship at McGill University, Montreal, which boasted one of the best-equipped laboratories in the Western Hemisphere. Turning his attention to another of the few elements then known to be radioactive, he and a colleague found that thorium emitted a gaseous radioactive product, which he called “emanation.” This in turn left a solid active deposit, which soon was resolved into thorium A, B, C, and so on. Curiously, after chemical treatment, some radioelements lost their radioactivity but eventually regained it, while other materials, initially strong, gradually lost activity. This led to the concept of half-life—in modern terms, the interval of time required for one-half of the atomic nuclei of a radioactive sample to decay—which ranges from seconds to billions of years and is unique for each radioelement and thus an excellent identifying tag.

Rutherford recognized his need for expert chemical help with the growing number of radioelements. Sequentially, he attracted the skills of Frederick Soddy, a demonstrator at McGill; Bertram Borden Boltwood, a professor at Yale University; and Otto Hahn, a postdoctoral researcher from Germany. With Soddy, Rutherford in 1902–03 developed the transformation theory, or disintegration theory, as an explanation for radioactivity—his greatest accomplishment at McGill. Alchemy and its theories of transforming elements—such as lead to gold—had long been exorcised from so-called modern chemistry; atoms were regarded as stable bodies. But Rutherford and Soddy now claimed that the energy of radioactivity came from within the atom, and the spontaneous emission of an alpha or beta particle signified a chemical change from one element into another. They expected this iconoclastic theory to be controversial, but their overwhelming experimental evidence quelled opposition.

Before long it was recognized that the radioelements fell into three families, or decay series, headed by uranium, thorium, and actinium and all ending in inactive lead. Boltwood placed radium in the uranium series and, following Rutherford’s suggestion, used the slowly growing amount of lead in a mineral to show that the age of old rocks was in the billion-year range. Rutherford considered the alpha particle, because it had tangible mass, to be key to transformations. He determined that it carried a positive charge, but he could not distinguish whether it was a hydrogen or helium ion.

While at McGill, Rutherford married his sweetheart from New Zealand and became famous. He welcomed increasing numbers of research students to his laboratory, including women at a time when few females studied science. He was in demand as a speaker and as an author of magazine articles; he also wrote the period’s leading textbook on radioactivity. Medals and fellowship in the Royal Society of London came his way. Inevitably, job offers came as well.


The Rutherford gold-foil experiment.
Diagram of physicist Ernest Rutherford’s gold-foil experiment. In 1909 Rutherford disproved Sir J.J. Thomson’s model of the atom as a uniformly distributed substance. Because only very few of the alpha particles in his beam were scattered by large angles after striking the gold foil while most passed completely through, Rutherford knew that the gold atom’s mass must be concentrated in a tiny dense nucleus.
University of Manchester
North America had a good scientific community, but the world centre of physics was in Europe. When in 1907 Rutherford was offered a chair at the University of Manchester, whose physics laboratory was excelled in England only by Thomson’s Cavendish Laboratory, he accepted it. A year later his work in Montreal was honoured by the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Shortly after winning the Nobel Prize, Rutherford wrote the entry on radioactivity for the 11th edition (1910) of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

With the German physicist Hans Geiger, Rutherford developed an electrical counter for ionized particles; when perfected by Geiger, the Geiger counter became the universal tool for measuring radioactivity. Thanks to the skill of the laboratory’s glassblower, Rutherford and his student Thomas Royds were able to isolate some alpha particles and perform a spectrochemical analysis, proving that the particles were helium ions. Boltwood then visited Rutherford’s laboratory, and together they redetermined the rate of production of helium by radium, from which they calculated a precise value of Avogadro’s number.

Continuing his long-standing interest in the alpha particle, Rutherford studied its slight scattering when it hit a foil. Geiger joined him, and they obtained ever more quantitative data. In 1909 when an undergraduate, Ernest Marsden, needed a research project, Rutherford suggested that he look for large-angle scattering. Marsden found that a small number of alphas were turned more than 90 degrees from their original direction, leading Rutherford to exclaim (with embellishment over the years), “It was almost as incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you.”


