Bernard (28 April 1868 – 16 April 1941) was a French
Post-Impressionist painter and writer, who had artistic
friendships with Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Eugène
Boch, and at a later time, Paul Cézanne. Most of his
notable work was accomplished at a young age, in the years
1886 through 1897. He is also associated with Cloisonnism
and Synthetism, two late 19th-century art movements. Less
known is Bernard's literary work, comprising plays, poetry,
and art criticism as well as art historical statements that
contain first hand information on the crucial period of
modern art to which Bernard had contributed.
by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1886
Émile Henri Bernard was born in Lille, France in 1868. As in
his younger years his sister was sick, Émile was unable to
receive much attention from his parents; he therefore stayed
with his grandmother, who owned a laundry in Lille,
employing more than twenty people. She was one of the
greatest supporters of his art. The family moved to Paris in
1878, where Émile attended the Collège Sainte-Barbe.
He began his studies at the École des Arts Décoratifs. In
1884, joined the Atelier Cormon where he experimented with
impressionism and pointillism and befriended fellow artists
Louis Anquetin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
suspended from the École des Beaux-Arts for "showing
expressive tendencies in his paintings", he toured Brittany
on foot, where he was enamored by the tradition and
In August 1886, Bernard met Gauguin in Pont-Aven. In this
brief meeting, they exchanged little about art, but looked
forward to meeting again.
Bernard said, looking back on that
time, that "my own talent was already fully developed." He
believed that his style did play a considerable part in the
development of Gauguin's mature style.
Bernard spent September 1887 at the coast, where he painted
La Grandmère, a portrait of his grandmother. He continued
talking with other painters and started saying good things
about Gauguin. Bernard went back to Paris, met with van
Gogh, who as we already stated was impressed by his work,
found a restaurant to show the work alongside van Gogh,
Anquetin, and Toulouse-Lautrec's work at the Avenue Clichy.
Van Gogh called the group the School of Petit-Boulevard.
One year later, Bernard set out for Pont-Aven by foot and
saw Gauguin. Their friendship and artistic relationship grew
strong quickly. By this time Bernard had developed many
theories about his artwork and what he wanted it to be. He
stated that he had "a desire to [find] an art that would be
of the most extreme simplicity and that would be accessible
to all, so as not to practice its individuality, but
collectively…" Gauguin was impressed by Bernard's ability to
verbalize his ideas.
1888 was a seminal year in the history of Modern art.
From October 23, until December 23 Paul Gauguin and Vincent
van Gogh worked together in Arles. Gauguin had brought his
new style from Pont-Aven exemplified in Vision after the
Sermon: Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, a powerful work of
visual symbolism of which he had already sent a sketch to
van Gogh in September.
Emile Bernard. Self-portrait with portrait of Paul Gauguin, Bernard,
He also brought along Bernard's Le Pardon de Pont-Aven which
he had exchanged for one of his paintings and which he used
to decorate the shared workshop. see in: (ref. Druick 2001)
This work was equally striking and illustrative of the style
Émile Bernard had already acquainted van Gogh with when he
sent him a batch of drawings in August, so much so that van
Gogh made a watercolor copy of the "Pardon" (December 1888)
which he sent to his brother, to recommend Bernard's new
style to be promoted. The following year van Gogh still
vividly remembered the painting in his written portrait of
Émile Bernard in a letter to his sister Wil
(Dec.10,1889):"...it was so original I absolutely wanted to
have a copy."
Bernard's style was effective and coherent (see:woman at
haystacks,) as can also be seen from the comparison of the
two "portraits" Bernard and Gauguin sent to van Gogh at the
end of September 1888 at the latter's request:
self-portraits -at Gauguin's initiative- each integrating a
small portrait of the other in the background. (ref. Druick
One of Émile Bernard's drawings from the August batch
("...a lane of trees near the sea with two women talking in
the foreground and some strollers" – Vincent van Gogh in a
letter to Bernard – Arles 1888) also appears to have
inspired the work van Gogh and Gauguin did on the Allée des
Alyscamps in Arles.
