Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1869 Part III NEXT-1870-1879    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

1869. Opening of the Suez Canal at Port Said. Opening of Suez Canal by Empress Eugenie
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1869 Part IV
 
 
 
1869
 
 
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
 

Galton Francis "Hereditary Genius," pioneering treatise on eugenics.

 
Heredity and eugenics
The publication by his cousin Charles Darwin of The Origin of Species in 1859 was an event that changed Galton's life (Forrest 1974, p. 84). He came to be gripped by the work, especially the first chapter on "Variation under Domestication," concerning animal breeding.

Galton devoted much of the rest of his life to exploring variation in human populations and its implications, at which Darwin had only hinted. In so doing, he established a research program which embraced multiple aspects of human variation, from mental characteristics to height; from facial images to fingerprint patterns. This required inventing novel measures of traits, devising large-scale collection of data using those measures, and in the end, the discovery of new statistical techniques for describing and understanding the data.

Galton was interested at first in the question of whether human ability was hereditary, and proposed to count the number of the relatives of various degrees of eminent men. If the qualities were hereditary, he reasoned, there should be more eminent men among the relatives than among the general population. To test this, he invented the methods of historiometry. Galton obtained extensive data from a broad range of biographical sources which he tabulated and compared in various ways.

This pioneering work was described in detail in his book Hereditary Genius in 1869. Here he showed, among other things, that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when going from the first degree to the second degree relatives, and from the second degree to the third. He took this as evidence of the inheritance of abilities.

 
Francis Galton "Hereditary Genius"
 
 
Galton recognised the limitations of his methods in these two works, and believed the question could be better studied by comparisons of twins. His method envisaged testing to see if twins who were similar at birth diverged in dissimilar environments, and whether twins dissimilar at birth converged when reared in similar environments. He again used the method of questionnaires to gather various sorts of data, which were tabulated and described in a paper The history of twins in 1875. In so doing he anticipated the modern field of behaviour genetics, which relies heavily on twin studies. He concluded that the evidence favoured nature rather than nurture. He also proposed adoption studies, including trans-racial adoption studies, to separate the effects of heredity and environment.

Galton recognised that cultural circumstances influenced the capability of a civilisation's citizens, and their reproductive success. In Hereditary Genius, he envisaged a situation conducive to resilient and enduring civilisation as follows:

The best form of civilization in respect to the improvement of the race, would be one in which society was not costly; where incomes were chiefly derived from professional sources, and not much through inheritance; where every lad had a chance of showing his abilities, and, if highly gifted, was enabled to achieve a first-class education and entrance into professional life, by the liberal help of the exhibitions and scholarships which he had gained in his early youth; where marriage was held in as high honour as in ancient Jewish times; where the pride of race was encouraged (of course I do not refer to the nonsensical sentiment of the present day, that goes under that name); where the weak could find a welcome and a refuge in celibate monasteries or sisterhoods, and lastly, where the better sort of emigrants and refugees from other lands were invited and welcomed, and their descendants naturalised.

Galton invented the term eugenics in 1883 and set down many of his observations and conclusions in a book, Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development. He believed that a scheme of 'marks' for family merit should be defined, and early marriage between families of high rank be encouraged by provision of monetary incentives. He pointed out some of the tendencies in British society, such as the late marriages of eminent people, and the paucity of their children, which he thought were dysgenic. He advocated encouraging eugenic marriages by supplying able couples with incentives to have children. On 29 October 1901, Galton chose to address eugenic issues when he delivered the second Huxley lecture at the Royal Anthropological Institute.

The Eugenics Review, the journal of the Eugenics Education Society, commenced publication in 1909. Galton, the Honorary President of the society, wrote the foreword for the first volume. The First International Congress of Eugenics was held in July 1912. Winston Churchill and Carls Elliot were among the attendees.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1869
 
 
Hyatt John Wesley invents celluloid
 
 
Celluloid
 

Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Generally considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement. The main use was in movie and photography film industries, which used only celluloid films prior to acetate films that were introduced in the 1950s. Celluloid is highly flammable, difficult and expensive to produce and no longer widely used, although its most common uses today are in table tennis balls, musical instruments and guitar picks.

 
History
Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose-based plastics slightly predate celluloid. Collodion, invented in 1848 and used as a wound dressing and an emulsion for photographic plates, is dried to a celluloid-like film.

Alexander Parkes
The first celluloid as a bulk material for forming objects was made in 1855 in Birmingham, England, by Alexander Parkes, who was never able to see his invention reach full fruition, after his firm went bankrupt due to scale-up costs. Parkes patented his discovery after realising a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion.

Parkes patented it as a clothing waterproofer for woven fabrics in the same year. Later in 1862, Parkes showcased Parkesine at the Great Exhibition in London, where he was awarded a bronze medal for his efforts. The introduction of Parkesine is generally regarded as the birth of the plastics industry.

John Wesley Hyatt
In the 1860s, an American,
Hyatt John Wesley, acquired Parkes's patent and began experimenting with cellulose nitrate with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory. He used cloth, ivory dust, and shellac, and on April 6, 1869, patented a method of covering billiard balls with the addition of collodion. With assistance from Peter Kinnear and other investors, Hyatt formed the Albany Billiard Ball Company (1868–1986) in Albany, New York, to manufacture the product. In 1870, John and his brother Isaiah patented a process of making a "horn-like material" with the inclusion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. Alexander Parkes and Daniel Spill (see below) listed camphor during their earlier experiments, calling the resultant mix "xylonite", but it was the Hyatt brothers who recognized the value of camphor and its use as a plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. Isaiah Hyatt dubbed his material "celluloid" in 1872.

 
9.5 mm motion picture film
 
 
Daniel Spill and legal disputes
English inventor Daniel Spill had worked with Parkes and formed the Xylonite Co. to take over Parkes' patents, describing the new plastic products as Xylonite. He took exception to the Hyatts' claims and pursued the brothers in a number of court cases between 1877 and 1884. Initially the judge found in Spill's favour, but ultimately it was judged that neither party held an exclusive claim and the true inventor of celluloid/xylonite was Alexander Parkes, due to his mention of camphor in his earlier experiments and patents.[6] The judge ruled all manufacturing of celluloid could continue both in Spill's British Xylonite Company and Hyatts' Celluloid Manufacturing Company.

The name Celluloid actually began as a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company, first of Albany, NY, and later of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured the celluloids patented by John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt used heat and pressure to simplify the manufacture of these compounds. Over the years, celluloid has become the normal term used for this type of plastic. In 1878 Hyatt was able to patent a process for injection moulding thermoplastics, although it took another 50 years before it could be realised commercially, and in later years celluloid was used as the base for photographic film.
 
 

Newark, New Jersey, industrial production complex of the Celluloid Company (c. 1890)
 
 
Photography
English photographer John Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 with the intention of producing gelatin dry plates. The Celluloid Manufacturing Company was contracted for this work by means of thinly slicing layers out of celluloid blocks and then removing the slice marks with heated pressure plates. After this, the celluloid strips were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion. It is not certain exactly how long it took for Carbutt to standardize his process, but it occurred no later than 1888. A 15-inch-wide (380 mm) sheet of Carbutt's film was used by William Dickson for the early Edison motion picture experiments on a cylinder drum Kinetograph. However, the celluloid film base produced by this means was still considered too stiff for the needs of motion picture photography.

By 1889, more flexible celluloids for photographic film were developed, and both Hannibal Goodwin and the Eastman Kodak Company obtained patents for a film product (Ansco, which purchased Goodwin's patent when he died, was eventually successful in an infringement suit against Kodak). This ability to produce photographic images on a flexible material (as opposed to a glass or metal plate) was a crucial step toward the advent of motion pictures.

 
 
Uses
All movie and photography films prior to acetate films in the fifties were made of celluloid. Its high flammability was legendary since it self explodes when exposed to temperatures over 150 °C in front of a hot movie projector beam.

Celluloid was useful for creating cheaper jewellery, jewellery boxes, hair accessories and many items that would earlier have been manufactured from ivory, horn or other expensive animal products. It was often referred to as "Ivorine" or "French Ivory". It was also used for dressing table sets, dolls, picture frames, charms, hat pins, buttons, buckles, stringed instrument parts, accordions, fountain pens, cutlery handles and kitchen items. The main disadvantage the material had was that it was flammable. Items made in celluloid are collectible today and increasingly rare in good condition. It was soon overtaken by Bakelite and Catalin. Table tennis balls are also made from celluloid. Shelf clocks and other furniture items were often covered with celluloid in a manner similar to veneer. This celluloid was printed to look like expensive woods, or materials like marble or granite. The Seth Thomas clock company called its celluloid clock material "adamantine". Celluloid enabled clockmakers to make the typical late Victorian style of black mantel clock in such a way that the wooden case appeared to be black marble, and the various pillars and other decorative elements of the case looked like semi-precious stone.

