Ernst Barlach, (born
January 2, 1870, Wedel, Germany—died October 24, 1938,
Güstrow, Germany), outstanding sculptor of the
Expressionist movement whose style has often been called
“modern Gothic.” Barlach also experimented with graphic
art and playwriting, and his work in all media is
notable for its preoccupation with the sufferings of
Barlach studied art in
Hamburg, Germany, and later in Dresden and Paris.
Influenced early in his career by Jugendstil,
Germany’s Art Nouveau style, he vacillated between
pursuing sculpture and the decorative arts.
In 1906 he traveled to Russia, where the strong
bodies and expressive faces of the peasants
stimulated his commitment to sculpture and to the
development of his mature style, which
characteristically features bulky, monumental
figures in heavy drapery.
In works such as The Solitary One (1911), details of
the figure are eliminated and the massive forms seem
ready to explode with bound energy. Barlach achieved
a rough-hewn quality by preferring wood, the
material used in late Gothic sculpture. Even when he
worked with other, more-contemporary materials, as
in his bronze Death (1925), he often emulated the
raw quality of wood sculpture to achieve a more
1910, Barlach began to pursue a career as a
dramatist. His most notable dramas, Der tote Tag
(1912; “The Dead Day”) and Der Findling (1922; “The
Foundling”), combine symbolism and realism to
present the tragic futility of existence. He often
created woodcuts and lithographs to accompany his
great fame in the 1920s and early 1930s, when he
executed, among other works, the celebrated war
memorials in Magdeburg and Hamburg and the religious
figures for the Church of St. Katherine in Lübeck
(all in Germany).
Although his work was removed
from German museums under the Nazi regime and categorized as
“degenerate art,” after World War II his talent was once
again recognized. Barlach’s former studio in Güstrow,
Germany, was made into a museum, and the Ernst Barlach House
in Hamburg exhibits a large collection of his sculptures,
drawings, and prints.
is an oil on canvas painting by Pre-Raphaelite artist
Rossetti Dante Gabriel, completed in 1870. It depicts Beatrice
Portinari from Dante Alighieri's poem La Vita Nuova at the
moment of her death. The painting's title in English
translates to 'Blessed Beatrice'. La Vita Nuova had been a
story that Rossetti had found of interest from childhood and
he had begun work translating it into English in 1845
and published it in his work, The Early Italian Poets.
Rossetti modeled Beatrice after his deceased wife and
frequent model, Elizabeth Siddal, who died in 1862. The
painting was created from the numerous drawings that
Rossetti had made of Siddal during their time together.
The symbolism in the painting of a red dove, a messenger of
love, relates back to Rossetti's love for Siddal with the
white poppy representing laudanum and the means of her
death. Several of Siddal's friends found the painting to
bear little resemblance to the drawings of her—the facial
features were harder and the neck is out of proportion.
Beata Beatrix is one of Rossetti's most recognized works and
has made Siddal's name to be one that is frequently linked
with Dante Alighieri's Beatrice.
In an 1873 letter to his friend William Morris, Rossetti
said he intended the painting "not as a representation of
the incident of the death of Beatrice, but as an ideal of
the subject, symbolized by a trance or sudden spiritual
This painting is on display
in the Tate Britain. It was a gift in memory of Francis,
Baron Mount-Temple by his wife, Georgiana in 1889.
Replicas by Rossetti
Rossetti was commissioned by William Graham to make a
replica of Beata Beatrix. This oil replica, dated 1872, is
almost the same size as the original but has a predella
depicting Dante Alighieri and Beatrice meeting in paradise
with a frame designed by Rossetti. It was given by bequest
and on display at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Several other replica works were made by Rossetti of
Beata Beatrix—a watercolor, a chalk drawing and another oil
painting that was begun in 1877. This replica was still
unfinished at the time of his death. His lifelong friend,
Ford Madox Brown, completed it. In this painting, in
contrast to the original, the bird flying towards Beatrice
is a white dove holding red poppies in its beak. This
painting is in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, England.
Borisov-Musatov (Russian: Ви́ктор Эльпидифо́рович
Бори́сов-Муса́тов), (April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1870 -
November 8 [O.S. October 26] 1905) was a Russian
painter, prominent for his unique Post-Impressionistic
style that mixed Symbolism, pure decorative style and
realism. Together with Mikhail Vrubel he is often
referred as the creator of Russian Symbolism style.
Borisov-Musatov. Self-portrait. 1905
Victor Musatov was born in Saratov, Russia (he added
the last name Borisov later). His father was a minor
railway official who had been born as a serf. In his
childhood he suffered a spinal injury, which made
him humpbacked for the rest of his life. In 1884 he
entered Saratov real school, where his talents as an
artist were discovered by his teachers Fedor
Vasiliev and Konovalov.
He was enrolled in
the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and
Architecture in 1890, transferring the next year to
the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint-Petersburg,
where he was a pupil of Pavel Chistyakov.
The damp climate of Saint-Petersburg was not good
for Victor's health and in 1893 he was forced to
return to Moscow and re-enroll to the Moscow School
of painting, sculpturing and architecture. His
earlier works like May flowers, 1894 were labelled
decadent by the school administration, who sharply
criticised him for making no distinction between the
girls and the apple trees in his quest for a
decorative effect. The same works however were
praised by his peers, who considered him to be the
leader of the new art movement.
In 1895 Victor once
again left Moscow School of painting, sculpturing
and architecture and enrolled in Fernand Cormon's
school in Paris. He studied there for three years,
returning in summer months to Saratov. He was
fascinated by the art of his French contemporaries,
and especially by the paintings of "the father of
French Symbolism" Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and by
the work of Berthe Morisot.
In 1898 Borisov-Musatov
returned to Russia and almost immediately fell into what it
is called "fin de sičcle nostalgia". He complained about
"the cruel, the truly iron age", "dirt and boredom",
"devil's bog", and he had acute money problems that were
somewhat alleviated only in the last years of his life when
collectors started to buy his paintings. Musatov's response
was creating a half-illusory world of the 19th century
nobility, their parks and country-seats. This world was
partially based on the estate of princes
Prozorvky-Galitzines Zubrilovka and partially just on
Musatov's imagination. Borisov-Musatov also abandoned
oil-paintings for the mixed tempera and watercolor and
pastel techniques that he found more suitable for the subtle
visual effects he was trying to create.
Borisov-Musatov was a
member of the Union of Russian Artists and one of the
founders and the leader of the Moscow Association of
Artists, a progressive artistic organization that brought
together Pavel Kuznetsov, Peter Utkin, Alexander Matveyev,
Martiros Saryan, Nikolai Sapunov, and Sergei Sudeikin.