In 1891 he joined a group of Symbolist painters that
included Odilon Redon and Ferdinand Hodler.
In 1893 he started traveling, to Egypt, Spain and Italy and
after that his style became more eclectic. He returned to
Paris in 1904 and remained there for the remainder of his
life. He taught at the École des Beaux-Arts before he died
"[…] this creative, avant-garde young man destroyed
himself in a fight against that same avant-garde he had
helped to create. His rivalry with Gauguin led him out of
spite along a different path: classicism. This change took
place when he was living in the Middle East, in a period of
great crisis. But the fact remains that the young Bernard
played an essential part as an initiator for Gauguin, and
that he was the inventor of a new artistic vision."
Theories on style and art: Cloisonnism and Symbolism
Bernard theorized a style of painting with bold forms
separated by dark contours which became known as cloisonnism.
His work showed geometric tendencies which hinted at
influences of Paul Cézanne, and he collaborated with Paul
Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. Many say that it was Bernard's friend Anquetin, who
should receive the credit for this "closisonisme" technique.
During the spring of 1887, Bernard and Anquetin "turned
against Neo-Impressionism." It is also
likely that Bernard was influenced by the works he had seen
of Cézanne. But Bernard says "When I was in Brittany, I was
inspired by "everything that is superfluous in a spectacle
is covering it with reality and occupying our eyes instead
of our mind. You have to simplify the spectacle in order to
make some sense of it. You have, in a way, to draw its
"The first means that I use is to simplify nature to an
extreme point. I reduce the lines only to the main contrasts
and I reduce the colors to the seven fundamental colors of
the prism. To see a style and not an item. To highlight the
abstract sense and not the objective. And the second means
were to appeal to the conception and to the memory by
extracting yourself from any direct atmosphere. Appeal more
to internal memory and conception. There I was expressing
myself more, it was me that I was describing, although I was
in front of the nature. There was an invisible meaning under
the mute shape of exteriority."
Symbolism and religious motifs appear in both Bernard and
Gauguin's work. During the summer of 1889, Bernard was alone
in Le Pouldu and began to paint many religious canvasses. He
was upset that he had to do commercial work at the same time
that he wanted to create these pieces. Bernard wrote about
his relationship with the style of symbolism in many
letters, articles, and statements. He said that it was of a
Christian essence, divine language. Bernard believed that it
"It is the invisible express by the visible," and those previous attempts of religious symbolism
failed. That period of symbolism represented the nature of
beauty, but did not find the truth in the beauty. Art until
the renaissance was based on the invisible rather than the
visible, the idea, not the shapes or concrete. The history
of the painting of symbols was spiritual. Everything,
meaning symbols, were forgotten with the paganist ideas and
doctrines. That is what Bernard was attempting to accomplish
with the rebirth of symbolism in 1890. In his idea of the
new symbolism, he concentrated on maintaining a grounded
art, more authentic in Bernard's mind meant reducing
impressionism, not creating an optical trip like
Georges-Pierre Seurat, but simplifying the actual symbol.
His concept was that through ideas, not technique, the
truth is found.
Emile Bernard. Madeleine au Bois d'Amour
Musee d'Orsay at Paris
It was always Émile Bernard's great frustration that Paul
Gauguin never mentioned him as an influence on pictorial
symbolism (see for instance his own notes attached to the
Belgian edition (1942) of his selected letters, published
shortly after his death). In 2001/2002 The Art Institute of
Chicago and the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam held a joint
exhibition:Van Gogh and Gauguin:The Workshop of the South
that put Émile Bernard's contribution in perspective. (ref.
One of Émile Bernard's students was the Swedish painter
Ambroise Vollard (3
July 1866 – 21 July 1939) is regarded as one of the most
important dealers in French contemporary art at the
beginning of the twentieth century. He is credited with
providing exposure and emotional support to numerous
notable and unknown artists, including Paul Cézanne,
Aristide Maillol, Renoir, Louis Valtat, Pablo Picasso,
André Derain, Georges Rouault, Paul Gauguin and Vincent
van Gogh. He is also well known as an avid art collector
Paul Cézanne, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1899.
