Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1870 Part III NEXT-1871 Part I    
 
 
     
An Unfortunate Experiment
1870 - 1879
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870-1879
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part I
Alfonso XII
Leopold of Hohenzollern
"Ems Telegram"
Franco-Prussian War
BATTLE OF SEDAN
Lenin Vladimir
Vladimir Lenin
Smuts Jan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part II
Adler Alfred
Keble College
Papal infallibility
Ludwig Anzengruber: "Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld"
Bunin Ivan
Disraeli: "Lothair"
Kuprin Aleksandr
Ivan Goncharov: "The Precipice"
Jules Verne: "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part III
Barlach Ernst
Ernst Barlach
Corot: "La perle"
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: "Beata Beatrix"
Borisov-Musatov Victor
Victor Borisov-Musatov
Benois Alexandre
Alexandre Benois
Denis Maurice
Maurice Denis
Soldiers and Exiles
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Delibes: "Coppelia"
Tchaikovsky: "Romeo and Juliet"
Wagner: "Die Walkure"
Lehar Franz
Franz Lehar - Medley
Franz Lehar
Balfe Michael
Michael Balfe - "The Bohemian Girl"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1870 Part IV
Biogenesis
Przhevalsky Nikolai
Peaks and Plateaus
Johnson Allen
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Luxemburg Rosa
Standard Oil Company
Lauder Harry
Lloyd Marie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part I
Siege of Paris
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Frankfurt
Paris Commune
Treaty of Washington
Law of Guarantees
British North America Act, 1871
"Kulturkampf"
Ebert Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part II
Old Catholics
Charles Darwin: "The Descent of Man"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Russell Charles Taze
John Ruskin: "Fors Clavigera"
Lewis Carroll: "Through the Looking Glass"
Crane Stephen
Dreiser Theodore
George Eliot: "Middlemarch"
Mann Heinrich
Morgenstern Christian
Ostrovsky: "The Forest"
Proust Marcel
Valery Paul
Zola: "Les Rougon-Macquart"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part III
Gabriele Rossetti: "The Dream of Dante"
White Clarence
History of photography
Clarence White
Rouault Georges
Georges Rouault
Feininger Lyonel
Lyonel Feininger
Balla Giacomo
Giacomo Balla
Sloan John
John Sloan
The 'Terror'of the Commune
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Royal Albert Hall
"The Internationale"
Verdi: "Aida"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1871 Part IV
Schweinfurth Georg August
Quotations by Georg August Schweinfurth
Stanley Henry
Henry Morton Stanley
Further Exploration of the Nile
Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
Ingersoll Simon
Rutherford Ernest
The Industrialization of War
The Industrialization of War
Bank Holiday
Great Chicago Fire
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part I
Third Carlist War
Carlist Wars
Burgers Thomas Francois
Ballot Act 1872
Amnesty Act of 1872
Blum Leon
Coolidge Calvin
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part II
Russell Bertrand
Klages Ludwig
Beerbohm Max
Samuel Butler: "Erewhon, or Over the Range"
Alphonse Daudet: "Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon"
Alphonse Daudet
"Tartarin de Tarascon"
Diaghilev Sergei
Duse Eleonora
Thomas Hardy: "Under the Greenwood Tree"
Turgenev: "A Month in the Country"
Jules Verne: "Around the World in 80 Days"
Lever Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part III
Bocklin: "Self-Portrait with Death"
Whistler: "The Artist's Mother"
Mondrian Piet
Piet Mondrian
Beardsley Aubrey
Aubrey Beardsley
The Rise of Durand-Ruel
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Scriabin Alexander
Scriabin - Etudes
Alexander Scriabin
Williams Vaughan
Williams - Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis
Vaughan Williams
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1872 Part IV
Bleriot Louis
Tide-predicting machine
Westinghouse George
Elias Ney
Hague Congress
Scotland v England (1872)
Scott Charles Prestwich
Nansen Ski Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part I
First Spanish Republic
Mac-Mahon Patrice
Financial Panic of 1873
League of the Three Emperors
Bengal famine of 1873–1874
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part II
Moore G. E.
Barbusse Henri
Ford Madox Ford
Maurier Gerald
Reinhardt Max
Rimbaud: "Une Saison en enfer"
Tolstoi: "Anna Karenina"
Bryusov Valery
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part III
Cezanne: "A Modern Olympia"
Gulbransson Olaf
Manet: "Le bon Bock"
Gathering of the Future Impressionists
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 2
Carl Rosa Opera Company
Caruso Enrico
Enrico Caruso - Pagliacci No!
The greatest opera singers
Enrico Caruso
Chaliapin Feodor
Feodor Chaliapin - "Black Eyes"
The greatest opera singers
Feodor Chaliapin
Reger Max
Max Reger - Piano Concerto in F-minor
Max Reger
Rachmaninoff Sergei
Rachmaninoff plays Piano Concerto 2
Sergei Rachmaninov
Rimsky-Korsakov: "The Maid of Pskov"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2
Slezak Leo
Leo Slezak "Wenn ich vergnugt bin" 
The greatest opera singers
Leo Slezak
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1873 Part IV
James Clerk Maxwell: "Electricity and Magnetism"
Euler-Chelpin Hans
Frobenius Leo
Payer Julius
Weyprecht Karl
Franz Josef Land
Cameron Verney Lovett
E. Remington and Sons
Remington Eliphalet
Hansen Gerhard Armauer
World Exposition 1873 Vienna
Wingfield Walter Clopton
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part I
Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1823-1900)
Brooks–Baxter War
Swiss constitutional referendum, 1874
Colony of Fiji
Hoover Herbert
Weizmann Chaim
Churchill Winston
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part II
Berdyaev Nikolai
Cassirer Ernst
Chesterton Gilbert
G.K. Chesterton quotes
G.K. Chesterton 
Flaubert: "La Tentation de Saint Antoine"
Frost Robert
Robert Frost
"Poems"
Thomas Hardy: "Far from the Madding Crowd"
Hofmannsthal Hugo
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
"Poems"
Victor Hugo: "Ninety-Three"
Maugham Somerset
Stein Gertrude
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part III