 
Celluloid doll
 
 
Celluloid remains in use for musical instruments, especially accordions. Celluloid is very robust, easy to mold in difficult forms and has great acoustic performance. Instruments covered with celluloid can easily be recognized of the typical nacre-like flaming pattern. Thick celluloid panels are cooked in a bain-marie which turns them into leather-like substance. Panels are then turned on a mold and allowed to harden, for as long as three months.
 
 

Table tennis balls
 
 
Formulation
A typical formulation of celluloid might contain 70 to 80 parts nitrocellulose, nitrated to 11% nitrogen, 30 parts camphor, 0 to 14 parts dye, 1 to 5 parts ethyl alcohol, plus stabilizers and other agents to increase stability and reduce flammability.
 
 
Production
Celluloid is made from a mixture of chemical such as nitrocellulose, camphor, alcohol, as well as colorants and fillers depending on the desired product. The first step is transforming raw cellulose into nitrocellulose by conducting a nitration reaction. This is achieved by exposing the cellulose fibers to an aqueous solution of nitric acid; the hydroxyl groups (-OH) will then be replaced with nitrate groups (-NO2) on the cellulose chain. The reaction can produce mixed products, depending on the degree of substitution of nitrogen, or the percent nitrogen content on each cellulose molecule; cellulose nitrate has 2.8 molecule of nitrogen per molecule of cellulose. It was determined that sulfuric acid was to be used as well in the reaction in order to first, catalyze the nitric acid groups so it can allow for the substitution onto the cellulose, and second, allow for the groups to easily and uniformly attach to the fibers, creating a better quality nitrocellulose. The product then must be rinsed to wash away any free acids that did not react with the fibers, dried, and kneaded. During this time, a solution of 50% camphor in alcohol is added, which then changes the macromolecule structure of nitrocellulose into a homogeneous gel of nitrocellulose and camphor. The chemical structure is not well understood, but it is determined that it is one molecule of camphor for each unit of glucose. After the mixing, the mass is pressed into blocks at a high pressure and then is fabricated for its specific use.
  Environmental hazards

Deterioration

Many sources of deterioration in celluloid exist, such as thermal, chemical, photochemical, and physical. The most inherent flaw is as celluloid ages, the camphor molecules are ‘squeezed’ out of the mass due to the unsustainable pressure used in the production. In detail, that pressure causes the nitrocellulose molecules to bind back to each other or crystallize, and this results in the camphor molecules being shoved out of the material. Once exposed to the environment, camphor can undergo sublimation at room temperature, leaving the plastic as brittle nitrocellulose. Also, with exposure to excess heat, the nitrate groups can break off and expose nitrogen gases, such as nitrous oxide and nitric oxide, to the air.

Another factor that can cause this is excess moisture, which can accelerate deterioration of nitrocellulose with the presence of nitrate groups, either newly fragmented from heat or still trapped as a free acid from production. Both of these sources allow for nitric acid to accumulate, a main component of acid rain that leads to corrosion of the environment. Another form of deterioration, Photochemical, is severe in celluloid because it absorbs ultraviolet light well. The absorbed light leads to chain-breakage and stiffening.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1869
 
 
Mendeleyev Dmitry formulates his periodic law for the classification of the elements
 
 
Periodic law
 
Formulation of the periodic law
As he began to teach inorganic chemistry,
Mendeleyev Dmitry could not find a textbook that met his needs. Since he had already published a textbook on organic chemistry in 1861 that had been awarded the prestigious Demidov Prize, he set out to write another one. The result was Osnovy khimii (1868–71; The Principles of Chemistry), which became a classic, running through many editions and many translations. When Mendeleyev began to compose the chapter on the halogen elements (chlorine and its analogs) at the end of the first volume, he compared the properties of this group of elements to those of the group of alkali metals such as sodium.

Within these two groups of dissimilar elements, he discovered similarities in the progression of atomic weights, and he wondered if other groups of elements exhibited similar properties. After studying the alkaline earths, Mendeleyev established that the order of atomic weights could be used not only to arrange the elements within each group but also to arrange the groups themselves. Thus, in his effort to make sense of the extensive knowledge that already existed of the chemical and physical properties of the chemical elements and their compounds, Mendeleyev discovered the periodic law.

His newly formulated law was announced before the Russian Chemical Society in March 1869 with the statement “elements arranged according to the value of their atomic weights present a clear periodicity of properties.”
Mendeleyev’s law allowed him to build up a systematic table of all the 70 elements then known.
He had such faith in the validity of the periodic law that he proposed changes to the generally accepted values for the atomic weight of a few elements and predicted the locations within the table of unknown elements together with their properties. At first the periodic system did not raise interest among chemists. However, with the discovery of the predicted elements, notably gallium in 1875, scandium in 1879, and germanium in 1886, it began to win wide acceptance. Gradually the periodic law and table became the framework for a great part of chemical theory. By the time Mendeleyev died in 1907, he enjoyed international recognition and had received distinctions and awards from many countries.

 
 
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. The table also shows four rectangular blocks: s-, p- d- and f-block. In general, within one row (period) the elements are metals on the lefthand side, and non-metals on the righthand side.

The rows of the table are called periods; the columns are called groups. Six groups (columns) have names as well as numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18, the noble gases. The periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements, and predict the properties of new elements yet to be discovered or synthesized. The periodic table provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences.

Although precursors exist, Mendeleyev Dmitry is generally credited with the publication, in 1869, of the first widely recognized periodic table. He developed his table to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements. Mendeleev also predicted some properties of then-unknown elements that would be expected to fill gaps in this table. Most of his predictions were proved correct when the elements in question were subsequently discovered. Mendeleev's periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behavior.

All elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (ununoctium) have been discovered or reportedly synthesized, with elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 having yet to be confirmed. The first 94 elements exist naturally, although some are found only in trace amounts and were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature.

 
The scientist's sculpture on Moskovsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg next to his Periodic Table on a wall of D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology opposite Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology
 
 
Elements with atomic numbers from 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories. It has been shown that elements 95 to 100 once occurred in nature but currently do not. Synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is being pursued. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories.
 
 

Mendeleev's original periodic table
 
 
The periodic table

The pattern of valence and the type of bonding—ionic or covalent—characteristic of the elements were crucial components of the evidence used by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (
Mendeleyev Dmitry) to compile the periodic table, in which the chemical elements are arranged in a manner that shows family resemblances. Thus, oxygen and sulfur (S), both of which have a typical valence of 2, were put into the same family, and nitrogen and phosphorus (P), with a typical valence of 3, were put into a neighbouring family. The periodic table, which is shown in Figure 1, has proved to be the single most unifying concept of chemistry, for it summarizes a wealth of properties. Metallic elements generally lie to the left in the table and typically form ionic compounds. Nonmetallic elements, which form a large number of covalent compounds among themselves, typically lie to the right in the table. If for now the special case of the band of elements of columns 3 through 12 of the table, called the transition elements, is ignored, then the typical valences of elements increase from 1 on the far left, rising in steps of 1 on passing to the right, to reach 4 at the family headed by carbon (C) and then fall in steps of 1 to 1 itself at the family that contains chlorine and is headed by fluorine (F). Here, at last, is a pattern of valence that any explanation of chemical bond formation needs to justify.

Unknown to Mendeleyev, and not discovered until the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, is another family of elements that were originally thought to be inert and hence were called the inert gases. This family is headed by helium (He) and includes neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). It was not until the 1960s that their chemical inertness was overcome, and some members of the family (essentially only krypton and xenon) were induced to form compounds. Accordingly, the name inert gas was replaced by the term noble gas, which reflects a chemical aloofness but not total inertness. This family of elements might at first have seemed irrelevant to an understanding of chemical bonds. However, the very fact that they do not readily form any bonds proved to be crucial to the development of modern theories of bond formation.

 
 
 
1869
 
 
Gustav Nachtigal explores the Sudan and the Sahara
 
 
Nachtigal Gustav
 

Gustav Nachtigal (23 February 1834 – 20 April 1885) was a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him.

 

Gustav Nachtigal
  Life
Gustav Nachtigal, the son of a Lutheran pastor, was born at Eichstedt in the Prussian province of Saxony-Anhalt. After medical studies at the universities of Halle, Würzburg and Greifswald, he practiced for several years as a military surgeon. He worked in Cologne, Germany.

Nachtigal contracted a lung disease and relocated to Annaba in Algeria in October, 1862. He also went to Tunis in North Africa and took part, as a surgeon, in several expeditions into Central Africa. It was in Tunis where he learned to speak Arabic.