Musée des Beaux-Arts
Born in Saint-Denis, Réunion, he was raised in the
French Indian Ocean colony. After his matura (final
exams) in La Réunion, he went to study jurisprudence
in France from 1895, for a while in Montpellier,
then at the École de droit in Paris, where he
received his degree in 1888.
During his studies,
Vollard converted himself into an "amateur-merchant"
by becoming a clerk for an art dealer, and in 1893
established his own art gallery, at Rue Laffitte,
then the center of the Parisian market for
contemporary art. There Vollard mounted his first
major exhibitions, buying almost the entire output
of Cézanne, some 150 canvases to create his first
exhibition in 1895. This was followed by exhibitions
of Manet, Gauguin and Van Gogh (4 – 30 June 1895);
for Gabriel Mourey, French correspondent of The
Studio in Paris, this was simply a matter of "Scylla
and Charybdis". These were then was followed by a
second Cézanne exhibition (1898), the first Picasso
exhibition (1901) and Matisse (1904).
Much has been made
of his physical appearance and countenance (grimly
described as a "large, gruff, boorish fellow" with
"downcast eyes..."); however, he was also a very
shrewd businessman who made a fortune with the "buy
low, sell high" mantra. His clients included Albert
C. Barnes, Henry Osborne Havemeyer, Gertrude Stein
and her brother, Leo Stein.
Having put on the first
Picasso exhibition, in 1930 Vollard commissioned Picasso to
produce a suite of 100 etchings which became known as the
Vollard Suite. Vollard would later write biographies of
Cézanne (1914), Degas, and Renoir.
In 1937 he published his
autobiography, Recollections of a Picture Dealer.
With war approaching, Vollard set out in July 1939 from his
cottage in Le Tremblay-sur-Mauldre to travel to his mansion
on the Rue Martignac, where he had stored 10,000 artworks.
Nearing the junction to Pontchartrain, on a very wet road,
his chauffeur-driven Talbot skidded and then somersaulted
twice. Having fractured his cervical vertebrae, there he lay
with his chauffeur until found dead, aged 73, the following
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard,
Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
After his death, Vollard's executor was fellow
dealer Martin Fabiani, who was instructed to divide
his collection between his heirs: Madelaine de Galea,
an alleged mistress; and his brother Lucien.
Due to the Nazi
invasion of France, which started on 10 May 1940,
Fabiani hurriedly shipped 560 paintings to the
United States. Leaving on the SS Excalibur from
Lisbon, Portugal, the ship was intercepted by the
Royal Navy in Bermuda on 25 September 1940.
Designated "enemy property", the paintings were
stored at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa
during World War II. Post-war, on 19 April 1949, the
London prize court agreed release of the pieces to
Fabiani, who returned the works to Vollard's
sisters. In gratitude, the sisters donated all of
the lithographs by Rouault and Chagall, and a single
painting by Gauguin to the National Gallery of
Canada. The remaining works soon started appearing
on the New York commercial art gallery market, where
they were quickly sold.
Vollard's former secretary and protegé, Erich
Šlomović, a young Serb with Jewish origins (b.
1915), had connections with Vollard, Fabiani as well
as Lucien Vollard since about 1938. He had often
stated his wish to create a museum of French art
collected by him in Yugoslavia. Šlomović had amassed
a collection of about 600 works, most of them prints
or drawings, with a few important oil paintings, by
a combination of exchange, gift, purchase and
Vollard had put him in direct
contact with the most prominent artists of the day and often
asked him to act as agent for art selling or purchasing
purposes. Beginning of 1940, Šlomović put about 200 works in
storage in a Societe Generale bank branch vault in Paris.
Returning home with about 450 of these works, he exhibited
them in Zagreb, Croatia, in 1940. With the advance of German
armies in Serbia, he went into hiding, along with his
brother Egon, and his father and mother Roza. They placed
the paintings in crates behind the wall of a farmhouse in
the Southern Serbian village of Bacina. Šlomović, his
brother and father were soon arrested, and, like many other
Jews in occupied Serbia, killed by the Nazi Germans in 1942
in Belgrade. After the war these were appropriated by the
Yugoslav authorities. They were shown officially only once
in 1989 in Belgrade and Zagreb under the name "Slomovic
Collection". A legal battle is currently (2014) underway to
determine the ownership of the Belgrade collection,
including the Šlomović heirs, the Vollard beneficiaries and
the Serbian government.