Roerich Nicholas
Nicholas Roerich
Max Liebermann: "Market Scene"
Renoir: "La Loge"
The Birth of Impressionism
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Schmidt Franz
Franz Schmidt "Intermezzo" Notre Dame
Franz Schmidt
Schoenberg Arnold
Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht
Arnold Schoenberg
Holst Gustav
Gustav Holst - Venus
Gustav Holst
Ives Charles
Charles Ives - Symphony 3
Charles Ives
Moussorgsky "Boris Godunov"
Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus"
Verdi: "Requiem"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1874 Part IV
Bosch Carl
Marconi Guglielmo
Curtius Ernst
Shackleton Ernest
Stanley: Expedition to the Congo and Nile
Still Andrew Taylor
Bunker Chang and Eng
Universal Postal Union
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Gerry Elbridge Thomas
Outerbridge Mary Ewing
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1875 Part I
Guangxu Emperor
Herzegovina Uprising of 1875–77
Public Health Act 1875
Congregations Law of 1875
Theosophical Society
Jung Carl
Congregations Law of 1875
Buchan John
Deledda Grazia
Mann Thomas
Rejane Gabrielle
Rilke Rainer Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1875 Part II
Bouguereau William-Adolphe
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Monet: "Woman with a Parasol"
An Unfortunate Experiment
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "Carmen"
Brull Ignaz
Ignaz Brull - Das goldene Kreuz
Coleridge-Taylor Samuel
Coleridge Taylor Samuel - Violin Concerto
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Karl Goldmark: "Die Konigin von Saba"
Ravel Maurice
Ravel - Rapsodie espagnole
Maurice Ravel
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1
Boisbaudran Lecoq
Gallium
Schweitzer Albert
Webb Matthew
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part I
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Ethio-Egyptian War
April Uprising
Batak massacre
Murad V
Abdulhamid II
Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Colorado
Tilden Samuel Jones
Hayes Rutherford Birchard
Ottoman constitution of 1876
Groselle Hilarion Daza
Adenauer Konrad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part II
Bradley Francis Herbert
Trevelyan George Macaulay
Pius XII
Felix Dahn: "Ein Kampf um Rom"
London Jack
Mallarme: "L'Apres-Midi d'un faune"
Mark Twain: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer"
Modersohn-Becker Paula
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Renoir: "Le Moulin de la Galette"
THE SECOND IMPRESSIONIST EXHIBITION
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1876 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 1
Casals Pablo
Leo Delibes: "Sylvia"
Falla Manuel
Manuel de Falla - Spanish dance
Manuel de Falla
Ponchielli: "La Gioconda"
Wagner: "Siegfried"
Walter Bruno
Wolf-Ferrari Ermanno
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - "Intermezzo"
Alexander Bell invents the telephone
Johns Hopkins University
Hopkins Johns
Bacillus anthracis
Macleod John James Rickard
Brockway Zebulon Reed
Centennial International Exhibition of 1876
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part I
Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
Siege of Plevna
Satsuma Rebellion
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part II
Granville-Barker Harley
Hesse Hermann
Hermann Hesse
"Siddhartha"
Ibsen: "The Pillars of Society"
Henry James: "The American"
Zola: "L'Assommoir"
Praxiteles: "Hermes"
Dufy Raoul
Raoul Dufy
Winslow Homer: "The Cotton Pickers"
Kubin Alfred
Alfred Kubin
Manet: "Nana"
THE THIRD IMPRESSIONIST EXHIBITION
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1877 Part III
Brahms: Symphony No. 2
Dohnanyi Ernst
Erno Dohnanyi - Piano Concerto No. 1
Camille Saint-Saens: "Samson et Delila"
Tchaikovsky: "Francesca da Rimini"
Ruffo Titta
Titta Ruffo: Di Provenza
Aston Francis William
Barkla Charles
Cailletet Louis-Paul
Pictet Raoul-Pierre
Liquid oxygen
Schiaparelli observes Mars' canals
Martian canal
German patent law
Madras famine of 1877
Maginot Andre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part I
Umberto I
Ten Years War 1868-1878
Battle of Shipka Pass
Jingoism
Epirus Revolt of 1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of Berlin 1878
Anti-Socialist Laws
Italian irredentism
Stresemann Gustav
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part II
Buber Martin
Leo XIII
Romanes George John
Treitschke Heinrich
Stoecker Adolf
Christian Social Party
Thomas Hardy: "The Return of the Native"
Kaiser Georg
Masefield John
Sandburg Carl
Sinclair Upton
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part III
Malevich Kazimir
Kazimir Malevich
Kustodiev Boris
Boris Kustodiev
Petrov-Vodkin Kuzma
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
Multiple Disappointments
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Ambros August Wilhelm
Boughton Rutland
Boughton: The Queen of Cornwall
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1878 Part IV
Mannlicher Ferdinand Ritter
Pope Albert Augustus
Watson John
Blunt and Lady Anne traveled in Arabia
Blunt Anne
Benz Karl
New Scotland Yard
Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover
Paris World Exhibition 1878
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part I
Anglo-Zulu War
Alexander of Battenberg
Second Anglo–Afghan War (1878-1880)
Treaty of Gandamak
Tewfik Pasha
Alsace-Lorraine
Stalin Joseph
Joseph Stalin
Trotsky Leon
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part II
Beveridge William
Henry George: "Progress and Poverty"
Giffen Robert
Forster Edward Morgan
Ibsen: "A Doll's House"
Henry James: "Daisy Miller"
Meredith: "The Egoist"
Stevenson: "Travels with a Donkey"
Strindberg: "The Red Room"
Valera Juan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1879 Part III
Picabia Francis
Francis Picabia
Steichen Edward Jean
Edward Steichen
Cameron Julia Margaret
Cameron Julia
Klee Paul
Paul Klee
Renoir: "Mme. Charpentier"
THE FOURTH IMPRESSIONIST EXHIRITION
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Suppe: "Boccaccio"
Tchaikovsky: "Eugene Onegin"
Respighi Ottorino
Respighi - Three Botticelli Pictures
Ottorino Respighi
Bridge Frank
Frank Bridge - The Sea
Einstein Albert
Albert Einstein
Aitken Maxwell
 