He returned to Germany and met Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs. Rohfl's asked him to go to the Bornu Empire. He then would be commissioned by King Wilhelm I of Prussia to carry gifts to Umar of Borno, sheik of the Bornu Empire, in acknowledgment of kindness shown to German travelers, such as Heinrich Barth, he set out in 1869 from Ottoman Tripoli and succeeded after a two years journey in accomplishing his mission. During this period he visited Tibesti and Borku, regions of the central Sahara not previously known to Europeans. He traveled with eight camels and six men.

From Bornu he traveled to Baguirmi, an independent state to the southeast of Bornu.

 
 
From there he proceeded to Wadai (a powerful Muslim kingdom to the northeast of Baguirmi) and to Kordofan (a former province of central Sudan). Nachtigal emerged from darkest Africa at Khartoum (then an Egyptian outpost, today the capital of Sudan) in the winter of 1874, after having been given up for lost. His journey, graphically described in his Sahara and Sudan, placed him in the top ranking of discoverers. He was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal in 1882.

After the establishment by France of a protectorate over Tunisia, Nachtigal was sent as consul-general for the German Empire and remained there until 1884. Thereafter he was appointed by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as special commissioner for West Africa. Local German business interests in that region began advocating for protection by the German Empire after they had acquired huge properties in West Africa. Nachtigal’s task was thus to accept that real estate on behalf of Germany before the British could advance their own interests — and Togoland and Kamerun became Germany’s first colonial possessions. On his return voyage he died at sea aboard the gunboat SMS Möwe off Cape Palmas on 20 April 1885 and was initially interred at Grand Bassam. In 1888 Nachtigal’s remains were exhumed and reburied in a ceremonial grave at Duala in front of the Kamerun colonial government building.

 
 
 
 
Legacy
Gustav Nachtigal is regarded as the other great German explorer of Africa, in company with Heinrich Barth. Like Barth, Nachtigal was primarily interested in ethnography, and additionally in tropical medicine. His works stand out because of their wealth of details and above all because of his unbiased views of Africans. In contrast to most contemporary explorers, Nachtigal did not hold to the alleged inferiority of Africans; his convictions are clearly reflected in his descriptions and choice of words.

He had witnessed slave hunts performed by African rulers and the cruelties inflicted by them on other Africans. The horror that he felt about these atrocities made him enter colonial endeavors because he somewhat naively accepted that European domination of the African continent might stop slave hunting and slave keeping.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
 
see also: The Desert
 
 
 
1869
 
 
British  debtors' prisons are abolished
 
 
 
1869
 
 
Cincinnati Red Stockings become first salaried baseball team
 
 
Cincinnati Red Stockings
 

The Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869 were baseball's first openly all-professional team, with ten salaried players. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati, Ohio businessmen and English-born ballplayer Harry Wright shaped as much as anyone. Major League Baseball recognized those events officially by sponsoring a centennial of professional baseball in 1969.

 
Thanks partly to their on-field success and the continental scope of their tours, the Red Stockings established styles in team uniforms and team nicknames that have some currency even in the 21st century. They also established a particular color, red, as the color of Cincinnati, and they provide the ultimate origin for the use of "Red Sox" in Boston.
 
 
Baseball club
The Cincinnati Base Ball Club, or simply Cincinnati Club, was established June 23, 1866 at a downtown law office, drawing up a constitution and by-laws and electing officers including Alfred T. Goshorn, President. A few years later Goshorn earned international fame as Director-General of the (U.S.) Centennial Exposition held 1876 in Philadelphia.

Founding member George B. Ellard also led the Union Cricket Club, and the relationship between them proved decisive for the baseball club's success.

After playing four matches that summer, Cincinnati joined the NABBP for 1867 and concluded an agreement to play at the Union Cricket Club grounds. George Ellard's son says that "a great number of the cricket club members" joined and so "the team was greatly strengthened and interest in baseball gained a new impetus."
 
Harpers Weekly representation of the Cincinnati Red Stockings.
 
 
Plans for a new clubhouse and "more substantical" enclosing fence were approved in April and the commercial basis was approved in June: members of both clubs admitted free to all matches; otherwise "ten cents for home matches and twenty five cents for foreign matches. Ladies free." (Ellard 23-27).

The team was soon nicknamed "Red Stockings" in reference to the main feature of the uniforms designed by Ellard; long stockings were then a novelty in team uniforms.

Harry Wright had migrated from New York in 1866 for a job as "club pro" at the Union Cricket Club. Next year he picked up similar baseball duties, but the lingo is commonly stretched to call him a baseball "manager" from that time. His first team may have been local to a man, but he both developed and imported players to represent the club in competitive play for the 1868 season. The first team won 16 matches with regional opponents, losing only to the touring Nationals from Washington. As for most hosts on that tour, it was a "bad loss" on the scorecard but an instructive one for Cincinnati: the players, the club, the fans, and perhaps the local newspapers. Everyone learned advanced points of play and, from their different perspectives, witnessed the gulf in playing strength.

About half of the 1868 Red Stockings were eastern imports, presumably compensated somehow. The two leading batsmen, John Hatfield and Fred Waterman arrived from the New York Mutuals, one of the strongest teams anywhere and another team pushing the bounds of the amateur code. Asa Brainard had been the Brooklyn Excelsiors' regular pitcher for four seasons, succeeded in 1867 by Candy Cummings. Catcher Doug Allison was from the Geary club of Philadelphia, one of the stronger clubs in that city. There was one local recruit, too, from the rival Buckeye club: Charlie Gould at first base. Harry Wright remained the first pitcher, sharing that position and second base with Brainard, and three other incumbents remained in the outfield and at shortstop. The 1868 team played a heavy schedule including a late eastern tour, once again dominating the western teams but losing seven of 43 matches in all.

 
 

Cincinnati Red Stockings in 1869.
 
 
First professional team
When the NABBP permitted professional members for 1869, Harry Wright and probably George Ellard organized a fully professional team: ten men on salary for eight months, March 15 to November 15. Wright played center field and coordinated the team defense, a novelty from any position. Younger brother and shortstop George Wright, new to the team in 1869, was its best player, maybe the best of his time.

The professional Cincinnati Red Stockings played their first game May 4, 1869, with a 45-9 win over the Great Westerns of Cincinnati. The team won 57 games and lost zero, counting only matches with Association clubs. They played over 70 games counting outside teams. Its commercial tour of continental scope, visiting both Boston and San Francisco, was unprecedented and may be essentially unrepeated. The first season ended November 6 at home with the Cincinnatis beating the Mutuals of New York 17-8.

With the same regular nine, the 1870 team continued to win regularly, perhaps 24 games before losing 8-7 in eleven innings to the Brooklyn Atlantics in Brooklyn, June 14. The Red Stockings remained one of the few strongest teams on the field, losing only six games, but attendance declined badly, especially at home.

  Perfect Season
In 1869, the Red Stockings posted a perfect 65-0 record, the only perfect season in professional baseball history. This was the first team to play on the East and West coasts in the same season. More than 2,000 people greeted the team when it arrived in San Francisco at 10:00 p.m. “They really helped nationalize the game and put Cincinnati on the map as a baseball town,” said Greg Rhodes, a Reds historian who wrote “The First Boys of Summer” (Road West Publishing Company, 1994), along with Enquirer reporter John Erardi, about the 1869-1870 Red Stockings.

1870-1871
On June 14, 1870, after 84 consecutive wins since assembling the first professional team in, the Cincinnati Red Stockings lost 8-7 to the Brooklyn Atlantics before a crowd of 20,000 at the Capitoline Grounds. Bob Ferguson scores the winning run in the 11th inning on a hit by pitcher George Zettlein.

The Executive Board now led by President A.P.C. Bonte recommended on November 21, 1871, that the club not employ a nine for 1871, for that had become too expensive. The spokesmen anticipated "a development of the amateur talent of our club, such as has not been displayed since we employed professionals."

 
 
The officers subsequently decided to disband the company (the players having disbanded via the market) and a public meeting of the members put that decision into effect (Ellard [1908]: 155-56).

Harry Wright was hired by founder and president Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new pro club in Boston and he signed three Cincinnati teammates to join the 1871 Boston Red Stockings in the first professional league, as it turned out. Ex-Cincinnati Red Stockings moved around some (see the note on Team members) but Boston retained both Wright brothers throughout the five years of the National Association.

The current Cincinnati Reds club identifies itself with the Cincinnati Red Stockings, despite reorganization and defections in the early years.

The distinct Boston Red Stockings, beginning business with half of the Cincinnati team, both followed the young tradition and spread it to Boston. Eventually the Boston Red Stockings adopted the name Boston Braves; the club is now based in Atlanta, and still retains red as one of its uniform colors. The Boston Red Sox, established in 1901, adopted their version of the old nickname in 1908.

 
 
Players
Ten men composed the 1869 team and the First Nine returned for 1870 in the same roles.