Diagram of the Rutherford atomic model.
Physicist Ernest Rutherford envisioned the atom as like a miniature solar system, with electrons orbiting around a massive nucleus, and as mostly empty space, with the nucleus occupying only a very small part of the atom.
Pondering how such a heavy, charged particle as the alpha could be turned by electrostatic attraction or repulsion through such a large angle, Rutherford conceived in 1911 that the atom could not be a uniform solid but rather consisted mostly of empty space, with its mass concentrated in a tiny nucleus. This insight, combined with his supporting experimental evidence, was Rutherford’s greatest scientific contribution, but it received little attention beyond Manchester. In 1913, however, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr showed its importance. Bohr had visited Rutherford’s laboratory the year before, and he returned as a faculty member for the period 1914–16. Radioactivity, he explained, lies in the nucleus, while chemical properties are due to orbital electrons. His theory wove the new concept of quanta (or specific discrete energy values) into the electrodynamics of orbits, and he explained spectral lines as the release or absorption of energy by electrons as they jump from orbit to orbit. Henry Moseley, another of Rutherford’s many pupils, similarly explained the sequence of the X-ray spectrum of elements as due to the charge on the nucleus. Thus, a coherent new picture of atomic physics, as well as the field of nuclear physics, was developed.

World War I virtually emptied Rutherford’s laboratory, and he himself was involved in antisubmarine research. He was also a member of the Admiralty’s Board of Invention and Research. When he found time to return to his earlier research interests, Rutherford examined the collision of alpha particles with gases. With hydrogen, as expected, nuclei (individual protons) were propelled to the detector. But, surprisingly, protons also appeared when alphas crashed into nitrogen. In 1919 Rutherford explained his third great discovery: he had artificially provoked a nuclear reaction in a stable element.


Ernest Rutherford
  Return to Cambridge
Such nuclear reactions occupied Rutherford for the remainder of his career, which was spent back at the University of Cambridge, where he succeeded Thomson in 1919 as director of the Cavendish Laboratory. Rutherford brought physicist James Chadwick, a colleague from Manchester, to Cavendish.

Together, they bombarded a number of light elements with alphas and induced transformations. But they could not penetrate to the nuclei of heavier elements, as the alphas were repelled by their mutual charges, nor could they determine whether the alpha bounced off after collision or combined with the target nucleus. More-advanced technology was needed in both cases.

For the former, the higher energies produced in particle accelerators became available by the late 1920s.

In 1932 two of Rutherford’s students, John D. Cockcroft of England and Ernest T.S. Walton of Ireland, were the first to actually cause a nuclear transformation; with their high-voltage linear accelerator, they bombarded lithium with protons and caused it to split into two alpha particles. (The pair shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physics for this work.)

As for what actually occurred in a collision, Scottish physicist Charles T.R. Wilson had in the Cavendish developed the cloud chamber, which provided visual evidence of the tracks of charged particles and for which he was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics. In 1924 the English physicist Patrick M.S. Blackett modified the cloud chamber apparatus to photograph some 400,000 alpha collisions and found that most were ordinary elastic encounters, while eight showed disintegrations in which the alpha was absorbed into the target nucleus before that nucleus ruptured into two fragments. This was an important step in the understanding of nuclear reactions, for which he was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize for Physics.

The Cavendish was home to other exciting work. The neutron’s existence had been predicted in a speech by Rutherford in 1920. After a long search, Chadwick discovered this neutral particle in 1932, indicating that the nucleus was composed of neutrons and protons, while a colleague, English physicist Norman Feather, soon showed that neutrons could cause nuclear reactions more easily than charged particles. Charles D. Ellis, who was yet another physicist working at the Cavendish Laboratory, looked at beta- and gamma-ray spectra, which added to knowledge of nuclear structure. With a gift of some of the newly discovered heavy water from the United States, in 1934 Rutherford, Australian physicist Mark Oliphant, and German physical chemist Paul Harteck bombarded deuterium with deuterons, producing tritium in the first fusion reaction.