 
 

The Mongolian Plateau was crossed by Nikolai Przhevalsky four times in the 1870s.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1870 Part IV
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Huxley Thomas Henry: "Theory of Biogenesis"
 
 
Biogenesis
 
Biogenesis is the production of new living organisms or organelles. The law of biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur, is the observation that living things come only from other living things, by reproduction (e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders). That is, life does not arise from non-living material, which was the position held by spontaneous generation. This is summarized in the phrase Omne vivum ex vivo, Latin for "all life [is] from life." A related statement is Omnis cellula e cellula, "all cells [are] from cells;" this observation is one of the central statements of cell theory.
 
Biogenesis and abiogenesis
The term biogenesis was coined by Henry Charlton Bastian to mean the generation of a life form from nonliving materials, however,
Huxley Thomas Henry chose the term abiogenesis and redefined biogenesis for life arising from preexisting life. The generation of life from non-living material is called abiogenesis, and is theorized to have occurred at least once in the history of the Earth, or in the history of the Universe (see panspermia), when life first arose.

The term biogenesis may also refer to biochemical processes of production in living organisms.

Spontaneous generation and its disproof
The Ancient Greeks believed that living things could spontaneously come into being from nonliving matter, and that the goddess Gaia could make life arise spontaneously from stones – a process known as Generatio spontanea. Aristotle disagreed, but he still believed that creatures could arise from dissimilar organisms or from soil. Variations of this concept of spontaneous generation still existed as late as the 17th century, but towards the end of the 17th century, a series of observations and arguments began that eventually discredited such ideas. This advance in scientific understanding was met with much opposition, with personal beliefs and individual prejudices often obscuring the facts.

Francesco Redi, an Italian physician, proved as early as 1668 that higher forms of life did not originate spontaneously by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. but proponents of spontaneous generation claimed that this did not apply to microbes and continued to hold that these could arise spontaneously. Attempts to disprove the spontaneous generation of life from non-life continued in the early 19th century with observations and experiments by Franz Schulze and Theodor Schwann. In 1745, John Needham added chicken broth to a flask and boiled it. He then let it cool and waited. Microbes grew, and he proposed it as an example of spontaneous generation. In 1768, Lazzaro Spallanzani repeated Needham's experiment but removed all the air from the flask. No growth occurred. In 1854, Heinrich G. F. Schröder (1810–1885) and Theodor von Dusch, and in 1859, Schröder alone, repeated the Helmholtz filtration experiment and showed that living particles can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool.

In 1864, Louis Pasteur finally announced the results of his scientific experiments. In a series of experiments similar to those performed earlier by Needham and Spallanzani, Pasteur demonstrated that life does not arise in areas that have not been contaminated by existing life. Pasteur's empirical results were summarized in the phrase Omne vivum ex vivo, Latin for "all life [is] from life".

After obtaining his results, Pasteur stated: "La génération spontanée est une chimère" ("Spontaneous generation is a dream").

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1870
 
 
Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik explores the interior of Greenland
 
 
In 1870, Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik visited Greenland and in 1871 went again to Spitsbergen and stayed there all winter, nearly starving to death.
 
 
see also: Reaching for the Pole
 
 
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Mongolian Plateau was crossed by Przhevalsky Nikolay
 
 
Przhevalsky Nikolai
 

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky (Russian: Никола́й Миха́йлович Пржева́льский; April 12 [O.S. March 31] 1839 – November 1 [O.S. October 20] 1888) was a Russian geographer and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia. Although he never reached his ultimate goal, the holy city of Lhasa in Tibet, he traveled through regions then unknown to the West, such as northern Tibet (modern Tibet Autonomous Region), Amdo (now Qinghai) and Dzungaria (now northern Xinjiang). He contributed significantly to European knowledge of Central Asia and was the first known European to describe the only extant species of wild horse, which is named after him: Przewalski's horse.

 
see also: Przhevalsky Nikolay
 
 
Biography
Przhevalsky was born in Smolensk into a noble polonized Belarusian family (Polish name is Przewalski), and studied there and at the military academy in St. Petersburg. In 1864, he became a geography teacher at the military school in Warsaw.

In 1867, Przhevalsky successfully petitioned the Russian Geographical Society to be dispatched to Irkutsk, in central Siberia. His intention was to explore the basin of the Ussuri River, a major tributary of the Amur on the Russian-Chinese frontier. This was his first expedition of importance. It lasted two years, after which Przhevalsky published a diary of the expedition under the title, Travels in the Ussuri Region, 1867-69.

 
 

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky
  Further expeditions
In the following years he made four journeys to Central Asia:

- 1870–1873 from Kyakhta he crossed the Gobi Desert to Beijing then explored the upper Yangtze, and in 1872 crossed into Tibet. He surveyed over 7,000 sq mi (18,000 km2), collected and brought back with him 5000 plants, 1000 birds and 3000 insect species, as well as 70 reptiles and the skins of 130 different mammals. Przehevalsky was awarded the Constantine Medal by the Imperial Geographical Society, promoted to lieutenant-general, appointed to the Tsar's General Staff, and received the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th Class.

During his expedition, the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) was raging in China. The journey provided the General Staff with important intelligence on a Muslim uprising in the kingdom of Yaqub Beg in western China, and his lecture to the Russian Imperial Geographical Society was received with "thunderous applause" from an overflow audience.
The Russian newspaper Golos Prikazchika called the journey "one of the most daring of our time".

- 1876–1877 traveling through East Turkestan through the Tian Shan, he visited what he believed to be Qinghai Lake, which had reportedly not been visited by any European since Marco Polo.

 
 
The expedition consisted of ten men, twenty-four camels, four horses, three tonnes of baggage and a budget of 25,000 rubles, but the expedition was beset by disease and poor quality camels. In September 1877, the caravan was refurbished with better camels and horses, 72,000 rounds of ammunition and large quantities of brandy, tea and Turkish delight and set out for Lhasa, but did not reach its goal.

- 1879–1880 via Hami and through the Qaidam Basin to Qinghai Lake. The expedition then crossed the Tian Shan into Tibet, proceeding to within 260 km (160 mi) of Lhasa before being turned back by Tibetan officials;

- 1883–1885 from Kyakhta across the Gobi to Alashan and the eastern Tian Shan mountains, turning back at the Yangze. The expedition then returned to Qinghai Lake and moved westwards to Hotan and Issyk Kul.
 
 

Expeditions:
1870-1873
1876-1877
1879-1880
1883-1885
 
 
The results of these expanded journeys opened a new era for the study of Central Asian geography as well as studies of the fauna and flora of this immense region that were relatively unknown to his Western contemporaries. Among other things, he reported on the wild population of Bactrian camels as well as the Przewalski's horse and Przewalski's gazelle, named after him. Przhevalsky's writings include five major books written in Russian and two English translations: Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet  (1875) and From Kulja, Across the Tian Shan to Lob-Nor (1879). The Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Gold Medal in 1879 for his work.

Przhevalsky died of typhus not long before the beginning of his fifth journey, at Karakol on the shore of Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan. He contracted typhoid from the Chu River, which was acknowledged as being infected with the disease. The Tsar immediately changed the name of the town to Przhevalsk. There are monuments to him, and a museum about his life and work, there and another monument in St. Petersburg.

Less than a year after his premature death, Mikhail Pevtsov succeeded Przhevalsky at the head of his expedition into the depths of Central Asia. Przhevalsky's work was also continued by his young disciple Pyotr Kozlov.

There is another place named after Przhevalsky: he had lived in a small village called Sloboda, Smolensk Oblast, Russia from 1881-7 (except the period of his travels) and he apparently loved it. The village was renamed after him in 1964 and is now called Przhevalskoye. There is a memorial complex there that includes the old and new houses of Nikolay Przhevalsky, his bust, pond, garden, birch alleys, and khatka (a lodge, watch-house). This is the only museum of the famous traveler in Russia.