Asa Brainard, Pitcher
Doug Allison, Catcher
Charlie Gould, First Base
Charlie Sweasy, Second Base
Fred Waterman, Third Base
George Wright, Shortstop
Andy Leonard, Left Field
Harry Wright, Center Field/Manager
Cal McVey, Right Field
Dick Hurley, substitute

From 1867 Harry Wright fulfilled the duties of modern field managers, general managers, and traveling secretaries. In 1868 he and Brainard shared the pitcher and second base positions with Allison, Gould, and Waterman already manning the other bases. For the crosstown rival Buckeye club, Sweasy and Leonard played second and third with Hurley a substitute. Among them only Gould was a Cincinnati native; the others were from the East, presumably compensated somehow by club members if not by the clubs. (The Association first permitted professional clubs for 1869.) Meanwhile, George Wright and McVey played in New York and Indianapolis, primarily at shortstop and pitcher.

For 1871 the Nine split between two teams in the new all-professional National Association: Gould, the Wright brothers, and McVey with the Boston Red Stockings; Brainard, Allison, Sweasy, Waterman, and Leonard with the Washington Olympics.

 
An 1869 lithograph of the Red Stockings'
"First Nine".
 
 
Substitute Hurley is also a "major leaguer" for his brief play with the Olympics in 1872, although that club went out of business midseason and he did not return to the league. The leading substitute in the second season, Harry Deane joined the Fort Wayne Kekiongas in 1871 and later played a full season regularly.

Andy Leonard rejoined Gould, the Wrights, and McVey in Boston for 1872, the first of four consecutive championship seasons there. After one miss Harry won his last two championships as a non-playing manager in 1877-1878 with Leonard and brother George still among his regulars. Gould and McVey left in 1873, although McVey returned for 1874-75 only.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1869
 
 
Girton College, Cambridge, founded
 
 
Girton College, Cambridge
 

Girton College is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge. The college was established in 1869 by Emily Davies, Barbara Bodichon and Lady Stanley of Alderley as a college for women. Girton was granted full college status by the university in 1948, marking the official admittance of women to the university. In 1976, Girton was Cambridge's first women's college of the university to become coeducational.

 
The main college site, situated on the outskirts of the village of Girton, about 2.5 miles (4 km) northwest of the university town, comprises 33 acres (13.4 ha) of land. Held in typical Victorian red brick design, most was built by architect Alfred Waterhouse between 1872 and 1887. It provides extensive sports facilities, an indoor swimming pool, an award-winning library and a chapel with two organs. There is an accommodation annexe, known as Wolfson Court, situated in Cambridge's western suburbs, close to the Centre for Mathematical Sciences. This annexe was opened in 1961 and provides housing for graduates, and for second year undergraduates and above.

In 2010, the college's net assets were valued at £104.5 million, including £49 million of endowment, and in 2009-10 it admitted 674 full-time undergraduates and postgraduates. The college's formal governance is assured by a Mistress, Susan J. Smith, who has held the position since 2009.

The college has a tradition of fostering student equality, kept alive with a balanced male-to-female ratio, a ballot system for room distribution and several equal-access admittance schemes. It also has a reputation of encouraging talent in music. Several art collections are held on the main site, including People's Portraits, the millennial exhibition of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, and an Egyptian collection containing the world's most reproduced portrait mummy.

Among Girton college's notable alumni are the queen Margrethe II of Denmark, The Huffington Post co-founder Arianna Huffington, the comedian/author Sandi Toksvig, the comedian/broadcaster/GP Phil Hammond and the anthropologist Marilyn Strathern, also Mistress from 1998 to 2009.

 
 
History
1869 to 1976: Pioneering for women's education

The early feminist movement began to argue for the improvement of women's education in the 1860s: Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon met through their activism at the Society for the Employment of Women and the Englishwoman's Review. They shared the aim of securing women's admission to university. In particular, they wanted to determine whether girls could be admitted at Oxford or Cambridge to sit the Senior and Junior Local Examinations. Davies and Bodichon set up a committee to that effect in 1862. In 1865, with the help of Henry Tomkinson, Trinity College alumnus and owner of an insurance company with good contacts within the University, 91 female students entered the Cambridge Local Examination. This first concession to women's educational rights met relatively little resistance, as admission to the examination did not imply residence of women at the university site.

At that time, students had the option of doing a Pass degree, which consisted of 'a disorderly collection of fragmented learning', or an Honours degree, which at that time meant the Mathematics Tripos, classics, natural or moral sciences. An Honours degree was considered more challenging than the Pass degree. In 1869, Henry Sidgwick helped institute the Examinations for Women, which was designed to be of intermediate difficulty. This idea was heavily opposed by Emily Davies, as she demanded admittance to the Tripos examinations.

The college was established on 16 October 1869 under the name of the College for Women at Benslow House in Hitchin, which was considered to be a convenient distance from Cambridge and London. It was thought to be less 'risky' and less controversial to locate the college away from Cambridge in the beginning. The college was one of England's first residential colleges for women. (Whitelands College, now part of the University of Roehampton, was established as a college of higher education for women earlier, in 1841.)

  In July and October 1869, entrance examinations were held in London, to which 21 candidates came; 16 passed. The first term started on 16 October 1869, when five students began their studies. Elizabeth Adelaide Manning was registered as a student and her step-mother Charlotte Manning was the first Mistress. The first three students to unofficially sit the Tripos exams in Lent term 1873, Rachel Cook and Louisa Lumsden, who both took the Classical Tripos, as well as Sarah Woodhead, who took the Mathematical Tripos, were known as "The Pioneers".

Through fundraising, £7,000 were collected, which allowed for the purchase of land either at Hitchin or near Cambridge in 1871. By 1872, sixteen acres of land at the present site were acquired near the village of Girton. The college was then renamed Girton College, and opened at the new location in October 1873. The buildings had cost £12,000, and consisted of a single block which comprised the east half of Old Wing.[ At the time, thirteen students were admitted.

In 1876, Old Wing was completed, and Taylor's Knob, the college laboratory and half of Hospital Wing built. In 1884, Hospital Wing was completed, and Orchard Wing, Stanley Library and the Old Kitchens added. At that time, Girton had 80 students. By 1902, Tower Wing, Chapel Wing and Woodlands Wing as well as the Chapel and the Hall were finished, which allowed the college to accommodate 180 students.

In 1921, a committee was appointed to draft a charter for the college. By summer 1923 the committee had completed the task, and on 21 August 1924 the King granted the charter to "the Mistress and Governors of Girton College" as a Body Corporate.

Girton was not officially a college yet, nor were its members part of the University. Girton and Newnham were classed as "recognised institutions for the higher education for women", not colleges of the university. On 27 April 1948, women were admitted to full membership of the University of Cambridge, and Girton College received the status of a college of the university.

 
 

Cambridge, Girton College
 
 
1976 to present: Pioneering for sexual equality
Social and cultural changes in the post-war period led to an increasing number of British universities to become co-educational. In Cambridge, Churchill college, King's college and Clare college were the first men's colleges to admit women in 1972. Girton had already amended its statutes in 1971 in such a way as to allow the admission of men should the Governing Body vote in favour at an unspecified date in the future. The decision to become mixed came in November 1976, when the Governing Body voted to act upon the statute, which made Girton the first women's college to admit men. In January 1977, the first two male Fellows, Frank Wilkinson and John Marks, arrived, followed by male graduate students in 1978, and, finally, undergraduates in October 1979. One reason for the change was that the first mixed colleges in Cambridge immediately shot to the top of the Tripos league tables, as they seemed to attract bright students, who preferred to stay in co-educational colleges.

Girton became co-residential as well, which meant that male and female students shared the same facilities. Only one all-female corridor in which rooms were reserved exclusively for women remained. Upon the arrival of male undergraduates, JCR and MCR social facilities had to be enlarged. The college bar was opened in 1979 as well as rugby, cricket and soccer pitches provided from 1982 onwards.

On the Tompkins Table, Girton has averaged at about rank 20 out of 29 colleges in the past 15 years. In 2011, it came 23rd, with 16.3% of all undergraduate students gaining a First class.

Mistresses
The Mistress is the formal head of the college. Her main task is to exercise general superintendence over the college's affairs. She presides the College Council and several college committees. The Mistress is elected by the Council, and has to reside at the college precincts for at least two thirds of each term, or 210 days of each academic year. Ever since the establishment of Girton college, this position has been held by a female, even though male candidates have had equal rights for running for the office since 1976.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1869
 
 
First Nihilist Congress meets at Basel, Switzerland
 
 
Nihilism
 

Nihilism, (from Latin nihil, “nothing”), originally a philosophy of moral and epistemological skepticism that arose in 19th-century Russia during the early years of the reign of Tsar Alexander II. The term was famously used by Friedrich Nietzsche to describe the disintegration of traditional morality in Western society. In the 20th century, nihilism encompassed a variety of philosophical and aesthetic stances that, in one sense or another, denied the existence of genuine moral truths or values, rejected the possibility of knowledge or communication, and asserted the ultimate meaninglessness or purposelessness of life or of the universe.