Rutherford had few interests outside of science, primarily golf and motoring. He was politically liberal but not politically active, although he did chair the advisory council of the government’s Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and was president (from 1933 until his death) of the Academic Assistance Council (and its successor organization, the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning), an organization designed to aid scientists who had fled Nazi Germany. In 1931 he was made a peer, but any gratification this honour may have brought was marred by the death of his daughter just eight days before. He died in Cambridge following a short illness and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Lawrence Badash

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Industrialization of War
The settlement of twenty-five years of war between the European powers in 1815 represented no easy task.
But the victors agreed that they possessed certain interests in common; in particular they aimed to control the nationalistic emotions that had swept Europe. Perhaps even more critical to European peace, however, was the general exhaustion: none were willing to resort to war to settle territorial disputes or to consider hegemonic ambitions. Although the industrial revolution occurring in Britain before and during the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars had provided the British with unheard of wealth and economic power, they were content to maintain a balance of power on the continent while controlling the world's commerce.

The Industrialization of War

Bank Holidays introduced in England and Wales
Bank Holiday
A bank holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, some Commonwealth countries, other European countries such as Switzerland, and a colloquialism for a public holiday in Ireland. There is no automatic right to time off on these days, although banks close and the majority of the working population is granted time off work or extra pay for working on these days, depending on their contract. The first official bank holidays were the four days named in the Bank Holidays Act 1871, but today the term is colloquially used (albeit incorrectly) for Good Friday and Christmas Day which were already public holidays under common law and therefore not official bank holidays in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Until 1834, the Bank of England observed about 33 saints' days and religious festivals as holidays, but in 1834 this was reduced to four: 1 May (May Day), 1 November (All Saints' Day), Good Friday and Christmas Day. In 1871, the first legislation relating to bank holidays was passed when Liberal politician and banker Sir John Lubbock introduced the Bank Holidays Act 1871, which specified the days in the table below. Under the Act, no person was compelled to make any payment or to do any act upon a bank holiday which he would not be compelled to do or make on Christmas Day or Good Friday, and the making of a payment or the doing of an act on the following day was equivalent to doing it on the holiday. The English people were so thankful that some called the first Bank Holidays St Lubbock's Days for a while. Scotland was treated separately because of its separate traditions: for example, New Year is a more important holiday there.

Bank holidays 1871
England, Wales, Ireland Scotland
  New Year's Day
Easter Monday Good Friday
Whit Monday First Monday in May
First Monday in August First Monday in August
Boxing Day/St Stephen's Day Christmas Day

The Act did not include Good Friday and Christmas Day as bank holidays in England, Wales, or Ireland because they were already recognised as common law holidays: they had been customary holidays since before records began.

In 1903, the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act added 17 March, Saint Patrick's Day, as a bank holiday for Ireland only. New Year's Day did not become a bank holiday in England until 1 January 1974.

In the United Kingdom
Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971

Commencing in 1965, on an experimental basis, the August Bank Holiday weekend was observed at the end of August "to give a lead in extending British holidays over a longer summer period". Each year's date was announced in Parliament on an ad-hoc basis, to the despair of the calendar and diary publishing trade. The rule seems to have been to select the weekend of the last Saturday in August, so that in 1968 and 1969 Bank Holiday Monday actually fell in September.

A century after the 1871 Act, the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971, which currently regulates bank holidays in the UK, was passed. The majority of the current bank holidays were specified in the 1971 Act: however New Year's Day and May Day were not introduced throughout the whole of the UK until 1974 and 1978 respectively. The date of the August bank holiday was changed from the first Monday in August to the last Monday in August, and the Whitsun bank holiday (Whit Monday) was replaced by the Late Spring Bank Holiday, fixed as the last Monday in May. In 1978 the first Monday in May in the rest of the UK, and the final Monday of May in Scotland, were designated as bank holidays.