Przhevalsky is commemorated by the plant genus Przewalskia (Solanaceae) Maxim. His name is eponymic with more than 80 plant species as well.

 
 

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky
  Accusations of imperialism and racism
According to David Schimmelpenninck Van Der Oye's assessment, Przhevalsky's books on Central Asia feature his disdain for the "Oriental"— particularly Chinese civilization. Przhevalsky explicitly portrayed Chinese people as cowardly, dirty and lazy in his metaphor, "the blend of a mean Moscow pilferer and a kike", in all respects inferior to Western culture. He purportedly argued that imperial China's hold on its northern territories, in particular Xinjiang and Mongolia, was tenuous and uncertain, and Przhevalsky openly called for Russia's annexation of bits and pieces of China's territory. Przhevalsky said one should explore Asia "with a carbine in one hand, a whip in the other."
Przhevalsky, as well as other contemporary explorers including Sven Hedin, Sir Francis Younghusband, and Sir Aurel Stein, were active players in the British-Russian struggle for influence in Central Asia, the so-called Great Game.

Here you can penetrate anywhere, only not with the Gospels under your arm, but with money in your pocket, a carbine in one hand and a whip in the other. Europeans must use these to come and bear away in the name of civilisation all these dregs of the human race. A thousand of our soldiers would be enough to subdue all Asia from Lake Baykal to the Himalayas....Here the exploits of Cortez can still be repeated.

- Nikolay Przhevalsky on Asia

Przhevalsky's racism extended to non-Chinese Asians as well, describing the Tajik Yaqub Beg in a letter as follows, "Yakub Beg is the same shit as all feckless Asiatics.

 
 
The Kashgarian empire isn't worth a kopek." Przhevalsky also claimed Yaqub was "Nothing more than a political impostor," and also disdained the Muslim subjects of Yaqub Beg in Kashgar, claiming that they "constantly cursed their government and expressed their desire to become Russian subjects. [...] The savage Asiatic clearly understands Russian power is the guarantee for prosperity." These statements were made in a report in which Przhevalsky recommended that Russian troops occupy the Kashgarian emirate, but the Russian government took no action, and China recaptured Kashgar. Przhevalsky's dreams of taking land from China did not materialize.

Przhevalsky not only disdained Chinese ethnic groups, he also viewed the eight million non-Chinese peoples of Tibet, Turkestan, and Mongolia as uncivilized, evolutionarily backwards people who needed to be freed from Chinese rule. Przhevalsky reportedly killed a number of Tibetan nomads.

Przevalsky proposed Russia provoke rebellions of the Buddhist and Muslim peoples in these areas of China against the Chinese regime, start a war with China, and, with a small number of Russian troops, wrest control of Turkestan from China.

 
 

Конвой 4-й экспедиции Н. М. Пржевальского. Сидят (слева направо): Нефедов, Иванов, Перевалов, Соковников, Полуянов, Юсупов. Стоят (слева направо): Иринчинов, Безсонов, Добрынин, Дорджеев, Хлебников, Блинков, Протопопов, Телешов, Родионов, Жарников, Жаркой, Максимов. Фото В. И. Роборовского.
 
 
Personal life
Przhevalsky is known to have had a personal relationship with Tasya Nuromskaya, whom he met in Smolensk. According to one legend, during their last meeting Nuromskaya cut off her braid and gave it to him, saying that the braid would travel with him until their marriage. She died of a sunstroke while Przhevalsky was on an expedition.

Another woman in Przhevalsky's life was a mysterious young lady whose portrait, along with a fragment of poetry, was found in Przhevalsky's album. In the poem, she asks him to stay with her and not to go to Tibet, to which he responded in his diary: "I will never betray the ideal, to which is dedicated all of my life. As soon as I write everything necessary, I will return to the desert...where I will be much happier than in gilded salons that can be acquired by marriage".

Some researchers have claimed that Przhevalsky was a homosexual, who "despised women", and that his young male assistants that accompanied him on each of his journeys (including Nikolay Yagunov, aged 16, Mikhail Pyltsov, Fyodor Eklon, 18, and Yevgraf), could have been his lovers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

The Mongolian Plateau was crossed by Nikolai Przhevalsky four times in the 1870s. In the southwest he discovered a species of wild horse to which his name has been attached.
 
 
Peaks and Plateaus
 

The German Alexander Humboldt, one of the greatest explorers of any age, is generally remembered for the years, 1799-1804, that he spent in South America. However, he also explored central Asia, undertaking in 1829, at the age of 60, to investigate the region on behalf of the Russian tsar. He traveled east across Siberia to the Altai Mountains and Dzungaria, areas that were later explored by Peter Semenov and others, but as he never wrote an account of his expedition it has been largely forgotten.

 
Przhevalsky in Mongolia
 
Without doubt the greatest Russian-born explorer of Asia was Nikolai Przhevalsky, whose travels between 1870 and 1885 encompassed a huge area in Mongolia, western China, and northern Tibet. Przhevalsky was a soldier whose journeys were subsidized, though not generously, by the Russian Government. A keen hunter, he was also an excellent naturalist. As a surveyor he was not always perfect: his location of Lop Nor was out by some margin.
Although there were no really substantial new geographical discoveries to be made, Przhevalsky vastly increased knowledge of central Asia. He was the first to make sense of the mountain systems north of Tibet. Very determined, he was not easily diverted from his objectives by physical difficulties or by human opponents, such as the bandits who stole his camels or the Chinese peasant who set a mastiff on his amiable dog, Faust. (Przhevalsky shot the mastiff on the grounds that "if you let them kill your dog one day, they may try to kill you the next.")

On his first journey through central Asia, in 1870—73, Przhevalsky and his two companions crossed Mongolia in a highly uncomfortable Chinese cart, via the town of Urga (Ulan Bator). They followed the caravan trail across part of the Gobi Desert until they came to the Great Wall at Kalgan (Zhangjiakou). Thence they rode on horseback to Peking (Beijing), where they acquired a small caravan (seven camels) and returned to Kalgan, before moving off westward to the Ordos Desert and Yinchuan.

They followed the Yellow River (Huang He) through the desert, in "the silence of the tomb" for 300 miles (480 kilometers), then passed through still grimmer desert and mountains. They were making for the great lake Koko Nor (Qinghai Hu), 10,500 feet (3200 meters) above sea level, but were forced to turn back through lack of stores and money when still three or four weeks' journey away. After a rough journey back they recuperated in Kalgan before setting out once more. They finally succeeded in reaching the mysterious, dark blue expanse of Koko Nor m October 1872, thus accomplishing "the dream" of Przhevalsky's life. From the shores of the lake they journeyed south to the Yangtze before lack of money and supplies forced them to turn back.