 
The term is an old one, applied to certain heretics in the Middle Ages. In Russian literature, nihilism was probably first used by N.I. Nadezhdin, in an 1829 article in the Messenger of Europe, in which he applied it to Aleksandr Pushkin. Nadezhdin, as did V.V. Bervi in 1858, equated nihilism with skepticism.

Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov, a well-known conservative journalist who interpreted nihilism as synonymous with revolution, presented it as a social menace because of its negation of all moral principles.

It was Ivan Turgenev, in his celebrated novel Fathers and Sons (1862), who popularized the term through the figure of Bazarov the nihilist. Eventually, the nihilists of the 1860s and ’70s came to be regarded as disheveled, untidy, unruly, ragged men who rebelled against tradition and social order.
The philosophy of nihilism then began to be associated erroneously with the regicide of Alexander II (1881) and the political terror that was employed by those active at the time in clandestine organizations opposed to absolutism.

If to the conservative elements the nihilists were the curse of the time, to the liberals such as N.G. Chernyshevsky they represented a mere transitory factor in the development of national thought—a stage in the struggle for individual freedom—and a true spirit of the rebellious young generation. In his novel What Is to Be Done? (1863), Chernyshevsky endeavoured to detect positive aspects in the nihilist philosophy.

  Similarly, in his Memoirs, Prince Peter Kropotkin, the leading Russian anarchist, defined nihilism as the symbol of struggle against all forms of tyranny, hypocrisy, and artificiality and for individual freedom.

Fundamentally, 19th-century nihilism represented a philosophy of negation of all forms of aestheticism; it advocated utilitarianism and scientific rationalism. Classical philosophical systems were rejected entirely. Nihilism represented a crude form of positivism and materialism, a revolt against the established social order; it negated all authority exercised by the state, by the church, or by the family. It based its belief on nothing but scientific truth; science would be the solution of all social problems. All evils, nihilists believed, derived from a single source—ignorance—which science alone would overcome.

The thinking of 19th-century nihilists was profoundly influenced by philosophers, scientists, and historians such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Charles Darwin, Henry Buckle, and Herbert Spencer. Since nihilists denied the duality of human beings as a combination of body and soul, of spiritual and material substance, they came into violent conflict with ecclesiastical authorities. Since nihilists questioned the doctrine of the divine right of kings, they came into similar conflict with secular authorities. Since they scorned all social bonds and family authority, the conflict between parents and children became equally immanent, and it is this theme that is best reflected in Turgenev’s novel.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1869
 
 
First postcards introduced in Austria
 
 
 
1869
 
 
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
 

The 1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game was a college football game between the College of New Jersey (now the Princeton Tigers) and the Rutgers Queensmen played on November 6, 1869.

 
The game's rules were based on the London Football Association's early set of rules, which had recently become the most popular set of rules for the game of football at the time. The game, along with the schism between the FA's rules and the rules of the Rugby Football Union, set in motion the events which would lead to the development of modern American football during the following decades. The game is widely considered to have been the first American football game ever played, but also is seen as being the first college soccer game by some due to the rules under which the game was played.

Rutgers won the game 6–4.

 
 
Game and game rules
Part of the first season of college football ever played, the game took place on November 6, 1869 at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium at Rutgers University) in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Because the game was played at a Rutgers field, it was also played under Rutgers' rules. The rules were based on Football Association's rules of the time, in which two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team's goal, but throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed. (See Gameplay section below for how the game transpired.) Rutgers won the game by a score of 6 "runs" to Princeton's 4.

William J. Leggett, later a distinguished clergyman of the Dutch Reformed Church, was the Rutgers captain; William Gummere, who later became chief justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, captained the Princeton squad. The game was played in front of approximately 100 spectators.

Reportedly, the players from Rutgers wore scarlet-colored turbans and handkerchiefs to distinguish them as a team from the Princeton players, which was the reason that they later adopted the Scarlet Knights as their mascot.

  Gameplay
The teams played 10 "games" against each other. When a team scored one time (a "goal"), it counted as the end of the game, and the team with the most goals after play was completed was considered the winner. The game was played under a variation of the proto-soccer rules of the Football Association, and the ball could be moved only by kicking or hitting it with feet, hands, head or sides.

As the first of the 10 games began, two players from each of the teams positioned themselves near the opponent's goal. This was presumably because the participants were hoping to easily score when the ball reached their territory on the field of play. On each team, there were eleven so-called "fielders" who were assigned to defend their own territorial area. There were 12 participants on each team that they named "bulldogs" who were the ones playing in the other team's territory.

Rutgers was the first to score a goal, as participants named S.G. Gano and G.R. Dixon successfully kicked the ball across the Princeton goal, allowing the Scarlet Knights to take the early lead in the contest. At some point early in the contest, the flying "wedge" play was first used as the team with the ball formed what is considered a wall-like formation, allowing them to charge at the defenders.

 
 
This flying wedge tactic was successful early on for Rutgers because of their perceived size disadvantage over Princeton. However, Princeton countered the tactic with a participant named J.E. Michael, but apparently better known by his nickname of "Big Mike". Big Mike had broken up the Rutgers flying wedge play during the fourth "game", and Princeton took advantage at that moment as they were able to tie the overall score at 2-2.

A Rutgers player named Madison Ball used his quickness and the way in which he kicked the ball (with the heel of his foot), to again take the lead in the contest. When the ball would enter Rutgers territory, Madison would get in front of it and use a heel kick to prevent Princeton from scoring. Ball was able to successfully use that play to set up Dixon to score another goal which gave Rutgers a 4-2 "games" lead. Rutgers then allowed Princeton to score a goal as one of their players, whose identity is not known, had kicked a ball towards their own goal. It was blocked by a Rutgers player, but Princeton soon was able to take advantage to cut the lead down to 4-3. Princeton scored on their next possession when they used a flying wedge play of their own led by Big Mike as they were able to march down the field to score to tie the game at 4.

Rutgers captain John W. Leggett (who was the one who had suggested rules be adopted from the London Football Association which was agreed upon by Princeton team captain William Gunmere) had a strategy for his team at this point. He suggested that the Rutgers team keep the ball low on the ground to counter the much taller players on Princeton's team. This strategy appeared to work as Rutgers easily scored the final two goals of the contest to win the first intercollegiate football game ever played 6-4.

Princeton had more size which would normally be an advantage on a field with 50 total players, but the Tigers had trouble kicking the ball as a team which is something Rutgers did very well. After the game, an eye witness named John W. Herbert said that he thought Rutgers was the smaller team, but that they had more speed than Princeton.

 
 
Aftermath
In what might be considered a beginning to college football rivalries, immediately after Rutgers won this game, Princeton's players were literally run out of town by the winning Rutgers students. The Princeton students reportedly jumped in their carriages and quickly made the 20-mile trip back to their campus.

In 1968, Arnold Friberg was commissioned by Chevrolet to create a painting commemorating the game. His work The First Game was one of four works that he created to celebrate 100 years of college football.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1869
 
 
First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets in London
 
 
Co-operative Congress
 
The Co-operative Congress is the national conference of the UK Co-operative Movement. The first of the modern congresses took place in 1869 following a series of meetings called the "Owenite Congress" in the 1830s. Members of Co-operatives UK (previously the Co-operative Union) send delegates to the annual congress, where reports of national bodies are made and debates held on subjects of importance to the Co-operative Movement. The meetings also include the Annual General Meeting of Co-operatives UK.
 
History
The first Co-operative Congresses were the Owenite Congresses, which provided a gathering place for the fledgling co-operative movement that was growing in the wake of the 1795 foundation of the Hull Anti-Mill, a corn mill that was also an early co-operative. The Manchester Congress of 1830, organised by the Manchester and Salford Co-operative Council, is widely cited as the first of the Owenite Congresses. However, George Jacob Holyoake, in The History of Co-operation, describes the discovery of a record of an even earlier Congress, at which Robert Owen had been present, this first Co-operative Congress being held in Manchester on 26 May 1827. The Owenite Congresses stopped in 1835, being replaced by Socialist Congresses with a broader range of delegates - but the 1860s saw increased agitation for them to be renewed from co-operators such as ET Craig and Alexander Campbell, and the first of the modern series was held in 1869.