In January 2007, the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 was given royal assent, making 30 November (or the nearest Monday if a weekend) a bank holiday in Scotland.

Royal proclamation
Under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971, bank holidays are proclaimed each year by the legal device of a royal proclamation. Royal proclamation is also used to move bank holidays that would otherwise fall on a weekend.

In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' in years when they coincide with weekends. These deferred bank holiday days are termed a 'bank holiday in lieu' of the typical anniversary date.

In the legislation they are known as 'substitute days'. The movement of the St Andrew's Day Scottish holiday to the nearest Monday when 30 November is a weekend day is statutory and does not require a proclamation.

In Scotland
A number of differences apply in Scotland relative to the rest of the United Kingdom. For example, Easter Monday is not a bank holiday.

Also, although they share the same name, the Summer Bank Holiday falls on the first Monday of August in Scotland, as opposed to the last Monday in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Despite this, it is custom and practice to follow the rest of the UK and banks close on the last Monday and not the first.

Bank holidays do not, however, assume the same importance in Scotland as they do elsewhere. Whereas they have effectively become public holidays elsewhere in the United Kingdom, in Scotland there remains a tradition of public holidays based on local tradition and determined by local authorities (for example, the Glasgow Fair and the Dundee Fortnight).

In 1996, Scottish banks made the business decision to harmonise their own holidays with the rest of the United Kingdom, with the result that 'bank holidays' in Scotland are neither public holidays nor the days on which banks are closed.

  Campaigns for extra bank holidays
The number of holidays in the UK is relatively small compared to many other European countries. However, direct comparison is inaccurate since the 'substitute day' scheme of deferment does not apply in most European countries, where holidays that coincide with a weekend (29% of fixed-date holidays) are 'lost'. In fact, the average number of non-weekend holidays in such countries is only marginally higher (and in some cases lower) than the UK. Worth mentioning is that public holidays in Europe which fall on Thursday or Tuesday typically become "puente" or "bridge" four-day or even six-day extended holiday weekends as people tend to use one or two days from their holiday entitlement to take off Monday and/or Friday.

There have been calls for more bank holidays. Among the most notable dates absent from the existing list are the feast days of patron saints; 23 April (St George's Day and widely regarded as the birthday of William Shakespeare) in England and 1 March (St David's Day) in Wales are not currently recognised. 17 March (St Patrick's Day) is a public holiday in Northern Ireland and, since 2008, 30 November (St Andrew's Day) is a bank holiday in Scotland. St Piran's Day (patron saint of Cornwall) on 5 March is already given as an unofficial day off to many government and other workers in the county, and there are renewed calls for the government to recognise this as an official bank holiday there.

Proposed move of May Day Bank Holiday (England and Wales)
After the election of the Coalition Government in May 2010, the Department of Culture, Media and Sport launched a pre-consultation in 2011 which included the suggestion of moving the May Day Bank Holiday to October, to be a "UK Day" or "Trafalgar Day" (21 October) or to St David's Day and St George's Day.

It is suggested that a move from the May bank holiday to a St Piran's Day bank holiday in Cornwall, on 5 March, would benefit the Cornish economy by £20-35 million.

1968 Emergency Bank Holiday
During the sterling crisis of 1968, Prime Minister Harold Wilson convened a meeting of the privy council in the early hours of 14 March to declare 15 March a non-statutory bank holiday. This allowed the UK government to close the London gold market in order to stem the losses being suffered by Sterling. It was this meeting that triggered the resignation of Foreign Secretary George Brown.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barnum Phineas Taylor opens his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth," in Brooklyn, N.Y.