Przhevalsky never reached another objective, Lhasa, though not for want of trying. Once he had to turn back when his camels died on the Tibetan Plateau; another time, less than 150 miles (240 kilometers) away, he was blocked by Tibetan guards - he did not have Younghusband's firepower. On that attempt, in 1879-80, he made a remarkable return journey, traveling south of Koko Nor and then due north across the full extent of the Gobi Desert to the Russian border. Przhevalsky died in the Tien Shan mountains preparing for another expedition in 1888.
 
 
 
 
The adventurer
 
For toughness and determination Przhevalsky could be compared with the Swede Sven Hedin, the last of the old explorer-adventurers. He covered immense distances. Between 1894 and 1897, he calculated, he walked and rode further than the distance between the Poles. On his expedition of 1893-94 he traveled to Tashkent and, accompanied by Khirgiz tribesmen, crossed the Pamirs in midwinter — "only a step separated me from the stars." Next he set off into the Takla Makan Desert, a silent, shadeless graveyard of vast mounds of sand, where extreme heat made him forget the icy mountains. Things soon went seriously wrong when the party - four men, eight camels, and some sheep -ran out of water, apparently having miscalculated the position of the Khotan (Hotan) River.

This episode, as described by Hedin, has become a classic explorer's tale. Two of the men and all the animals died. Attempts to drink the blood of the sheep had failed because it coagulated too quickly. Hedin was left with one man, Kasim, "who had taken an unfair share of the last of the water. They staggered around, at one point realizing that the tracks they came to were their own: they had gone round in a circle. Kasim collapsed in the sand, Hedin pressed on a few yards further, and finally stumbled on the Khotan. Unfortunately it was dry. At his last gasp, he heard a splash, saw a waterfowl rise, and found a surviving pool.

That experience did not prevent him recrossing the Takla Makan not long after, where, investigating some wooden posts in the sand, he discovered the remains of a town dating from the earliest days of the old Silk Road. He later discovered several more, but not being an archaeologist, he left their investigation to others.
In 1900-1 he made two attempts to reach Lhasa, but both failed because the Tibetans forced him to turn back. On his last individual expedition, starting from Leh in 1906, he explored the valley of the Tsangpo River and visited the monastery of Tasilhumpo, over a century after George Bogle. But Hedin's most valuable work was as head of a large-scale Sino-Swedish scientific expedition which conducted numerous programs and experiments at stations between the Caspian Sea and the Great Wall in 1928-34.
 
 

Sven Hedin was driven by an urge to "conquer Asia " and "tread paths where no European had set foot" as a result of his early travels in the Near East when he was a young diplomat in Persia.
 
The archaeologist
 
Hedin's contemporary Marc Aurel Stein, though his travels were no less extensive, was a totally different character. Of Hungarian origin, an intellectual, and a thorough "orientalist" before that term gained unfavorable overtones, he was employed by the Education Service in India, but had no difficulty in gaining official permission for his endless journeys.
In the years 1897-1927 he crisscrossed the region between the Hindu Kush and the Gobi Desert, where he once discovered his own footprints, dating from three years previously. A map of his journeys looks, in the words of the travel-writer Eric Newby, like the "footsteps of a demented centipede." More tactful though no less vigorous than Hedin, he was essentially an explorer of cultures. His greatest coup was his visit in 1907 to a famous place of pilgrimage, the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" at Dunhuang near the western end of the Gobi, from whose keeper he extracted, for a small fee, marvelous manuscripts and scroll paintings. Like Hedin, Stein is regarded in China as no better than a bandit.
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Johnson Allen
 

Allen Johnson (1870–1931) was an American historian, teacher, biographer, and editor, most notably of the Dictionary of American Biography.

 
Johnson was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, where his father, Moses Allen Johnson (whose ancestor came to Massachusetts in 1630) worked for the Lowell Felting Mills. His mother's name was Elmira Shattuck. Johnson was the valedictorian of his high school in 1888, and then attended Amherst College, graduating in 1892.

After graduation, he taught history and english in the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey (1892-1894), and then held a graduate fellowship at Amherst, reading philosophy and history. Johnson spent the years 1895-1897 studying history in Europe, with three semesters at the University of Leipzig (under Lamprecht and Marcks), and one semester in Paris at the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. Johnson then finished his Ph.D. at Columbia University under James Harvey Robinson, with a dissertation entitled The Intendant as a Political Agent under Louis XIV (1899).

Johnson began teaching history at Iowa College (now Grinnell College) in 1898, and left in 1905 to teach history and political science at Bowdoin College. In 1910, Johnson joined the faculty at Yale University, where he was appointed Larned Professor of American History.

Johnson's work as editor of the fifty-volume Chronicles of America series, which was acclaimed for its scholarship and high standards, led to his invitation from the American Council of Learned Societies to edit the proposed Dictionary of American Biography, which led Johnson to leave his position at Yale in 1926 and move to Washington, DC, to oversee work on the DAB. After a few years, Johnson invited his former student from Yale, Dumas Malone, to become assistant editor of the project.

Walking home on the evening of January 18, 1931, Johnson tried to cross a street against traffic and was struck by an automobile, whose driver brought him to the hospital, where he was pronounced dead within an hour of the accident. Dumas Malone was named to succeed him as DAB editor.

Johnson married Helen K. Ross on June 20, 1900, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. She died in 1921. They had one son, Allen S. Johnson.

Aside from serving as editor of the Chronicles of America series and the Dictionary of American Biography, Johnson was also the author of Stephen A. Douglas: A Study in American Politics (1908), Readings in American Constitutional History, 1776–1876 (1912), Union and Democracy (1915), The Historian and Historical Evidence (1926), and Readings in Recent American Constitutional History, 1876–1926 (1927). His Jefferson and His Colleagues (1921)[10] was published in the Chronicles of America series.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Grace William Gilbert and his brothers found the Gloucester Cricket Club
 
 
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
 

Gloucestershire County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh national cricket structure, representing the historic county of Gloucestershire.

The club plays its home games at its headquarters, the Bristol County Ground, in the Bishopston area of north Bristol. Each season a number of games are also played at the Cheltenham cricket festival held at the College Ground, Cheltenham. In recent years, matches have also been played at the Gloucester cricket festival at The King's School, Gloucester.

Gloucestershire CCC is best known as the county of Grace William Gilbert, whose father founded the club, and Wally Hammond, who scored 113 hundreds for the county. The club's most notable period of success came between 1999 to 2006 during which it won nine trophies and became the most formidable one-day outfit in England, winning a "double double" in 1999 and 2000 (both the Benson and Hedges Cup and the C&G Trophy, in both seasons), while also pocketing the Sunday League in 2000.

The club's traditional badge is the coat of arms of the City of Bristol, the club's home since being founded in 1870.