The most famous painting of that time is The Pool, 1902. The
painting depicts two most important women in his life: his
sister, Yelena Musatova and his bride (later wife), artist
Yelena Alexandrova. The people are woven into the landscape
of an old park with a pond.
Borisov-Musatov. The Pool, 1902
Another famous painting is The
Phantoms. 1903 depicting ghosts on the steps of an old
country manor. The painting was praised by the contemporary
Symbolist poets Valery Bryusov and Andrey Bely.
In 1904 Borisov-Musatov had
a very successful solo exhibition in a number of cities in
Germany, and in the spring of 1905 he exhibited with Salon
de la Société des Artistes Français and became a member of
The last finished painting
of Borisov-Musatov was Requiem. Devoted to the memory of
Nadezhda Staniukovich, a close friend of the artist, the
painting may indicate Borisov-Musatov's evolution towards
the Neo-classical style.
Borisov-Musatov died on
October 26, O.S. 1905 of a heart attack and is buried on a
bank of Oka River near Tarusa. On his tomb there is a
sculpture of a sleeping boy by Musatov's follower Alexander
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Borisov-Musatov. Self-Portrait with sister, 1898
Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois
(Russian: Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Бенуа́, also spelled
Alexander Benois; 3 May [O.S. 21 April] 1870, Saint
Petersburg – 9 February 1960, Paris), was an influential
artist, art critic, historian, preservationist, and founding
member of Mir iskusstva (World of Art), an art movement and
magazine. As a designer for the Ballets Russes under Sergei
Diaghilev, Benois exerted what is considered a seminal
influence on the modern ballet and stage design.
Portrait of Alexandre Benois by Léon Bakst, 1898
Early life and education
Alexandre was born into the artistic and intellectual Benois
family, prominent members of the 19th and early 20th-century
Russian intelligentsia. His mother Camilla (ru: Камилла
Альбертовна Кавос, and then Бенуа) was the granddaughter of
Catterino Cavos. His father was Nicholas Benois, a noted
Russian architect. His brothers included Albert, a painter,
and Leon, also a notable architect. His sister, Maria,
married the composer and conductor Nikolai Tcherepnin (with
whom Alexandre would work). Not planning a career in the
arts, Alexandre graduated from the Faculty of Law, Saint
Petersburg Imperial University, in 1894.
Entry into art career
Three years later while in Versailles, Benois painted a
series of watercolors depicting Last Promenades of Louis
XIV. When exhibited by Pavel Tretyakov in 1897, they brought
him to attention of Sergei Diaghilev and the artist Léon
Bakst. Together the three men founded the art magazine and
movement Mir iskusstva (World of Art), which promoted the
Aesthetic Movement and Art Nouveau in Russia.
During the first decade of
the new century, Benois continued to edit Mir iskusstva, but
also pursued his scholarly and artistic interests. He wrote
and published several monographs on 19th-century Russian art
and Tsarskoye Selo.
In 1903, Benois printed his
illustrations to Pushkin's poem The Bronze Horseman, a work
since recognized as one of the landmarks in the genre. In
1904, he published his “Alphabet in Pictures,” at once a
children’s primer an elaborate art book, copies of which
fetch as much as $10,000US at auction.
this volume were featured at a video presentation during the
opening ceremony of the Winter Olympics in Sochi in 2014.
In 1901, Benois was
appointed scenic director of the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint
Petersburg, the performance space for the Imperial Russian
Ballet. He moved to Paris in 1905 and thereafter devoted
most of his time to stage design and decor.
During these years, his work with Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
was groundbreaking. His sets and costumes for the
productions of Les Sylphides (1909), Giselle (1910), and
Petrushka (1911), are counted among his greatest triumphs.
Although Benois worked primarily with the Ballets Russes, he
also collaborated with the Moscow Art Theatre and other
notable theatres of Europe.
Surviving the upheaval of
the Russian Revolution of 1917, Benois achieved recognition
for his scholarship; he was selected as curator of the
gallery of Old Masters in the Hermitage Museum at Leningrad,
where he served from 1918 to 1926. During this time he
secured his brother's heirloom Leonardo da Vinci painting of
the Madonna for the museum. It became known as the Madonna
Benois. Benois published his Memoirs in two volumes in 1955.
In 1927 he left Russia and
settled in Paris. He worked primarily as a set designer
after settling in France.
Alexandre Benois. Set design for Le Pavillon d'Armide, Ballets Russes,
Benois's son, Nicola Alexandrovich Benois (also known as
Nikolai Benois), was born in 1901, and went on to become a
celebrated opera designer, creating costumes and sets for
opera companies all over the world.
Benois's nephew, Nikolai
Albertovich Benois, married the opera singer Maria
Benois was also the uncle
of Eugene Lanceray and Zinaida Serebriakova, who became
recognized Russian artists, and one of the great-uncles of
the British actor Sir Peter Ustinov.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parade in the Reign of Paul l.
(November 25, 1870 – November 13, 1943) was a French
painter and writer, and a member of the Symbolist and
Les Nabis movements. His theories contributed to the
foundations of cubism, fauvism, and abstract art.
Maurice Denis. Self-Portrait Under The Trees, 1891
Denis studied at the Acadйmie Julian (1888) under Jules
Lefebvre and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Reacting against
the naturalistic tendencies of Impressionism, Denis fell
under the influence of the work of Paul Gauguin, whose style
was also much admired by Denis's fellow students Paul
Serusier, Edouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, and Ker Xavier
Roussel. With these friends, Denis joined in the Symbolist
movement and its later offshoot, the group of painters
collectively called the Nabis (q.v.). The quasi-mystical
attitude of the Nabis was perfectly suited to Denis's highly
religious nature. In 1890 Denis expressed the underlying
principle of much modern painting in the following
often-quoted words: “It should be remembered that a
picture—before being a warhorse, a nude, or an anecdote of
some sort—is essentially a flat surface covered with colours
assembled in a certain order.”
Later, however, after visiting Italy, Denis became
greatly influenced by the works of the great Italian fresco
painters ofthe 14th and 15th centuries and began to place
emphasis on subject matter, traditional perspective, and
modeling, as in “Homage а Cezanne” (1901). Denis's
monumental mural decorations are to be seen in many French
churches as well as on the ceiling of the Champs Elysees
Theatre in Paris. In 1919 he, along with Georges Devalliиres,
founded the Studios of Sacred Art. His work was one of the
chief forces in the revival of religious art in France.
events — the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, the
proclamation of the Third Republic and the Siege of Paris -
greatly affect the lives of the artists.
Manet, Degas and Renoir enlist; Bazille is killed in action,
aged 29; and Monet and Pissarro flee to England, where they meet
the Parisian dealer Paul Durand-Ruel.