Winter Quarters of the Great Barnum-London Show before 1886
Great Chicago Fire

The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to early Tuesday, October 10, 1871. The fire killed up to 300 people, destroyed roughly 3.3 square miles (9 km2) of Chicago, Illinois, and left more than 100,000 residents homeless. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th century, and destroyed much of the city's central business district, Chicago was rebuilt and continued to grow as one of the most populous and economically important American cities. The same night the fire broke out, an even deadlier fire annihilated Peshtigo, Wisconsin, and other villages and towns north of Green Bay, Wisconsin.

The fire started at about 9:00 p.m. on October 8, in or around a small barn belonging to the O'Leary family that bordered the alley behind 137 DeKoven Street. The shed next to the barn was the first building to be consumed by the fire, but city officials never determined the exact cause of the blaze. There has, however, been much speculation over the years. The most popular tale blames Mrs. O'Leary's cow; others state that a group of men were gambling inside the barn and knocked over a lantern. Still other speculation suggests that the blaze was related to other fires in the Midwest that day. See Questions about the fire.

The fire's spread was aided by the city's use of wood as the predominant building material in a style called balloon frame, a drought before the fire, and strong southwest winds that carried flying embers toward the heart of the city. More than two thirds of the structures in Chicago at the time of the fire were made entirely of wood. Most houses and buildings were topped with highly flammable tar or shingle roofs. All the city's sidewalks and many roads were made of wood. Compounding this problem, Chicago had only received an inch of rain from July 4 to October 9 causing severe drought conditions.


Artist's rendering of the fire, by John R. Chapin, originally printed in Harper's Weekly;
the view faces northeast across the Randolph Street Bridge.
In 1871, the Chicago Fire Department had 185 firefighters with just 17 horse-drawn steam engines to protect the entire city. The initial response by the fire department was quick, but due to an error by the watchman, Matthias Schaffer, the firefighters were sent to the wrong place, allowing the fire to grow unchecked. An alarm sent from the area near the fire also failed to register at the courthouse where the fire watchmen were. Also, the firefighters were tired from having fought numerous small fires and one large fire in the week before. These factors combined to turn a small barn fire into a conflagration.
Spread of the blaze
When firefighters finally arrived at DeKoven Street, the fire had grown and spread to neighboring buildings and was progressing towards the central business district. Firefighters had hoped that the South Branch of the Chicago River and an area that had previously thoroughly burned would act as a natural firebreak. All along the river, however, were lumber yards, warehouses, and coal yards, and barges and numerous bridges across the river. As the fire grew, the southwest wind intensified and became superheated, causing structures to catch fire from the heat and from burning debris blown by the wind. Around 11:30 p.m., flaming debris blew across the river and landed on roofs and the South Side Gas Works.
With the fire across the river and moving rapidly towards the heart of the city, panic set in. About this time, Mayor Roswell B. Mason sent message to nearby towns asking for help. When the courthouse caught fire, he ordered the building to be evacuated and the prisoners jailed in the basement to be released. At 2:20 a.m. on the 9th, the cupola of the courthouse collapsed, sending the great bell crashing down. Some witnesses reported hearing the sound from a mile away.
Aftermath of the fire, corner of Dearborn and Monroe Streets, 1871
As more buildings succumbed to the flames, a major contributing factor to the fire’s spread was a meteorological phenomenon known as a fire whirl. As overheated air rises, it comes into contact with cooler air and begins to spin creating a tornado-like effect. These fire whirls are likely what drove flaming debris so high and so far. Such debris was blown across the main branch of the Chicago River to a railroad car carrying kerosene. The fire had jumped the river a second time and was now raging across the city’s north side.

Despite the fire spreading and growing rapidly, the city's firefighters continued to battle the blaze. A short time after the fire jumped the river, a burning piece of timber lodged on the roof of the city’s waterworks. Within minutes, the interior of the building was engulfed in flames and the building was destroyed. With it, the city’s water mains went dry and the city was helpless. The fire burned unchecked from building to building, block to block.