 

 
The first of the modern Congresses was held in London. It was attended by a variety of British and foreign delegates, with co-operative activist (and author of Tom Brown's School Days) Thomas Hughes MP acting as its first president. Messages of support were read out from John Ruskin, John Stuart Mill and Florence Nightingale, who offered "any aid in my power to your Co-operative Congress, in whose objects I am deeply interested". It was the only one of the modern series not to be organised by Co-operatives UK: this was because one of the orders of business for the first Congress was the creation of the organisation, then called the Co-operative Central Board. Co-operatives UK was founded out of concerns that the success of the Co-operative Movement might lead to a loss of identity and its original vision, and was intended to be a national organisation to bind the Movement together and emphasise the role of co-operatives in wider society.

Co-operatives UK also took responsibility for organising the Co-operative Congress, and the annual meetings were the centre of the national Movement: most major changes in the movement came out of the Co-operative Congresses, such as the abandoning of political neutrality and the formation of the Co-operative Party (1917 Congress), the formalisation of ties to the Labour Party (1927 Congress) or the founding of the Independent Co-operative Commission chaired by Hugh Gaitskell (1955 Congress).
The Congress has carried on to the modern day as a two-day event, with the only break being in 1944 when war conditions meant it was impossible for delegates to travel.

  Publications
Verbatim proceedings of Congress are published by Co-operatives UK shortly after each event. Between 1880 and 1960, Congress handbooks were also published giving a history of the area the event was being held in and details of the co-operatives that were based there.

From 1869 to 1899, Congress Papers on topics that would be discussed and debated at the event were also published, often in pamphlet form. Examples of these are held in the National Co-operative Archive, maintained by the Co-operative College.

Presidents
Beginning with the first modern Congress in 1869, a Congress President was elected to preside over the event: to begin with, a President was elected for each day of Congress, but from 1896 a single President was elected for the whole event.

Being president was considered the highest honour in the UK Co-operative Movement, with societies nominating individuals for the position in recognition of their contribution to the movement.

The President was presented with a commemorative medal, and gave a keynote address to the conference.

The Congress voted to abolish the position of President in 2007, with Alan Gill (former Chief Executive of United Co-operatives) being the last to serve in the position.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1869
 
 
Ferdinand de Lesseps granted concession by France to construct Suez Canal
 
 
Lesseps Ferdinand
 

Ferdinand, viscount de Lesseps, in full Ferdinand-marie, Vicomte De Lesseps (born Nov. 19, 1805, Versailles, France—died Dec. 7, 1894, La Chenaie, near Guilly), French diplomat famous for building the Suez Canal across the Isthmus of Suez (1859–69) in Egypt.

 

Ferdinand, viscount de Lesseps
  Lesseps was from a family long distinguished in government service. Appointed assistant vice-consul at Lisbon in 1825, he was sent in 1828 to Tunis and in 1832 to Alexandria, where he studied a proposal (by one of Napoleon’s engineers) for a Suez Canal. At Alexandria the survey report of J.-M. Le Père, one of Napoleon’s chief engineers, on the Isthmus of Suez, and his friendship with Muḥammad ʿAlī, the Turkish viceroy of Egypt, and his son, Saʿīd Pasha, led Lesseps to hope that he might one day finish the canal that Le Père had begun. For the time, however, he could not pursue his plans. From 1833 to 1837, Lesseps was consul at Cairo, where he gained distinction in combating an outbreak of plague. Two years later he was transferred to Rotterdam. Subsequently he served at Málaga and at Barcelona, where he was promoted to consul general.

From 1848 to 1849, after the proclamation of the Second Republic, he was minister of France at Madrid. In May 1849 he sent a mission to Rome, from where Pope Pius IX had fled and where Giuseppe Mazzini had proclaimed the republic. This mission was ambiguous: it was a question of “placing a limit on the pretensions of Austria . . . of ending by arbitration . . . the differences which divided . . . the peninsula. . . .” Lesseps tried to reconcile the irreconcilables: the papacy and the republic.
 
 
But at the end of May, when the French Legislative Assembly, conservative by nature, followed the Constituent Assembly, which held republican views, he was recalled, handed over to the Council of State, and censured. French troops reestablished pontifical power in Rome. The diplomatic career of Lesseps was shattered. But in 1854, an invitation from Saʿīd Pasha, newly appointed viceroy, or khedive, of Egypt, revived his ambitions. On Nov. 30, 1854, Saʿīd Pasha signed the first act of concession authorizing Lesseps to pierce the isthmus of the Suez.

A first scheme, directed by Lesseps, was immediately drawn up by the surveyors Linant Bey and Mougel Bey (L.-M. Linant de Bellefonds and E. Mougel) providing for direct communication between the Mediterranean and Red Sea, and, after being slightly modified, it was adopted by an international commission of engineers in 1856. Encouraged by this approval, Lesseps allowed no obstacles to retard the work, and he succeeded in rousing the French people to subscribe more than half the capital needed to form the company, which was organized in 1858. The first blow of the pickax was given by Lesseps at Port Said on April 25, 1859; and 10 years later, on Nov. 17, 1869, the Suez Canal was officially inaugurated by the empress Eugénie, who had been invited by the host of the celebrations, the khedive (viceroy), Ismāʿīl Pasha. In 1875 the British government, on the initiative of the prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli, purchased the khedive Ismāʿīl’s Suez Canal shares and became the largest shareholder. Lesseps cooperated loyally with the British (in spite of the fact that they had earlier tried to block the building of the canal because of their suspicions of the French) and facilitated the transfer of ownership. Though he usually tried to keep out of politics, Lesseps stood as a Bonapartist candidate for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies at Marseille in 1869 but was defeated by Léon Gambetta, later one of the founders of the Third Republic.

 
 

Ferdinand, viscount de Lesseps
  In 1879, when the International Congress of Geographical Sciences met in Paris and voted in favour of the construction of a Panama canal, the 74-year-old Lesseps undertook to carry out the project. His despotic temper and stubbornness, however, made him fail to appreciate the difficulties of the task: at first he thought that it would be possible to pierce a canal without locks, even though the route was barred by the Culebra cut and by the torrential Chagres River. The task proved to be beyond the capacities of a private company, so that eventually, in 1889, the company that Lesseps had formed had to liquidate. After an official inquiry in 1892, the French government instituted the prosecution of the company’s administrators, and in February 1893 Lesseps and his son Charles (1849–1923) were sentenced to five years’ imprisonment. Only Charles, however, was imprisoned, and in June an appeals court reversed the decision. On the other hand, the fact that members of the government and parliamentarians were accused of having accepted bribes from the company made the Panama scandal a political affair as well as a financial one, with important repercussions in the history of the Third French Republic.

Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, and of numerous scientific societies. He was also decorated with the grand cross of the Legion of Honour and the Star of India and received the freedom of the City of London. His great gifts, unselfishness, and social charm made him everywhere respected, and the scandal that clouded his last years has done nothing to tarnish his reputation.

Adrien Dansette

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

1869 Opening of the Suez Canal at Port Said.
Opening of Suez Canal by Empress Eugenie
 
 
 
Suez Canal
 

Suez Canal, Arabic Qanāt al-Suways, sea-level waterway running north-south across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt to connect the Mediterranean and the Red seas. The canal separates the African continent from Asia, and it provides the shortest maritime route between Europe and the lands lying around the Indian and western Pacific oceans. It is one of the world’s most heavily used shipping lanes. The canal extends 101 miles (163 km) between Port Said (Būr Saʿīd) in the north and Suez in the south, with dredged approach channels north of Port Said, into the Mediterranean, and south of Suez. The canal does not take the shortest route across the isthmus, which is only 75 miles (121 km). Instead, it utilizes several lakes: from north to south, Lake Manzala (Buhayrat al-Manzilah), Lake Timsah (Buhayrat al-Timsāh), and the Bitter Lakes—Great Bitter Lake (Al-Buhayrah al-Murrah al-Kubrā) and Little Bitter Lake (Al-Buhayrah al-Murrah al-Ṣughrā). The Suez Canal is an open cut, without locks, and, though extensive straight lengths occur, there are eight major bends. To the west of the canal is the low-lying delta of the Nile River, and to the east is the higher, rugged, and arid Sinai Peninsula. Prior to construction of the canal (completed in 1869), the only important settlement was Suez, which in 1859 had 3,000 to 4,000 inhabitants. The rest of the towns along its banks have grown up since, with the possible exception of Al-Qantarah.

 
Physical features
Geology

The Isthmus of Suez, the sole land bridge between the continents of Africa and Asia, is of relatively recent geologic origin. Both continents once formed a single large continental mass, but during the Paleogene and Neogene periods (about 66 to 2.6 million years ago) the great fault structures of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba developed, with the opening and subsequent drowning of the Red Sea trough as far as the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. In the succeeding Quaternary Period (about the past 2.6 million years), there was considerable oscillation of sea level, leading finally to the emergence of a low-lying isthmus that broadened northward to a low-lying open coastal plain. There the Nile delta once extended farther east—as a result of periods of abundant rainfall coincident with the Pleistocene Epoch (2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago)—and two river arms, or distributaries, formerly crossed the northern isthmus, one branch reaching the Mediterranean Sea at the narrowest point of the isthmus and the other entering the sea some 9 miles (14.5 km) east of present Port Said.
 