Fantin-Latour paints A Studio in the Batignolles Quarter depicting
most of the Batignolles group whose meetings at the Cafe Guerbois
contributed to the birth of Impressionism. It was exhibited at the
Salon in April.
Durand-Ruel establishes himself in an inferior gallery in the rue
Lafayette. He later describes the move as 'the greatest mistake I
A Studio in the Batignolles
1870 The portraits in this work were painted during individual
sittings in Manet's studio, and are of: (from the left) Scholderer,
Manet, Renoir, Astruc (seated), Zola, Maitre, Bazille and Monet.
Monet and Renoir work, in shared poverty, at Bougival.
18th Manet exhibits The Philosopherand
watercolours at the Cercle de l'Union Artistique in the Place
23rd Manet has a duel with Edmond Duranty at the Cafe
Guerbois over an insulting remark made by the critic.
Duranty is injured, but they make it up almost immediately.
Manet virtually repaints Morisot's portrait of her mother and
sister, which she is planning to send to the Salon. She is furious,
and very reluctant to exhibit the painting, but eventually relents.
Bazille paints a picture of his friends in his studio - to which
Manet later adds a portrait of the artist.
The Artist's Studio
1870 Bazille was sharing a studio with Renoir at 9 rue de la Condamine
when he painted this work. Shown are: Edmond Maitre, at the piano;
Manet, looking at the easel; Monet, behind him, smoking a pipe;
Zola, on the stairs; and Renoir, sitting on a table. Manet later
added the tall figure of Bazille.
20th A number of progressive
artists put forward a list for the Salon jury as an alternative to
the one drawn up by the conservative majority.
Manet and Millet are
included in the alternative list of candidates, but are not selected
for the jury.
Renoir and Bazille share rooms at 8 rue des Beaux-Arts.
Monet works in Trouville and Le Havre.
3rd Opening of the Salon.
Among the works hung are Bazille's Summer Scene;
Madame Camus in Red; Manet's The Music Lesson
and Portrait of Eva Gonzales; Morisot's
The Mother and Sister of the Artist and
Young Woman at a Window; Pissarro's Autumn,
plus another landscape by him; Renoir's Bather with a Griffon
and A Woman of Algeria; and two views of the Canal
St-Martin by Sisley.
The Mother and Sister of the Artist
1870 Painted lor the Salon of 1870 and retouched by Manet against
Morisot's wishes, this portrait shows Mmc Morisot reading to her
daughter, Edma. The latter had recently married Adolphe Pontillon, a
naval officer, and had come home to have her first child. Edma's
pregnancy is not highlighted, but her reflective air and accented
resemblance to her mother suggest that Morisot regarded the work as
an intimate family document.
A Woman of Algeria
Inspired by Delacroix, who visited Algiers and painted a large
number of pictures with Algerian motifs, Renoir produced a few
paintings in an 'Orientalist5 style, although not travelling to
Algeria himself until 1881. When exhibited at the Salon of 1870, the
work received favourable notice from the critics. The model was Lise
Trehot, this being one of the last paintings in which she posed for
Degas has a letter published in Paris-Journal calling for a
better hanging of the Salon. He suggests there should be only two
rows of pictures, with a space of about 30cm (12in) between each
picture; oil paintings and drawings should not be separated; and
each exhibitor should have the right to withdraw his work after a
18th Cezanne is a witness at Zola's wedding.
28th Monet marries Camille Doncieux in Paris.
Greiner, Camille Monet, 1871
Manet stays at St-Germain-en-Laye with his friend the Italian
painter Giuseppe de Nittis.
10th Following France's declaration of war against Prussia,
Renoir is called up and posted to Bordeaux with the 10th Cavalry
Division. Bazille enlists in the 1st Zouave Regiment.
On the Beach, Trouville
1870 Monet was working in Trouville when the Franco-Prussian war broke
out. A number of the paintings from this period reveal the extent to
which, both in subject matter and treatment, he was moving towards
the ideals of Impressionsim. Notable in this sketch is the way he
juxtaposes light and dark tones to emphasize the value of each. The
figure on the left is that of his wife, Camille.
The siege of Paris begins. Degas enlists in the National Guard and
is posted with the artillery, although he is 'virtually blind in one
Manet's sends his family to Oloron-Ste-Marie in the Pyrenees, shuts
up his studio, and sends thirteen of his paintings to Duret.
Mary Cassatt returns to the USA.
Monet moves to London, staying first at 11 Arundel Street,
Piccadilly, then at 1 Bath Place, Kensington.
Cezanne takes refuge from conscription in L'Estaque, where he is
visited by Zola.
Durand-Ruel moves to London with an extensive collection of
pictures, some committed to him for safe-keeping. He takes a house
for his family in Brompton Crescent and rents the unfortunately
named 'German Gallery' at 168 New Bond Street.
Pissarro and his family go to stay with his friend Ludovic Piette in
Sisley, according to one account stays in Louveciennes, according to
another in Bougival. He also spends some time in Paris - where his
father dies, leaving him nothing.
Louveciennes: The Road to
Degas is posted to the fortifications of Paris, north of the Bois de
Vincennes, where his commanding officer is Henri Rouart, a friend
from school days who is an industrialist and amateur painter. (Rouart
would later become an ardent patron of the Impressionists.)
Daubigny introduces Monet to Durand-Ruel in London.
Pissarro's daughter, born in October, dies.
11th Manet enlists as a lieutenant in the National Guard.
28th Bazille is killed, aged 29, in a minor skirmish at
Beaune-la-Rolonde in Burgundy.
Pissarro and his family move to London, living at 2 Chatham Terrace,
Palace Road, Norwood. He meets Durand-Ruel.
7th Manet is transferred to staff headquarters, where he is
in company with Meissonier and other painters.
10th Zola leaves Paris for Marseilles. He then goes to
Bordeaux, where the government is situated, and is employed as
secretary to a politician. Durand-Ruel's gallery in New Bond Street
holds the first exhibition of the Society of French Artists (devised
by Durand-Ruel largely for public relations purposes), under the
patronage of Corot, Courbet, Millet, Diaz de la Pefia, Daubigny and
The 144 works on show are mostly by earlier Romantic painters
and members of the Barbizon School, but there are also two views of
Sydenham and Norwood by Pissarro (which Durand-Ruel buys) and
Monet's Entrance to Trouville Harbour, which the
artist had brought with him from France.
The Hotel des Roches-Noires
1870 The Hotel des Roches-Noires so called because of the seaweed-covered
rocks in the area -was the most sumptuous in Trouville, with 150
rooms, indoor bathing facilities and a concert hall. To emphasize
its cosmopolitan flavour, Monet painted the American, French and
British flags fluttering in front of it.