 
Honours
 
First XI honours
Champion County (3) – 1874, 1876, 1877; shared (1) – 1873
County Championship (0)
Runners-Up (6) – 1930, 1931, 1947, 1959, 1969, 1986
2 Divisions since 2000 (2000–2003 D2, 2003–2005 D1, 2006– D2)
Division 2 – 2003 – 3rd – Promoted to Division 1, 2005 – Relegated to Division 2
Royal London One-Day Cup (1) – 2015
Gillette/NatWest/C&G Trophy (5) – 1973, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004,
Semi-Finalists (6) – 1968, 1971, 1975, 1987, 1988, 2009
Sunday/National League/Pro40 (1) – 2000
Division Two (2) – 2002, 2006
Twenty20 Cup
Finalists (1) – 2007
Semi-Finalists (1) – 2003
Benson & Hedges Cup (3) – 1977, 1999, 2000
Finalists (1) – 2001
Semi-Finalists (1) – 1972

Second XI honours

Second XI Championship (1) – 1959

Earliest cricket
Cricket probably reached Gloucestershire by the end of the 17th century. It is known that the related sport of "Stow-Ball" aka "Stob-Ball" was played in the county during the 16th century. In this game, the bat was called a "stave". See Alice B Gomme : The Traditional Games of England, Scotland and Ireland.

A game in Gloucester on 22 September 1729 is the earliest definite reference to cricket in the county. From then until the founding of the county club, very little has been found outside parish cricket.

 
William Gilbert Grace
 
 
Origin of club
In the early 1840s, Dr Henry Grace and his brother-in-law Alfred Pocock founded the Mangotsfield Cricket Club which merged in 1846 with the West Gloucestershire Cricket Club, whose name was adopted until 1867, after which it became the Gloucestershire County Cricket Club. Grace hoped that Gloucestershire would join the first-class county clubs but the situation was complicated in 1863 by the formation of a rival club called the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Cricket Club.

Dr Grace's club played Gloucestershire's initial first-class match versus Surrey at Durdham Down in Bristol on 2, 3 & 4 June 1870. Gloucestershire joined the (unofficial) County Championship at this time but the existence of the Cheltenham club seems to have forestalled the installation of its "constitutional trappings". The Cheltenham club was wound up in March 1871 and its chief officials accepted positions in the hierarchy of Gloucestershire. So, although the exact details and dates of the county club's foundation are uncertain, it has always been assumed that the year was 1870 and the club celebrated its centenary in 1970.

What is certain is that Dr Grace was able to form the county club because of its playing strength, especially his three sons WG, EM and Fred.

 
 

Gloucestershire CCC in 1880.
 
 
Club history
The early history of Gloucestershire is dominated by the Grace family, most notably W G Grace, who was the club's original captain and held that post until his departure for London in 1899. His brother E M Grace, although still an active player, was the original club secretary. With the Grace brothers and Billy Midwinter in their team, Gloucestershire won three Champion County titles in the 1870s.

Since then Gloucestershire's fortunes have been mixed and they have never won the official County Championship. They struggled in the pre-war years of the County Championship because their best batsmen, apart from Gilbert Jessop and briefly Charlie Townsend, were very rarely available. The bowling, except when Townsend did sensational things on sticky wickets in late 1895 and late 1898, was very weak until George Dennett emerged – then it had the fault of depending far too much on him. Wally Hammond, who still holds many of the county's batting records formed part of an occasionally strong inter-war team, although the highest championship finish during this period was second in 1930 and 1931, when Charlie Parker and Tom Goddard formed a devastating spin attack.

Outstanding players since the war include Tom Graveney, "Jack" Russell and overseas players Mike Procter, Zaheer Abbas and Courtney Walsh.

 
 
Dominance in one-day cricket (1999–2004)
Gloucestershire established a dynasty in one-day cricket in the late 1990s and early 2000s winning several titles under the captaincy of Mark Alleyne and coaching of John Bracewell. The club operated on a small budget and was famed as a team greater than the sum of its parts boasting few international stars. Gloucestershire's overall knockout record between 1999 and 2002 was phenomenal: 28 wins and seven losses from 37 games, including 16 wins from 18 at the Bristol County Ground.

The club's incredible run of success started by defeating arch-rivals and neighbours Somerset in the 1999 NatWest Trophy final at Lords. In 2000 Gloucestershire completed a hat-trick of one-day titles, winning all the domestic limited overs tournaments, the Benson and Hedges Cup, the C&G Trophy and the Sunday League in the same season. The club maintained its success winning the C&G Trophy in 2003 and 2004, beating Worcestershire in the final on both occasions.

Recent years (2006–present)
The club's captain for the 2006 season, Jon Lewis, became the first Gloucestershire player for nearly 10 years to play for England at Test Match level, when he was picked to represent his country in the Third Test against Sri Lanka at Trent Bridge in June 2006. His figures in the first innings were 3–68, including a wicket in his very first over in Test cricket, and he was widely praised for his debut performance.

Following the retirement of several key players, such as "Jack" Russell and Mark Alleyne, Gloucestershire's fortunes declined. The club subsequently stripped back its playing budget as it looked to finance the redevelopment of the Bristol County Ground in order to maintain Category B status and secure future international games at their home ground.

 
A tablet of W.G. Grace at the Grace Gates of the Bristol County Ground
 
 
Performances suffered and despite reaching the final of the 2007 Twenty20 Cup, losing narrowly to Kent, the club failed to win any major trophies for a decade.

In 2013 Gloucestershire stopped using 'Gloucestershire Gladiators' as its limited-overs name.

Gloucestershire CCC won their first major silverware for 11 years in 2015, overcoming favoured Surrey to win the Royal London One-Day Cup in the final at Lords. Captain Michael Klinger, who flew back from Australia to play in the semi-final win over Yorkshire, was named the tournament's MVP scoring 531 runs at an average of over 106.

 
 
Rivalries
Gloucestershire contest one of English cricket's fiercest rivalries, the West Country derby against Somerset, which usually draws the biggest crowd of the season for either team. Traditionally, the boundary between the counties is drawn by the River Avon. Although Gloucestershire CCC's home ground is in Bristol, which straddles the Avon (and has been a county in its own right since 1373), many people from south Bristol favour Somerset CCC despite the fact the club plays its home games much further away in Taunton. However, in the past Somerset have played first-class matches at venues in the south of Bristol.
 