 
Physiography
Topographically, the Isthmus of Suez is not uniform. There are three shallow water-filled depressions: Lake Manzala, Lake Timsah, and the Bitter Lakes; though distinguished as Great and Little, the Bitter Lakes form one continuous sheet of water. A number of more-resistant bands of limestone and gypsum obtrude in the south of the isthmus, and another significant feature is a narrow valley leading from Lake Timsah southwestward toward the middle Nile delta and Cairo. The isthmus is composed of marine sediments, coarser sands, and gravels deposited in the early periods of abundant rainfall, Nile alluvium (especially to the north), and windblown sands.

When first opened in 1869, the canal consisted of a channel barely 26 feet (8 metres) deep, 72 feet (22 metres) wide at the bottom, and 200 to 300 feet (61 to 91 metres) wide at the surface. To allow ships to pass each other, passing bays were built every 5 to 6 miles (8 to 10 km). Construction involved the excavation and dredging of 97 million cubic yards (74 million cubic metres) of sediments. Between 1870 and 1884 some 3,000 groundings of ships occurred because of the narrowness and tortuousness of the channel. Major improvements began in 1876, and, after successive widenings and deepenings, the canal by the 1960s had a minimum width of 179 feet (55 metres) at a depth of 33 feet (10 metres) along its banks and a channel depth of 40 feet (12 metres) at low tide. Also in that period, passing bays were greatly enlarged and new bays constructed, bypasses were made in the Bitter Lakes and at Al-Ballāḥ, stone or cement cladding and steel piling for bank protection were almost entirely completed in areas particularly liable to erosion, tanker anchorages were deepened in Lake Timsah, and new berths were dug at Port Said to facilitate the grouping of ships in convoy.

 
Suez Canal.
 
 
Plans that had been made in 1964 for further enlargement were overtaken by the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967, during which the canal was blocked. The canal remained inoperative until June 1975, when it was reopened and improvements were recommenced. In 2015 the Egyptian government finished a nearly $8.5 billion project to upgrade the canal and significantly increase its capacity.
 
 
The economy
Operation

In 1870, the canal’s first full year of operation, there were 486 transits, or fewer than 2 per day. In 1966 there were 21,250, an average of 58 per day, with net tonnage increasing from some 437,000 long tons (444,000 metric tons) in 1870 to about 274,000,000 long tons (278,400,000 metric tons). By the mid-1980s the number of daily transits had fallen to an average of 50, but net annual tonnage was about 350,000,000 long tons (355,600,000 metric tons). In 2014 there were 17,148 transits with a net annual tonnage of about 947,800,000 long tons (963,000,000 metric tons).

The original canal did not permit two-way traffic, and ships would stop in a passing bay to allow the passage of ships in the other direction. Transit time then averaged 40 hours, but by 1939 it had been reduced to 13 hours. A system of convoys was adopted in 1947, consisting of one northbound and two southbound per day. Transit time went up to 15 hours in 1967 despite convoying, reflecting the great growth in tanker traffic at that time. With some enlargement of the canal, transit time since 1975 has ranged from 11 to 16 hours. Upon entering the canal at Port Said or Suez, ships are assessed for tonnage and cargo (passengers have ridden without charge since 1950) and are handled by one or two pilots for actual canal transit, which is increasingly controlled by radar.

 
1881 drawing of the Suez Canal.
 
 
Southbound convoys moor at Port Said, Al-Ballāḥ, Lake Timsah, and Al-Kabrīt, where there are bypasses that allow northbound convoys to proceed without stopping. In August 2015 a new 22-mile (35-km) expansion running parallel to the main channel was opened, enabling two-way transit through the canal. The main channel was deepened to allow for the passage of larger ships. The expansion project, launched by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi in 2014, was part of an effort to boost Egypt’s economy.

The nature of traffic has greatly altered, especially because of the enormous growth in shipments of crude oil and petroleum products from the Persian Gulf since 1950. In 1913 the oil in northbound traffic amounted to 291,000 long tons (295,700 metric tons), whereas in 1966 it amounted to 166,000,000 long tons (168,700,000 metric tons). The closure of the canal from 1967 to 1975 led to the use of large oil tankers on the route around the Cape of Good Hope and prompted the development of the Sumed pipeline from Suez to Alexandria, which opened in 1977. Since 1975 the increased size of tankers—the largest of which cannot use the canal—and the development of sources of crude oil in areas outside of the canal route (e.g., Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, the North Sea, and Mexico) have reduced the canal’s importance in the international oil trade.

From an all-time peak of 984,000 in 1945, passenger traffic has declined to negligible numbers because of the competition from aircraft. Further decline in canal traffic resulted from a shift of Australasian trade from Europe to Japan and East Asia. Some movement of oil, however, from refineries in Russia, southern Europe, and Algeria has continued, chiefly to India, and the shipment of dry cargoes, including grain, ores, and metals, has increased. A more recent feature has been the growth of container and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) traffic through the canal, chiefly destined for the highly congested ports of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

The major northbound cargoes consist of crude petroleum and petroleum products, coal, ores and metals, and fabricated metals, as well as wood, oilseeds and oilseed cake, and cereals. Southbound traffic consists of cement, fertilizers, fabricated metals, cereals, and empty oil tankers.

 
 

USS America (CV-66), an American aircraft carrier in the Suez Canal
 
 
Communications and towns
Construction of the canal led to the growth of settlements in what had been, except for Suez, almost uninhabited arid territory. More than 70,000 acres (28,000 hectares) were brought under cultivation, and about 8 percent of the total population was engaged in agriculture, with approximately 10,000 commercial and industrial activities of various sizes. During the Suez Crisis in 1967, almost all the population was evacuated, and most of the settlements were severely damaged or destroyed during subsequent warfare. With the reopening of the canal in 1975, however, reconstruction of the area was begun, and most of the population had returned by 1978. Port Said was made a customs-free zone in 1975, and tax-free industrial zones have been established along the canal. The major urban centres are Port Said, with its east-bank counterpart, Būr Fuʾād; Ismailia (Al-Ismāʿīliyyah), on the north shore of Lake Timsah; and Suez, with its west-bank outport, Būr Tawfīq. Water for irrigation and for domestic and industrial use is supplied by the Nile via the Al-Ismāʿīliyyah Canal.

There are two roads from the pre-1967 period on the west bank. Ferries have largely been replaced by four underpasses: north of Suez, south and north of Lake Timsah, and at Al-Qanṭarah. From this last, a road continues along the east bank to Būr Fuʾād, and another runs eastward through the Sinai to Israel. Newer roads on the east bank run eastward to the Khutmiyyah, Giddi, and Mitla passes, which give access to the central Sinai. The railway on the west side of the canal was restored in the 1970s. In 1980 the Ahmad Hamdi road tunnel was opened, connecting Egypt proper with its governorate (muḥāfaẓah) of Shamāl Sīnāʾ. About 1 mile (1.6 km) of the tunnel passes beneath the canal itself. As part of the 2014 expansion proejct, the Egyptian government announced plans to build six new tunnels for both motor vehicles and trains. The project also includes the development of additional transportation infrastructure in the surrounding area and aims to reclaim some 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares) of land for cultivation.

 
 
History
Construction

The first canal in the region is thought to have been dug about 1850 bce, when an irrigation channel navigable at flood period was constructed into the Wadi Tumelat (Al-Ṭumaylāt), a dry river valley east of the Nile delta. Known as the Canal of the Pharaohs, that channel was extended by the Ptolemies via the Bitter Lakes as far as the Red Sea.

From the region of Lake Timsah a northward arm appears to have reached a former branch of the Nile. Extended under the Romans (who called it Trajan’s Canal), neglected by the Byzantines, and reopened by the early Arabs, that canal was deliberately filled in by the ʿAbbāsid caliphs for military reasons in 775 ce. Throughout, the reason for those changes appears to have been to facilitate trade from the delta lands to the Red Sea rather than to provide a passage to the Mediterranean.

Venetians in the 15th century and the French in the 17th and 18th centuries speculated upon the possibility of making a canal through the isthmus. A canal there would make it possible for ships of their nations to sail directly from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean and so dispute the monopoly of the East Indian trade that had been won first by the Portuguese, then by the Dutch, and finally by the English, all of whom used the route around the Cape of Good Hope. Those schemes came to nothing.