MANET'S LETTERS FROM
THE SIEGE OF PARIS
During the siege of Paris Manet wrote
regularly to his wife, Suzanne, at Oloron-Ste-Marie, the letters
being delivered by the famous balloon post that kept the capital in
touch with the rest of the country.
It's a long time since I heard fromyou. Some of my letters should
have reached you by the balloons that left Paris. I think there's
one having tomorrow or the day after. The Prussians seem to be
regretting their decision to besiege Paris. They must have thought
it easier than it is. It's true that we can't have milk with our
coffee any more; the butchers are only open three days a week,
people queue up outside from four in the morning, and there's
nothing left for the latecomers. We eat meat only once a day, and I
believe all sensible Parisians must be doing the same.
I've seen the Monsot ladies recently, who are probably going to
leave Passy, which is likely to be bombarded. Paris nowadays is a
From jive in the morning until evening, the Militia and the National
Guards who are not on duty do drill, and are turning into real
Otherwise life is very boring in the evenings - all the
cafe-restaurants are closed after ten, and one just has to go to
An etching by Manet (1870-71) of a queue outside
a butcher's shop.
The weather is terrible today, my dear Suzanne. It's impossible to
set foot outside, particularly since my foot is only just getting
better and I can only wear very light shoes. You must have seen from
the papers that the Pans army made a concerted attack on the enemy
positions on Friday. The fighting went on all day and I believe the
Prussians sustained great losses... We're having enough of being
boxed in here without any outside contacts. A smallpox outbreak is
spreading, and at the moment we're down to 75 grams of meat per
person, while milk is only available to the children and the sick.
The dispatch of the balloon which
carried post out of Paris to unoccupied France.
Marie's big cat has been killed, and we suspect
somebody in the house; it was for a meal, of course,
and Marie was in tears!
She's taking very good care of us. One doesn't feel
like seeing anyone, it's always the same
conversations; the evenings go very slowly; the Cafe
Guerbois is my only distraction, and that's become
I think of you all the time and have filled the
bedroom with your portraits. Tell mother not to
worry and to make the most of the good weather.
We're having torrential rain here and I'm revelling
in your woollen socks, which come in very handy
because we're up to our ankles in mud on the
To Eva Gonzales:
For the past two months I've had no news from my poor
Suzanne, who must be very anxious, though I write to her
frequently. We're all soldiers here. Degas and I are in the
artillery as volunteer gunners. I'm looking forward to
having you paint my portrait in my huge gunner's greatcoat
when you're back. Tissot covered himself in glory in the
action at La Gonchere. My brothers and Guillemet are in the
National Guard battle units, and are waiting to go into
action. My paintbox and easel are stuffed into my knapsack,
so there's no excuse for wasting my time, and I am going to
take advantage of the facilities available.
A lot of cowards have left here, including our friend Łola,
Fantin, etc. I don't think they'll be very well received
when they return. We're beginning to feel the pinch here;
horse meat is a delicacy, donkey is exorbitantly expensive;
there are butchers' shops for dogs, cats and rats. Pans is
deathly sad. When will it all end?
A view of the fort of Montrouge during the siege of Paris.
Coppélia is a comic
ballet originally choreographed by Arthur Saint-Léon to
the music of
, with libretto by Charles-Louis-Étienne Nuitter.
Nuitter's libretto and mise-en-scčne was based upon two
stories by E. T. A. Hoffmann: Der Sandmann (The Sandman)
and Die Puppe (The Doll). In Greek, κοπελιά means girl,
young lady. Coppélia premiered on 25 May 1870 at the
Théâtre Impérial l'Opéra, with the 16-year-old
Giuseppina Bozzacchi in the principal role of Swanhilde.
Its first flush of success was interrupted by the
Franco-Prussian War and the Siege of Paris (which also
led to the early death of Giuseppina Bozzacchi, on her
17th birthday), but eventually it became the
most-performed ballet at the Opéra.
Modern-day productions are
traditionally derived from the revivals staged by Marius
Petipa for the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg in the late
19th century. Petipa's choreography was documented in the
Stepanov method of choreographic notation at the turn of the
20th century. These notations were later used to stage the
St. Petersburg version for such companies as the Vic-Wells
Ballet (precursor of today's Royal Ballet).
Dr. Coppelius is an doctor who has made a life-size
dancing doll. It is so lifelike that Franz, a
village youth, becomes infatuated with it and sets
aside his true heart's desire, Swanhilda. She shows
him his folly by dressing as the doll, pretending to
make it come to life and ultimately saving him from
an untimely end at the hands of the inventor.
The story begins during a town festival to celebrate
the arrival of a new bell. The town crier announces
that, when it arrives, anyone who becomes married
will be awarded a special gift of money. Swanhilda
and Franz plan to marry during the festival.
However, Swanhilda becomes unhappy with Franz
because he seems to be paying more attention to a
girl named Coppélia, who sits motionless on the
balcony of a nearby house. The house belongs to a
mysterious and faintly diabolical inventor, Doctor
Coppélius. Although Coppélia spends all of her time
sitting motionless and reading, Franz is mesmerized
by her beauty and is determined to attract her
attention. Still upset with Franz, Swanhilda shakes
an ear of wheat to her head: if it rattles, then she
will know that Franz loves her. Upon doing this,
however, she hears nothing. When she shakes it by
Franz's head, he also hears nothing; but then he
tells her that it rattles. However, she does not
believe him and runs away heartbroken.
Later on, Dr.
Coppelius leaves his house and is heckled by a group
of boys. After shooing them away, he continues on
without realising that he has dropped his keys in
the melée. Swanhilde finds the keys, which gives her
the idea of learning more about Coppélia. She and
her friends decide to enter Dr. Coppelius' house.
Meanwhile, Franz develops his own plan to meet
Coppélia, climbing a ladder to her balcony.
Photo of the
ballerina Giuseppina Bozzachi (1853-1870) costumed
as Swanilda in the ballet Coppélia. Paris, France,
Swanhilda and her friends find themselves in a large room
filled with people. However, the occupants aren't moving.
The girls discover that, rather than people, these are
life-size mechanical dolls. They quickly wind them up and
watch them move. Swanhilda also finds Coppélia behind a
curtain and discovers that she, too, is a doll.
Dr. Coppelius returns home
to find the girls. He becomes angry with them, not only for
trespassing but for also disturbing his workroom. He kicks
them out and begins cleaning up the mess. However, upon
noticing Franz at the window, Coppélius invites him in. The
inventor wants to bring Coppélia to life but, to do that, he
needs a human sacrifice. With a magic spell, he will take
Franz's spirit and transfer it to Coppélia. After Dr.