 

The Bristol County Ground
 
 
Grounds
The club's debut home match in first-class cricket was played at Durdham Down in the Clifton district of Bristol. This was the only time the county used this venue for a match. The following year Gloucestershire began to play matches at the Clifton College Close Ground in the grounds of Clifton College in the same part of the city, and this remained a regular venue for the county until the 1930s, hosting nearly 100 first-class matches. In 1872 the county used a venue outside Bristol for the first time when they played at the College Ground in the grounds of Cheltenham College. This venue has continued to be used regularly for the county's annual "Cheltenham festival" event, which in the modern era incorporates additional charity events and off-field entertainment. In 1889 Gloucestershire began to play matches at the Bristol County Ground in Bristol, which has subsequently served as the club's main headquarters and hosted the majority of the county's matches. It was here that the club played its first List A match in 1963 against Middlesex, and its first Twenty20 match forty years later against Worcestershire. Somerset have played first-class matches at other venues in the city.

In the 1920s Gloucestershire ceased playing at the Spa Ground in Gloucester, which had been in use since 1882, and switched to the Wagon Works Ground in the city. This ground remained in use for nearly 70 years, hosting over 150 first-class matches, before its use was discontinued in 1992. In 2012 the club investigated the possibility of returning to the Wagon Works Ground and making it their permanent headquarters after being refused permission for extensive redevelopment of the County Ground in Bristol, but ultimately this did not occur. In 1993, the club moved its base in Gloucester to Archdeacon Meadow, a ground owned by The King's School. This venue was only used for first-class matches until 2008 but was used for four Twenty20 matches in 2010 and 2011, the most recent county games to take place in the city. All subsequent matches have taken place in either Bristol or Cheltenham.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1870
 
 
Lee Robert Edward, American Confederate general, d. (b. 1807)
 
 

Robert E. Lee. 1869
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Luxemburg Rosa
 

Rosa Luxemburg, (born March 5, 1871, Zamość, Poland, Russian Empire [now in Poland]—died January 15, 1919, Berlin, Germany), Polish-born German revolutionary and agitator who played a key role in the founding of the Polish Social Democratic Party and the Spartacus League, which grew into the Communist Party of Germany. As a political theoretician, Luxemburg developed a humanitarian theory of Marxism, stressing democracy and revolutionary mass action to achieve international socialism.

 

Rosa Luxemburg
  Rosa Luxemburg was the youngest of five children of a lower middle-class Jewish family in Russian-ruled Poland. She became involved in underground activities while still in high school. Like many of her radical contemporaries from the Russian Empire who were faced with prison, she emigrated to Zürich in 1889. There she studied law and political economy, receiving a doctorate in 1898. In Zürich she became involved in the international socialist movement and met Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, Pavel Axelrod, and other leading representatives of the Russian social democratic movement, with whom, however, she soon began to disagree.

Together with a fellow student, Leo Jogiches, who was to become a lifelong friend and sometime lover, she challenged both the Russians and the established Polish Socialist Party because of their support of Polish independence. Consequently, she and her colleagues founded the rival Polish Social Democratic Party, which was to become the nucleus of the future Polish Communist Party. The national issue became one of Luxemburg’s main themes. To her, nationalism and national independence were regressive concessions to the class enemy, the bourgeoisie. She consistently underrated nationalist aspirations and stressed socialist internationalism. This became one of her major points of disagreement with Vladimir Lenin and his theory of national self-determination.

In 1898, after marrying Gustav Lübeck to obtain German citizenship, she settled in Berlin to work with the largest and most powerful constituent party of the Second International, the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Almost at once, she jumped into the revisionist controversy that divided the party.

 
 
In 1898 the German revisionist Eduard Bernstein argued that Marxist theory was essentially outdated and that socialism in highly industrialized nations could best be achieved through a gradualist approach, using trade-union activity and parliamentary politics. This Luxemburg denied categorically in Sozialreform oder Revolution? (1889; Reform or Revolution), in which she defended Marxist orthodoxy and the necessity of revolution, arguing that parliament was nothing more than a bourgeois sham. Karl Kautsky, the leading theoretician of the Second International, agreed with her, and revisionism consequently became a socialist heresy both in Germany and abroad, though it continued to make headway, especially in the labour movement.
 
 

Rosa Luxemburg around 1895-1900.
  The Russian Revolution of 1905 proved to be the central experience in Luxemburg’s life. Until then she had believed that Germany was the country in which world revolution was most likely to originate. She now believed it would catch fire in Russia. She went to Warsaw, participated in the struggle, and was imprisoned. From these experiences emerged her theory of revolutionary mass action, which she propounded in Massenstreik, Partei und Gewerkschaften (1906; The Mass Strike, the Political Party, and the Trade Unions).

Luxemburg advocated the mass strike as the single most important tool of the proletariat, Western as well as Russian, in attaining a socialist victory. The mass strike, the spontaneous result of “objective conditions,” would radicalize the workers and drive the revolution forward. In contrast to Lenin, she deemphasized the need for a tight party structure, believing that organization would emerge naturally from the struggle. For this she was repeatedly chastised by orthodox communist parties.

Released from her Warsaw prison, she taught at the Social Democratic Party school in Berlin (1907–14), where she wrote Die Akkumulation des Kapitals (1913; The Accumulation of Capital).

 
 
In this analysis, she described imperialism as the result of a dynamic capitalism’s expansion into underdeveloped areas of the world. It was during this time also that she began to agitate for mass actions and broke completely with the established Social Democratic party leadership of August Bebel and Kautsky, who disagreed with her incessant drive toward proletarian radicalization.
 
 

Luxemburg in Berlin in 1907.
  The Social Democratic Party backed the German government at the outbreak of World War I, but Luxemburg immediately went into opposition. In an alliance with Karl Liebknecht and other like-minded radicals, she formed the Spartakusbund, or Spartacus League, which was dedicated to ending the war through revolution and the establishment of a proletarian government.

The organization’s theoretical basis was Luxemburg’s pamphlet Die Krise der Sozialdemokratie (1916; The Crisis in the German Social Democracy), written in prison under the pseudonym Junius. In this work she agreed with Lenin in advocating the overthrow of the existing regime and the formation of a new International strong enough to prevent a renewed outbreak of mass slaughter. The actual influence of the Spartacus group during the war, however, remained small.

Released from prison by the German revolution (November 1918), Luxemburg and Liebknecht immediately began agitation to force the new order to the left. They exercised considerable influence on the public and were a contributing factor in a number of armed clashes in Berlin.

As a result, Luxemburg was vilified as “Bloody Rosa” in the bourgeois press. Like the Bolsheviks, Luxemburg and Liebknecht demanded political power for the workers’ and soldiers’ soviets but were frustrated by the conservative Socialist establishment and the army.
 
 
In late December 1918, they became founders of the German Communist Party, but Luxemburg attempted to limit Bolshevik influence in this new organization. In fact, her Die russische Revolution (1922; The Russian Revolution) chastised Lenin’s party on its agrarian and national self-determination stands and its dictatorial and terrorist methods. Luxemburg always remained a believer in democracy as opposed to Lenin’s democratic centralism. She was never able, however, to exercise a decisive influence on the new party. Because of their role in fomenting a communist uprising known as the Spartacus Revolt, she and Liebknecht were arrested and murdered in Berlin on January 15, 1919, by members of the Free Corps (Freikorps), a loose assemblage of conservative paramilitary groups.