It was not until the French occupation of Egypt (1798–1801) that the first survey was made across the isthmus. Napoleon personally investigated the remains of the ancient canal. J.M. Le Père, his chief lines-of-communication engineer, erroneously calculated that the level of the Red Sea was 33 feet (10 metres) above that of the Mediterranean and, therefore, that locks would be needed. Considering the adverse conditions under which the French surveyors worked and the prevailing belief in the disparity of levels of the two seas, the error was excusable, and Le Père’s conclusion was uncritically accepted by a succession of subsequent authors of canal projects.

 
The canal in 2015.
 
 
Studies for a canal were made again in 1834 and in 1846. In 1854 Ferdinand de Lesseps received an Act of Concession from the viceroy (khedive) of Egypt, Saʿīd Pasha, to construct a canal, and in 1856 a second act conferred on the Suez Canal Company (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) the right to operate a maritime canal for 99 years after completion of the work. Construction began in 1859 and took 10 years instead of the 6 that had been envisaged; climatic difficulties, a cholera epidemic in 1865, and early labour troubles all slowed down operations. An initial project was the cutting of a small canal (the Al-Ismāʾīliyyah) from the delta along the Wadi Tumelat, with a southern branch (now called the Al-Suways al-Ḥulwah Canal; the two canals combined were formerly called the Sweet Water Canal) to Suez and a northern one (Al-ʿAbbāsiyyah Canal) to Port Said. This supplied drinking water in an otherwise arid area and was completed in 1863.

At first, digging was done by hand with picks and baskets, peasants being drafted as forced labour. Later, dredgers and steam shovels operated by European labourers took over, and, as dredging proved cheaper than dry excavation, the terrain was artificially flooded and dredged wherever possible. Other than in the few areas where rock strata were met, the entire canal was driven through sand or alluvium. In August 1869 the waterway was completed, and it was officially opened with an elaborate ceremony on November 17.

 
 

The Illustrated London News - The opening of the Suez Canal 1869
 
 
Finance
The Suez Canal Company had been incorporated as an Egyptian joint-stock company with its head office in Paris. Despite much early official coolness, even hostility, on the part of Great Britain, Lesseps was anxious for international participation and offered shares widely. Only the French responded, however, buying 52 percent of the shares; of the remainder, 44 percent was taken up by Saʾīd Pasha. The first board of directors included representatives of 14 countries.

In 1875, financial troubles compelled the new viceroy, Ismāʾīl Pasha, to sell his holding, which (at the instigation of the prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli) was at once bought by the British government. Until that year the shares had remained below their issue price of 500 francs each. With the British purchase (at 568 francs each), steady appreciation took place, to more than 3,600 francs in 1900.

Originally allocated 15 percent of the net profits, Egypt later relinquished the percentage and, after the sale of Ismāʿīl’s 176,602 shares, remained unrepresented on the board of directors until 1949, when it was, in effect, reinstated as a board member and allotted 7 percent of gross profits. In that year it was also agreed that 90 percent of new clerical jobs and 80 percent of technical appointments would be offered to Egyptians and that the Canal Company would provide hospitals, schools, and other amenities.

In 1956, 13 years before the concession was due to expire, the canal was nationalized by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, precipitating the Suez Crisis. Since then the Egyptian government has exercised complete control through its Suez Canal Authority (SCA), though the original company (now GDF Suez) continues in France as a multinational utilities company.

  International status
Although the canal was built to serve, and profit from, international trade, its international status remained undefined for many years. In 1888 the major maritime powers at the time (except Great Britain) signed the Convention of Constantinople, which declared that the canal should be open to ships of all nations in times of both peace and war.
In addition, the convention forbade acts of hostility in the waters of the canal and the construction of fortifications on its banks. Great Britain did not sign the convention until 1904.

The history of international use of the canal during wartime includes denial of passage to Spanish warships during the Spanish-American War of 1898 and permission of passage for a squadron of the Russian navy during the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and for Italian vessels during Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935–36. Theoretically, the canal was open to all belligerents during World Wars I and II, but the naval and military superiority of the Allied forces denied effective use of the canal to the shipping of Germany and its allies.

Following the armistice between Israel and its Arab opponents in 1949, Egypt denied use of the canal to Israel and to all ships trading with Israel. The first of two canal closings occurred during the Suez Crisis of 1956–57, after Israel attacked Egyptian forces, and French and British troops occupied part of the canal zone. Several ships were trapped within the canal during that blockade and were unable to leave until the north end was reopened in January 1957.

The second closing was a consequence of the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967, during and after which the canal was the scene of much fighting between Egypt and Israel and for several years formed the front line between the two armies.

 
 
Egypt physically barricaded both ends of the canal, and 15 ships, known as the “Yellow Fleet” for the desert sand they slowly accumulated, were trapped in the canal’s Great Bitter Lake for the entire duration of the war. The international crews of the anchored ships provided each other with mutual support and camaraderie, though by 1969 most of the crew members had been allowed to leave. With the reopening of the canal in June 1975 and the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel in 1979, all ships (including those of Israeli registration) again had access to the waterway, though only 2 of the 15 trapped vessels were able to leave under their own power.

William B. Fisher
Charles Gordon Smith

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1869 Part III NEXT-1870-1879    
 
 
     

, dredgers and steam shovels operated by European labourers took over, and, as dredging proved cheaper than dry excavation, the terrain was artificially flooded and dredged wherever possible. Other than in the few areas where rock strata were met, the entire canal was driven through sand or alluvium. In August 1869 the waterway was completed, and it was officially opened with an elaborate ceremony on November 17.
 
 

The Illustrated London News - The opening of the Suez Canal 1869
 
 
Finance
The Suez Canal Company had been incorporated as an Egyptian joint-stock company with its head office in Paris. Despite much early official coolness, even hostility, on the part of Great Britain, Lesseps was anxious for international participation and offered shares widely. Only the French responded, however, buying 52 percent of the shares; of the remainder, 44 percent was taken up by Saʾīd Pasha. The first board of directors included representatives of 14 countries.

In 1875, financial troubles compelled the new viceroy, Ismāʾīl Pasha, to sell his holding, which (at the instigation of the prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli) was at once bought by the British government. Until that year the shares had remained below their issue price of 500 francs each. With the British purchase (at 568 francs each), steady appreciation took place, to more than 3,600 francs in 1900.

Originally allocated 15 percent of the net profits, Egypt later relinquished the percentage and, after the sale of Ismāʿīl’s 176,602 shares, remained unrepresented on the board of directors until 1949, when it was, in effect, reinstated as a board member and allotted 7 percent of gross profits. In that year it was also agreed that 90 percent of new clerical jobs and 80 percent of technical appointments would be offered to Egyptians and that the Canal Company would provide hospitals, schools, and other amenities.

In 1956, 13 years before the concession was due to expire, the canal was nationalized by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, precipitating the Suez Crisis. Since then the Egyptian government has exercised complete control through its Suez Canal Authority (SCA), though the original company (now GDF Suez) continues in France as a multinational utilities company.

  International status
Although the canal was built to serve, and profit from, international trade, its international status remained undefined for many years. In 1888 the major maritime powers at the time (except Great Britain) signed the Convention of Constantinople, which declared that the canal should be open to ships of all nations in times of both peace and war.
In addition, the convention forbade acts of hostility in the waters of the canal and the construction of fortifications on its banks. Great Britain did not sign the convention until 1904.

The history of international use of the canal during wartime includes denial of passage to Spanish warships during the Spanish-American War of 1898 and permission of passage for a squadron of the Russian navy during the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and for Italian vessels during Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935–36. Theoretically, the canal was open to all belligerents during World Wars I and II, but the naval and military superiority of the Allied forces denied effective use of the canal to the shipping of Germany and its allies.

Following the armistice between Israel and its Arab opponents in 1949, Egypt denied use of the canal to Israel and to all ships trading with Israel. The first of two canal closings occurred during the Suez Crisis of 1956–57, after Israel attacked Egyptian forces, and French and British troops occupied part of the canal zone. Several ships were trapped within the canal during that blockade and were unable to leave until the north end was reopened in January 1957.

The second closing was a consequence of the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967, during and after which the canal was the scene of much fighting between Egypt and Israel and for several years formed the front line between the two armies.

 
 
Egypt physically barricaded both ends of the canal, and 15 ships, known as the “Yellow Fleet” for the desert sand they slowly accumulated, were trapped in the canal’s Great Bitter Lake for the entire duration of the war. The international crews of the anchored ships provided each other with mutual support and camaraderie, though by 1969 most of the crew members had been allowed to leave. With the reopening of the canal in June 1975 and the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel in 1979, all ships (including those of Israeli registration) again had access to the waterway, though only 2 of the 15 trapped vessels were able to leave under their own power.

William B. Fisher
Charles Gordon Smith

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1869 Part III NEXT-1870-1879