Coppelius proffers him some wine laced with sleeping powder,
Franz begins to fall asleep. The inventor then readies his
However, Dr. Coppelius did
not expel all the girls: Swanhilda is still there, hidden
behind a curtain. She dresses up in Coppélia's clothes and
pretends that the doll has come to life. She wakes Franz and
then winds up all the mechanical dolls to aid their escape.
Dr. Coppelius becomes confused and then saddened when he
finds a lifeless Coppélia behind the curtain.
Swanhilda and Franz are about to make their wedding vows
when the angry Dr. Coppelius appears, claiming damages.
Dismayed at having caused such an upset, Swanhilda offers
Dr. Coppelius her dowry in return for his forgiveness.
However, Franz tells Swanhilde to keep her dowry and offers
to pay Dr. Coppelius instead. At that point, the mayor
intervenes and gives Dr. Coppelius a bag of money, which
placates him. Swanhilda and Franz are married and the entire
town celebrates by dancing.
Doctor Coppelius is not unlike Hoffmann's sinister
Herr Drosselmeyer in The Nutcracker or the macabre
Svengali-like travelling magician of the same name
in Offenbach's The Tales of Hoffmann.
The part of Franz
was danced en travesti by Eugénie Fiocre, a
convention that pleased the male members of the
Jockey-Club de Paris and was retained in Paris until
after World War II.
wedding-day divertissements in the village square
that occupy Act III are often deleted in modern
Some influence on
this story comes from travelling shows of the late
18th and early 19th centuries starring mechanical
automatons. This field of entertainment has been
under-documented, but a recent survey of the field
is contained in The Mechanical Turk by Tom Standage
(2002). These shows were later to also influence
Charles Babbage in his invention of the difference
A variation of the Coppélia story is contained in
Jacques Offenbach's opera, The Tales of Hoffmann, a
fictional work about the same Hoffmann who wrote the
story that inspired Coppélia.
The opera consists of a prologue, three fantastic
tales in which Hoffmann is a participant, and an
epilogue. In the first story, based on Der Sandmann,
Hoffmann falls in love with a mechanical doll,
Olympia, but in this case, the story takes on a
melancholy tinge as the doll breaks apart.
Photo by unknown
of Adeline Genée in Coppélia, London, 1900.
San Francisco Ballet
In 1974, San Francisco Ballet produced a complete version of
Coppélia, choreographed by Willam Christensen. It was the
Company's first full-length ballet, and Christensen was the
first American choreographer to produce a complete Coppélia
in the 20th century. The ballet, which starred Willam
Christensen as Franz, Earl Riggins as Dr. Coppelius, and
Janet Reed as Swanhilda, was an instant hit.
In 1974, George Balanchine choreographed a version of
Coppélia for the New York City Ballet. He was assisted by
Alexandra Danilova, who had performed the title role many
times during her dancing career. She staged the Petipa
choreography for Act II. Balanchine created new choreography
for Act III and for the mazurka, czardas and Frantz's
variation in Act I. Patricia McBride danced the role of
Swanilda; Helgi Tomasson danced the role of Frantz; Shaun
O'Brian portrayed Dr. Coppélius.
Second Life - LPBA
From 2011 the Little Princess Ballet Academy (LPBA) has
performed Coppélia in Second Life. The adaption follows the
original in three acts, but the mime parts are problematic
to perform in Second Life and has been changed, together
with some changes in the sequences. All parts are played by
The LPBA performing
Coppélia in Second Life, 23 June 2013 - from Act III.
Below is the résumé of scenes and dances taken from the
theatre program of the St. Petersburg Imperial Ballet. It is
the Imperial Ballet's production as staged by Marius Petipa
that serves as the basis for all modern-day productions.
Romeo and Juliet, TH
42, ČW 39, is an orchestral work composed by
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
. It is styled an Overture-Fantasy, and is based
on Shakespeare's play of the same name. Like other
composers such as Berlioz and Prokofiev, Tchaikovsky was
deeply inspired by Shakespeare and wrote works based on
The Tempest and Hamlet as well.
other major compositions, Romeo and Juliet does not have
an opus number. It has been given the alternative
catalogue designations TH 42 and ČW 39.
Although styled an 'Overture-Fantasy' by the
composer, the overall design is a symphonic poem in
sonata form with an introduction and an epilogue.
The work is based on three main strands of the
Shakespeare story. The first strand, written in
F-sharp minor, following Mily Balakirev's
suggestion, is the introduction representing the
saintly Friar Laurence. Here there is a foreboding
of doom from the lower strings. The Friar Laurence
theme is heard in F minor, with plucked strings,
before ending up in E minor. The introduction is
Eventually a single B minor chord with a D natural
in the bass passed back and forth between strings
and woodwinds grows into the second strand in B
minor, the agitated theme of the warring Capulets
and Montagues, including a reference to the sword
fight, depicted by crashing cymbals. There are
agitated, quick sixteenth notes. The forceful
irregular rhythms of the street music point ahead to
Igor Stravinsky and beyond. The action suddenly
slows, the key changing from B minor to D-flat (as
suggested by Balakirev) and we hear the opening bars
of the "love theme", the third strand, passionate
and yearning in character but always with an
underlying current of anxiety.
The love theme
signifies the couple first meeting and the scene at
Juliet's balcony. The English horn represents Romeo,
while the flutes represent Juliet. Then the battling
strand returns, this time with more intensity and
build-up, with the Friar Laurence Theme heard with
agitation. The strings enter with a lush, hovering
melody over which the flute and oboe eventually soar
with the love theme once again, this time loud and
in D major, signaling the development section and
their consummated marriage, and finally heard in E
major, and two large orchestra hits with cymbal
crashes signal the suicide of the two lovers.
A final battle theme is played, then a soft, slow
dirge in B major ensues, with timpani playing a
repeated triplet pattern, and tuba holding a B
natural for 16 bars. The woodwinds play a sweet
homage to the lovers, and a final allusion to the
love theme brings in the climax, beginning with a
huge crescendo B natural roll of the timpani, and
the orchestra plays homophonic shouts of a B major
chord before the final bar, with full orchestra
belting out a powerful B natural to close the
In 1869 Tchaikovsky was a 28-year-old professor at
the Moscow Conservatory. Having written his first
symphony and an opera, he next composed a symphonic
poem entitled Fatum. Initially pleased with the
piece when Nikolai Rubinstein conducted it in
Moscow, Tchaikovsky dedicated it to Balakirev and
sent it to him to conduct in St. Petersburg. Fatum
received only a lukewarm reception. Balakirev wrote
a detailed letter to Tchaikovsky explaining the
defects, but also giving some encouragement:
Your Fatum has
been performed [in St. Petersburg] reasonably well
... There wasn't much applause, probably because of
the appalling cacophony at the end of the piece,
which I don't like at all. It is not properly
gestated, and seems to have been written in a very
slapdash manner. The seams show, as does all your
clumsy stitching. Above all, the form itself just
does not work. The whole thing is completely
uncoordinated.... I am writing to you with complete
frankness, being fully convinced that you won't go
back on your intention of dedicating Fatum to me.