A large selection of her translated correspondence was published as The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg (2011).

Helmut Dietmar Starke

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 

Luxemburg speaking to a crowd in 1907.
 
 
 
1870
 
 
John D. Rockefeller (Rockefeller John) founds Standard Oil Company
 
 
Standard Oil Company
 
Standard Oil Company and Trust, American company and corporate trust that from 1870 to 1911 was the industrial empire of John D. Rockefeller (Rockefeller John) and associates, controlling almost all oil production, processing, marketing, and transportation in the United States.
 
The company’s origins date to 1863, when Rockefeller joined Maurice B. Clark and Samuel Andrews in a Cleveland, Ohio, oil-refining business; in 1865 Rockefeller bought out Clark, and two years later he invited Henry M. Flagler to join as a partner in the venture. By 1870 the firm of Rockefeller, Andrews, and Flagler was operating the largest refineries in Cleveland, and these and related facilities became the property of the new Standard Oil Company, incorporated in Ohio in 1870. By 1880, through elimination of competitors, mergers with other firms, and use of favourable railroad rebates, it controlled the refining of 90 to 95 percent of all oil produced in the United States.
 
 
In 1882 the Standard Oil Company and affiliated companies that were engaged in producing, refining, and marketing oil were combined in the Standard Oil Trust, created by the Standard Oil Trust Agreement signed by nine trustees, including Rockefeller. By the agreement, companies could be purchased, created, dissolved, merged, or divided; eventually, the trustees governed some 40 corporations, of which 14 were wholly owned. Founded in 1882, Standard Oil of New Jersey was one component of the trust; by design the Standard Oil Trust embraced a maze of legal structures, which made its workings virtually impervious to public investigation and understanding. As Ida Tarbell wrote in her History of the Standard Oil Company (1904), “You could argue its existence from its effects, but you could not prove it.” In 1892 the Ohio Supreme Court ordered the trust dissolved, but it effectively continued to operate from headquarters in New York City.

In 1899, however, the company renamed its New Jersey firm Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) and incorporated it as a holding company. All assets and interests formerly grouped in the trust were transferred to the New Jersey company.

Although consolidation did advance the large-scale production and distribution of oil products, many critics believed that the resulting concentration of economic power was becoming excessive.

 
Standard Oil Building
 
 
In 1906 the U.S. government brought suit against Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; in 1911 the New Jersey company was ordered to divest itself of its major holdings—33 companies in all.

In 1911, after dissolution of the Standard Oil empire, eight companies retained “Standard Oil” in their names, but by the late 20th century the name had almost passed into history. In 1931 Standard Oil Company of New York merged with Vacuum Oil Company (another trust company) to form Socony-Vacuum, which in 1966 became Mobil Oil Corporation. Standard Oil (Indiana) absorbed Standard Oil of Nebraska in 1939 and Standard Oil of Kansas in 1948 and was renamed Amoco Corporation in 1985. Standard Oil of California acquired Standard Oil of Kentucky in 1961 and was renamed Chevron Corporation in 1984. Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) changed its name to Exxon Corporation in 1972. British Petroleum Company PLC completed the purchase of Standard Oil Company (Ohio) in 1987, and in 1998 British Petroleum (renamed BP) merged with Amoco. Exxon and Mobil merged in 1999, and Chevron merged with Texaco in 2001.

Other companies that once were part of the trust include Atlantic Richfield Company, Buckeye Pipe Line Company (Ohio), Chesebrough-Pond’s Inc., Pennzoil Company, and Union Tank Car Company (New Jersey).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Italians enter Rome and name it their capital city
 
 
 
1870
 
 
Lauder Harry
 

Sir Harry Lauder, in full Sir Harry MacLennan Lauder (born Aug. 4, 1870, Portobello, Edinburgh—died Feb. 26, 1950, near Strathaven, Lanarkshire, Scot.), Scottish music-hall comedian who excited enthusiasm throughout the English-speaking world as singer and composer of simplehearted Scottish songs.

 

Sir Harry Lauder
  While a child half-timer in a flax mill he won singing competitions but worked in a coal mine for 10 years before joining a concert party that took him to Belfast, Birkenhead, and other places that claim to have seen his professional debut. The first songs that he wrote and sang were Irish or English, but when he came to London, to Gatti’s music hall in May 1900, he was wearing the kilt. Later he wore trousers for his character studies only, such as “Saftest of the Family” and “It’s Nice To Get Up in the Morning.” During his week’s engagement at Gatti’s a gap occurred in the program at the Tivoli, and Lauder stepped into it with “Lass o’ Killiekrankie,” an immediate success.
Until then his songs had all been comic. With “I Love a Lassie” he struck the homely poetic note that gave charm to “When I Get Back Again to Bonnie Scotland” and “Roamin’ in the Gloamin’.” His range extended from the bibulous “A Wee Deoch an’ Doris” to the hortatory “End of the Road.” With a large repertory of his own songs (some verses partly by other persons) he toured America, South Africa, and Australia, and during World War I he sang to troops in France. He gave many concerts for war charities and was knighted in 1919. He wrote four books of reminiscences and acted in several films. He made 22 American tours and entertained troops again in World War II.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1870
 
 
Lloyd Marie
 

Matilda Alice Victoria Wood, (12 February 1870 – 7 October 1922), professionally known as Marie Lloyd; was an English music hall singer, comedian and musical theatre actress during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She was best known for her performances of songs such as "The Boy I Love Is Up in the Gallery", "My Old Man (Said Follow the Van)" and "Oh Mr Porter What Shall I Do". She received both criticism and praise for her use of innuendo and double entendre during her performances, and enjoyed a long and prosperous career, during which she was affectionately called the "Queen of the Music Hall".

 

Matilda Alice Victoria Wood
  Marie Lloyd, original name Matilda Alice Victoria Wood (born Feb. 12, 1870, London—died Oct. 7, 1922, London), foremost English music-hall artiste of the late 19th century, who became well known in the London, or Cockney, low comedy then popular.

She first appeared in 1885 at the Eagle Music Hall under the name Bella Delmare. Six weeks later she adopted her permanent stage name.

T.S. Eliot wrote that her deep popular appeal stemmed from her ability to capture and express the spirit of the English common people.

In her songs and sketches she introduced to the public a series of studies in Cockney humour, sympathetic to the little man and often risqué.

Her best acts included “Everything in the Garden’s Lovely,” “Oh, Mr. Porter,” and “One of the Ruins that Cromwell Knocked About a Bit.”

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1870 Part III NEXT-1871 Part I