Finally, late into the evening of the 9th, it started to rain, but the fire had already started to burn itself out. The fire had spread to the sparsely populated areas of the north side, having consumed the densely populated areas thoroughly.

Once the fire had ended, the smoldering remains were still too hot for a survey of the damage to be completed for many days. Eventually the city determined that the fire destroyed an area about four miles (6 km) long and averaging 3/4 mile (1 km) wide, encompassing more than 2,000 acres (8.1 km2). Destroyed were more than 73 miles (117 km) of roads, 120 miles (190 km) of sidewalk, 2,000 lampposts, 17,500 buildings, and $222 million in property—about a third of the city's valuation (more than $4 billion in 2015 dollars). Of the 300,000 inhabitants, 100,000 were left homeless. 120 bodies were recovered, but the death toll may have been as high as 300. The county coroner speculated that an accurate count was impossible as some victims may have drowned or had been incinerated leaving no remains.

In the days and weeks following the fire, monetary donations flowed into Chicago from around the country and foreign cities, along with donations of food, clothing, and other goods. These donations came from individuals, corporations, and cities. New York City gave $450,000 along with clothing and provisions, St. Louis gave $300,000, and the Common Council of London gave 1,000 Guineas as well as ₤7,000 from private donations. Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Buffalo, all commercial rivals, donated hundreds and thousands of dollars. Milwaukee, along with other nearby cities, helped by sending fire-fighting equipment. Additionally, food, clothing and books were brought by train from all over the continent. Mayor Mason placed the Chicago Relief and Aid Society in charge of the city’s relief efforts.

Operating from the First Congregational Church, city officials and the Aldermen began taking steps to preserve order in the city. Price fixing was a key concern. In one ordinance, the city set the price of bread at 8¢ for a 12-ounce loaf. Public buildings were opened as places of refuge, and saloons closed at 9 in the evening for the week following the fire.
The fire also led to questions about the developments in the United States. Due to Chicago’s rapid expansion at this time, the fire led to Americans reflecting on industrialization.

Chicago Water Tower
The religious point of view said that Americans should return to a more old-fashioned way of life, and that the fire was caused by people ignoring morality. Many Americans on the other hand believed that a lesson that should be learned from the fire was that cities needed to improve their building techniques. Frederick Law Olmsted attributed this to Chicago’s style of building:

"Chicago had a weakness for “big things,” and liked to think that it was outbuilding New York. It did a great deal of commercial advertising in its house-tops. The faults of construction as well as of art in its great showy buildings must have been numerous. Their walls were thin, and were overweighted with gross and coarse misornamentation."

Olmsted also believed that with brick walls and disciplined firemen and police, the damage caused and deaths would have been much less.

Almost immediately, the city began to rewrite its fire standards, spurred by the efforts of leading insurance executives and fire prevention reformers such as Arthur C. Ducat and others. Chicago soon developed one of the country's leading fire fighting forces.

Land speculators, such as Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, and business owners quickly set about rebuilding the city. The first load of lumber for rebuilding was delivered the day the last burning building was extinguished. By the World's Columbian Exposition 22 years later, Chicago hosted more than 21 million visitors. The Palmer House hotel burned to the ground in the fire 13 days after its grand opening. Its developer Potter Palmer secured a loan and rebuilt the hotel to higher standards across the street from the original, proclaiming it to be "The World's First Fireproof Building".

In 1956, the remaining structures on the original O'Leary property at 558 W. DeKoven Street were torn down for construction of the Chicago Fire Academy, a training facility for Chicago firefighters. A bronze sculpture of stylized flames, entitled Pillar of Fire by sculptor Egon Weiner, was erected on the point of origin in 1961.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Population figures (in millions): Germany 41; U.S. 39; France 36; Japan 33; Great Britain 26; Ireland 5.4; Italy 26.8

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