Your dedication is precious to me as a sign of your
sympathy towards me—and I feel a great weakness for
Tchaikovsky was too
self-critical not to see the truth behind
Balakirev's comments. He accepted Balakirev's
criticism, and the two continued to correspond.
(Tchaikovsky later destroyed the score of Fatum. The
score was reconstructed posthumously from the
orchestral parts.) Balakirev remained suspicious of
anyone with a formal conservatory training but
clearly recognized Tchaikovsky's great talents.
Tchaikovsky liked and admired Balakirev. However, as
he told his brother Anatoly, "I never feel quite at
home with him. I particularly don't like the
narrowness of his musical views and the sharpness of
Tchaikovsky write a piece based on William
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Tchaikovsky was
having difficulties writing an opera entitled
Undine, which he would eventually destroy. Though he
complained, "I'm completely burned out," Balakirev
persisted, as was his manner. Balakirev wrote
suggestions about the structure of Romeo and Juliet,
giving details of the type of music required in each
section, and even opinions on which keys to use.
Balakirev had suggested his
own overture King Lear as a model for Romeo—a prudent move,
since he had seen Tchaikovsky's weakness in writing in an
unstructured musical form in Fatum. King Lear is not a
symphonic poem in the manner of Liszt. It is a tragic
overture in sonata form along the line of Beethoven's
overtures, relying more on the dramatic potential of sonata
form rather than on a literary program. Thus, Balakirev had
transformed King Lear into an instrumental drama and now
offered it as a model to Tchaikovsky. While basing Romeo and
Juliet on King Lear was Balakirev's suggestion, reducing the
plot of the former to one central conflict and then
combining it with the binary structure of sonata form was
Tchaikovsky's idea. However, executing that plot in the
music we know today came only after two radical revisions.
The first version of Romeo and Juliet contained basically an
opening fugato and a confrontation of the two themes—exactly
what an academically trained composer might be expected to
produce. While Balakirev responded to the love theme by
writing Tchaikovsky, "I play it often, and I want very much
to hug you for it", he also discarded many of the early
drafts Tchaikovsky sent him—the opening, for instance,
sounded more like a Haydn quartet than the Liszt chorale he
had suggested initially—and the piece was constantly in the
mail between Moscow and St. Petersburg, going to Tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky accepted some, but not all, of Balakirev's
nagging, and completed the work, dedicating it to Balakirev.
The first performance on March 16, 1870 was hindered by a
sensational court case surrounding the conductor,
Tchaikovsky's friend Nikolai Rubinstein, and a female
student. The court had found against the eminent musician
the previous day, and this incited a noisy demonstration in
his favour when he appeared on the concert platform, which
proved much more interesting to the audience than the new
overture. The result was not encouraging as a premiere for
Romeo and Juliet. Tchaikovsky said of the premiere:
"After the concert
we dined.... No one said a single word to me about the
overture the whole evening. And yet I yearned so for
appreciation and kindness."
The initial failure of Romeo and Juliet induced
Tchaikovsky to fully accept Balakirev's criticisms
and rework the piece. It also forced Tchaikovsky to
reach beyond his musical training and rewrite much
of the music into the form we know today. This
included the unacademic but dramatically brilliant
choice of leaving the love theme out of the
development section, saving its confrontation with
the first theme (the conflict of the Capulets and
Montagues) for the second half of the
recapitulation. In the exposition, the love theme
remains shielded from the violence of the first
theme. In the recapitulation the first theme
strongly influences the love theme and ultimately
destroys it. By following this pattern, Tchaikovsky
shifts the true musical conflict from the
development section to the recapitulation, where it
climaxes in dramatic catastrophe.
had become impressed with Tchaikovsky's
compositional talents in general and with Romeo and
Juliet in particular. He arranged for the publishing
house Bote and Bock to publish the piece in 1870.
This was considered an accomplishment since
Tchaikovsky's music was virtually unknown in Germany
at the time. Balakirev thought Tchaikovsky was
rushing Romeo and Juliet to press prematurely. "It
is a pity that you, or rather Rubinstein, should
have rushed the publication of the Overture," he
wrote to the composer. "Although the new
introduction is a decided improvement, there were
other changes I had wanted you to make. I had hoped
that for the sake of your future compositions, this
one would remain in your hands somewhat longer."
Balakirev closed by hoping that P. Jurgenson would
sometime agree to bring out a "revised and improved
version of the Overture." The second version was
premiered in St. Petersburg on February 17, 1872,
under Eduard Nápravník.
An 1870 oil painting by Ford Madox Brown
depicting Romeo and Juliet's famous
Third and final version
In 1880, ten years after his first reworking of the piece,
Tchaikovsky rewrote the ending and gave the piece the sub-title
"Overture-Fantasia". It was completed by September 10, 1880, but did
not receive its premiere until May 1, 1886, in Tbilisi, Georgia
(then part of the Russian Empire), under Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov.
This third and final version is the
one that is now in the repertoire. The earlier versions are
performed occasionally as historical curiosities.
At first Romeo and Juliet was not successful in
Russia and Europe. It was received lukewarmly at its
world premiere in March 1870. The work was hissed
when Hans Richter conducted it in Vienna in November
1876; critic Eduard Hanslick excoriated the piece
afterwards. The Paris premiere two weeks later, at
the Concerts Populaires under Jules Pasdeloup, went
no better. According to Tchaikovsky's colleague and
friend Sergei Taneyev, who attended the Paris
performance, Romeo's lack of success there may have
been due to Pasdeloup's failure to understand the
music. Despite this, several Parisian composers and
musicians, including Camille Saint-Saëns,
appreciated the piece.
One group that
appreciated Romeo at once was the kuchka ("The
Five"). Balakirev, now having the full score, wrote
of their enthusiastic response and 'how delighted
everyone is with your D-flat bit [the love
theme]—including Vladimir Stasov, who says: "There
were five of you: now there are six!" The beginning
and end are as strongly censured'—and, Balakirev
added, needed rewriting. Still, such was the
enthusiasm of the kuchka for Romeo that Balakirev
was asked to play it every time they met.
Eventually, he learned to play the piece from memory
as a result of fulfilling their requests.
Use in popular
The Overture's love theme has been used in many
television series and movies such as Columbo, Kim
Possible, The Jazz Singer (1927), Wayne's World,
Animaniacs, Freakazoid, Pinky and the Brain, Road
Rovers, Taz-Mania, Tiny Toons, Scrubs, Seeing
Double, The Ren and Stimpy Show, South Park,
Clueless, A Christmas Story, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air,
Moonraker, SpongeBob SquarePants, Pushing Daisies,
Sesame Street, El Chavo, The Three Musketeers, among
variations of the overture's love theme were also
played in the original The Sims video game, when two
Sims successfully performed the "Kiss" interaction.
How "powerful" the theme was depended on how
compatible, or how in love, the interacting Sims
were with each other.
Along with another
Tchaikovsky piece, Dance of the Reed Flutes from the
ballet The Nutcracker, the Romeo and Juliet love
theme was sampled at the same time to the song
"Love, so Lovely" for the direct-to-video Disney
film Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers.
Excerpts from the score were used in the 2005 ballet
Anna Karenina, choreographed by Boris Eifman.
The main theme of the overture to
Romeo and Juliet was adapted in 1939 by bandleader Larry Clinton as
popular song "Our Love" (lyrics by Buddy Bernier and Bob Emmerich)
and recorded by Clinton and by Jimmy Dorsey.
Excerpts for The Fireworks to the
Opening of APEC China 2014 held in Beijing before Vladimir Putin,
Joko Widodo, Stephen Harper, Barack Obama, Park Geun-hye and other
leader of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tchaikovsky - Romeo and Juliet,
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky - Romeo and
Juliet, fantasy-overture for orchestra in B minor, 1880.
Maestro Valery Gergiev with the London Symphony Orchestra.
Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B,
is an opera in three acts by Wagner Richard with a German libretto
by the composer. It is the second of the four operas that form
Wagner's cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).
The story of the opera is based on
the Norse mythology told in the Volsunga Saga and the Poetic Edda.
In Norse mythology, a valkyrie is one in a group of female figures
who decide which soldiers die in battle and which live. Die
Walküre's best-known excerpt is the "Ride of the Valkyries".
It received its premiere at the
Königliches Hof- und National-Theater in Munich on 26 June 1870.
Wagner originally intended the opera to be premiered as part of the
entire cycle, but was forced to allow the performance at the
insistence of his patron King Ludwig II of Bavaria. It was first
presented as part of the complete cycle on 14 August 1876 at
Wagner's Bayreuth Festival. The opera made its United States
premiere at the Academy of Music in New York on 2 April 1877.
Although Die Walküre is the second of the Ring operas, it was the
third in order of conception. Wagner worked backwards from planning
an opera about Siegfried's death, then deciding he needed another
opera to tell of Siegfried's youth, then deciding he needed to tell
the tale of Siegfried's conception and of Brünnhilde's attempts to
save Siegfried's parents, and finally deciding he also needed a
prelude that told of the original theft of the Rheingold and the
creation of the ring.
Wagner intermingled development of
the text of these last two planned operas, i.e. Die Walküre,
originally entitled Siegmund und Sieglinde: der Walküre Bestrafung
("Siegmund and Sieglinde: the Valkyrie's Punishment") and what
became Das Rheingold. Wagner had first written of his intention to
create a trilogy of operas in the August 1851 draft of "Eine
Mittheilung an meine Freunde" (A Communication to My Friends), but
did not produce any sketches of the plot of Siegmund and Sieglinde
until November. The following summer, Wagner and his wife rented the
Pension Rinderknecht, a pied-ŕ-terre on the Zürichberg (now
Hochstrasse 56–58 in Zürich). There he worked on the prose draft of
Die Walküre, an extended description of the story including dialogue
between 17 and 26 May 1852 and the verse draft between 1 June and 1
July. It was between these drafts that Wagner made the decision not
to introduce Wotan in act 1, instead leaving the sword the god had
been going to bring on stage already embedded in the tree before the
action starts. The fair copy of the text was completed by 15
Even before the text of the Ring
was finalised, Wagner had begun to sketch some of the music. On 23
July 1851 he wrote down on a loose sheet of paper what was to become
the best-known leitmotif in the entire cycle: the theme from the
"Ride of the Valkyries" (Walkürenritt). Other early sketches for Die
Walküre were made in the summer of 1852. But it was not until 28
June 1854 that Wagner began to transform these into a complete draft
of all three acts of the opera. This preliminary draft (Gesamtentwurf)
was completed by 27 December 1854. Much of the work of this stage of
development of the opera overlapped with work on the final
orchestral version of Das Rheingold.
As Wagner had included some
indication of the orchestration in the draft, he decided to move
straight on to developing a full orchestral score in January 1855
without bothering to write an intermediate instrumentation draft as
he had done for Das Rheingold. This was a decision he was soon to
regret, as numerous interruptions including a four-month visit to
London made the task of orchestrating more difficult than he had
expected. If he allowed too much time to elapse between the initial
drafting of a passage and its later elaboration, he found that he
could not remember how he had intended to orchestrate the draft.
Consequently some passages had to be composed again from scratch.
Wagner, nevertheless, persevered with the task and the full score
was finally completed on 20 March 1856. The fair copy was begun on
14 July 1855 in the Swiss resort of Seelisberg, where Wagner and his
wife spent a month. It was completed in Zürich on 23 March 1856,
just three days after the completion of the full score.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Richard Wagner. "Die Walkure". The end of act 1 in the 1876 production
Franz Lehar (30 April
1870 – 24 October 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian
composer. He is mainly known for his operettas, of which
the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow
(Die lustige Witwe).
Lehár was born in the northern part of Komárom,
Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (now Komárno,
Slovakia), the eldest son of Franz Lehár (senior)
(1838–1898), an Austrian bandmaster in the Infantry
Regiment No. 50 of the Austro-Hungarian Army and
Christine Neubrandt (1849–1906), a Hungarian woman
from a family of German descent. He grew up speaking
only Hungarian until the age of 12. Later he put a
diacritic above the "a" of his father's name "Lehar"
to indicate the vowel in the corresponding Hungarian
orthography. While his younger brother Anton entered
cadet school in Vienna to become a professional
officer, Franz studied violin at the Prague
Conservatory, where his violin teacher was Antonín
Bennewitz, but was advised by Antonín Dvořák to
focus on composition. However, the Conservatory's
rules at that time did not allow students to study
both performance and composition, and Bennewitz and
Lehár senior exerted pressure on Lehár to take his
degree in violin as a practical matter, arguing that
he could study composition on his own later. Lehár
followed their wishes, against his will, and aside
from a few clandestine lessons with Zdeněk Fibich he
was self-taught as a composer. After graduation in
1888 he joined his father's band in Vienna, as
assistant bandmaster. Two years later he became
bandmaster at Losoncz, East Slovakia, making him the
youngest bandmaster in the Austro-Hungarian Army at
that time, but he left the army and joined the navy.
With the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine he was first
Kapellmeister at Pola from 1894 to 1896, resigning
in the later year when his first opera, Kukuschka
(later reworked as Tatjana in 1906), premiered in
It was only a middling success
and Lehár eventually rejoined the army, with service in the
garrisons at Trieste, Budapest (1898) and finally Vienna
from 1899 to 1902. In 1902 he became conductor at the
historic Vienna Theater an der Wien, where his operetta
Wiener Frauen was performed in November of that year.
He is most famous for his
operettas – the most successful of which is The Merry Widow
(Die lustige Witwe) – but he also wrote sonatas, symphonic
poems and marches. He also composed a number of waltzes (the
most popular being Gold und Silber, composed for Princess
Pauline von Metternich's "Gold and Silver" Ball, January
1902), some of which were drawn from his famous operettas.
Individual songs from some of the operettas have become
standards, notably "Vilja" from The Merry Widow and "You Are
My Heart's Delight" ("Dein ist mein ganzes Herz") from The
Land of Smiles (Das Land des Lächelns).
Lehár was also associated
with the operatic tenor Richard Tauber, who sang in many of
his operettas, beginning with a revival of his 1910 operetta
Zigeunerliebe (de) in 1920 and then Frasquita (de) in 1922,
in which Lehár once again found a suitable post-war style.
Lehár made a brief appearance in the 1930 film adaptation
The Land of Smiles starring Tauber. Between 1925 and 1934 he
wrote six operettas specifically for Tauber's voice. By 1935
he decided to form his own publishing house, Glocken-Verlag
(Publishing House of the Bells), to maximize his personal
control over performance rights to his works.
Lehár and the Third
Lehár's relationship with the Nazi regime was an
uneasy one. He had always used Jewish librettists
for his operas and had been part of the cultural
milieu in Vienna which included a significant Jewish
contingent. Further, although Lehár was Roman
Catholic, his wife, Sophie (née Paschkis) had been
Jewish before her conversion to Catholicism upon
marriage, and this was sufficient to generate
hostility towards them personally and towards his
Hitler enjoyed Lehár's music, and hostility
diminished across Germany after Goebbels's
intervention on Lehár's part. In 1938 Mrs. Lehár was
given the status of "Ehrenarierin" (honorary Aryan
by marriage). Nonetheless, attempts were made at
least once to have her deported. The Nazi regime was
aware of the uses of Lehár's music for propaganda
purposes: concerts of his music were given in
occupied Paris in 1941.
Even so, Lehár's influence was limited. It is said
that he tried personally to secure Hitler's
guarantee of the safety of one of his librettists,
Fritz Löhner-Beda, but he was not able to prevent
the murder of Beda in Auschwitz-III.
On 12 January 1939 and
30 April 1940 Lehár had personally received awards
by Hitler in Berlin and Vienna, including the Goethe
medal. On Hitler's birthday in 1938 Lehár had given
him as a special gift a red maroquin leather volume
in commemoration of the 50th performance of The
He died aged 78 in 1948 in Bad Ischl, near Salzburg, and was buried
His younger brother
Anton became the administrator of his estate, promoting the
popularity of Franz Lehár's music.
- He was elected an honorary citizen of Sopron in 1940.
- In 1940 Hitler awarded him the Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und
- There is a street in Vienna named after him. Additionally, several
towns in the Netherlands have named streets after him (e.g. in The
Hague, Leidsche Rijn, Utrecht, Eindhoven and Tilburg). Also, there
is a street in Sarajevo named after him.
In 1929 and 1934, Lehár had conducted for Odeon records The Land of
Smiles and Giuditta, starring Richard Tauber, Vera Schwarz and
Jarmila Novotná. A 1942 Vienna broadcast of his operetta Paganini
conducted by the composer has survived, starring soprano, Esther
Réthy and tenor, Karl Friedrich (de). A 1942 Berlin radio production
of Zigeunerliebe with Herbert Ernst Groh, conducted by Lehár, also
In 1947, Lehár conducted the
Tonhalle Orchester Zürich in a series of 78-rpm recordings for
English Decca (released in the U.S. by London Records) of overtures
and waltzes from his operettas. The recordings had remarkable sound
for their time because they were made using Decca's Full Frequency
Range Recording process, one of the first commercial high fidelity
techniques. These recordings were later issued on LP (in 1969 on
Decca eclipse ECM 2012 and reprocessed stereo on ECS 2012) and CD. A
compilation of his recordings has been released by Naxos Records.
Following the collapse of the
Berlin Wall, a set of discs recording the 1939 Saarbrucken concert
of Lehár's works by German State Transmitter Saarbrucken conducted
by Franz Lehár himself was discovered in East German state archives.
This was released on CDs by Cpo-Musikproduktion in 2000.
Balfe, (born May 15, 1808, Dublin, Ire.—died Oct. 20, 1870,
near Ware, Hertfordshire, Eng.), singer and composer, best
known for the facile melody and simple ballad style of his
opera The Bohemian Girl.
Balfe appeared as a violinist at age nine and began
composing at about the same time. In 1823 he went to London,
where he studied violin with C.F. Horn and played in the
orchestra at Drury Lane Theatre. In 1825 he was taken to
Italy by Count Mazzara, a wealthy patron. There he studied
composition, took voice lessons, and produced his first
ballet, La Pérouse (1825). Between 1827 and 1833 he sang
leading baritone roles in operas by Gioachino Rossini,
Giacomo Meyerbeer, and others in Paris and Italy. His own
early operas were written on Italian librettos and produced
at Palermo, Pavia, and Milan between 1829 and 1833, after
which he returned to London. His first English opera, The
Siege of Rochelle, was produced at Drury Lane in 1835.
popularity was established; in 1838 he sang Papageno in the
first English performance of The Magic Flute, and with Le
Puits d’amour (1843) he began a series of French operas.
The Bohemian Girl (first performed 1843) was the most
successful of his operas and was produced in many countries,
in French, German, Italian, and Russian. Two of the ballads
from it, “When Other Lips” and “I Dreamt That I Dwelt in
Marble Halls,” have been published in many arrangements.
Balfe produced several other operas in London; essayed
managing and conducting with little success; and between
1849 and 1864 traveled in France, Germany, Italy, and