The Paris works were
discovered in 1979 when the bank was allowed to open its
vault to recover unpaid storage fees. An 11-year legal
dispute ensued by the heirs of both Vollard and Šlomović,
which delayed their resale. A court in Amiens, France, ruled
in 1996, that the paintings stored in Paris were to be
awarded to the Vollard estate. These were sold off by
Sotheby's in Paris and in London in June 2010, totaling 30
million euros in proceeds. These included a 1905 Derain
painted at Collioure, as well as works by Mary Cassatt,
Cézanne, Chagall, Degas, Picasso and Renoir.
Max Slevogt (October 8, 1868 – September 20, 1932) was a
German Impressionist painter and illustrator, best known for
his landscapes. He was, together with Lovis Corinth and Max
Liebermann, one of the foremost representatives in Germany
of the plein air style.
Slevogt portrayed in a 1917 etching by Emil Orlik
He was born in Landshut, Germany, in 1868. From 1885 to 1889
he studied at the Munich Academy, and his early paintings
are dark in tone, exemplifying the prevailing style in
Munich. In 1889 Slevogt visited Paris, where he attended the
Académie Julian. In 1896, he drew caricatures for the
magazines Simplicissimus and Jugend, and the next year he
had his first solo exhibition in Vienna.
Toward the end of the 1890s his palette brightened. He
travelled again to Paris in 1900, where he was represented
in the German pavilion of the world exhibition with the work
Scheherezade, and was greatly impressed by the paintings of
Édouard Manet. In 1901 he joined the Berlin Secession.
A trip to Egypt in 1914 resulted in 21 paintings as well as
numerous watercolors and drawings; on the return journey he
stopped off in Italy. In June he acquired the country seat
Neukastel. After the outbreak of World War I he was sent as
official war painter to the western front. The war
experience brought about a search for new style appropriate
to the expression of the horrors of war. In the same year he
became a member of the royal academy of the arts in Berlin.
He designed scenery for the performance of Mozart's Don
Giovanni in the Dresdner state opera in 1924. In 1929 he was
given a large 60th birthday exhibition in the Prussian
academy of the arts in Berlin.
During the last year of his
life he worked on the religious mural Golgatha in the peace
church in Ludwigshafen on the Rhine. It was destroyed by
bombing raids during World War II.
Max Slevogt died in Leinsweiler (at that time in the
Rheinpfalz part of Bavaria) in 1932. He is buried in the
burial place of the family Finkler east of his house, the
so-called Slevogthof (with wall paintings) at Neukastel.
Edouard Vuillard, in full Jean-Édouard Vuillard (born
November 11, 1868, Cuiseaux, France—died June 21, 1940, La
Baule), French painter, printmaker, and decorator who was a
member of the Nabis group of painters in the 1890s. He is
particularly known for his depictions of intimate interior
Vuillard studied art from 1886 to 1888 at the Académie
Julian and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1889 he
joined a group of art students that included Maurice Denis,
Pierre Bonnard, Paul Sérusier, Ker-Xavier Roussel, and Félix
Vallotton. They called themselves the Nabis (Hebrew for
“Prophets”), and they drew their inspiration from the
Synthetist paintings of Paul Gauguin’s Pont-Aven period.
Like Gauguin, the Nabis advocated a symbolic, rather than a
naturalistic, approach to colour, and they usually applied
their paint in ways that emphasized the flat surface of the
canvas. Their admiration of Japanese woodcuts, which were
then in vogue in Europe, inspired them to use simplified
shapes and strong contours.
Vuillard, Édouard: Woman Sweeping [Credit: The Phillips
Collection, Washington, D.C.]Vuillard lived with his widowed
mother, a seamstress, until her death, and many of his works
deal with domestic and dressmaking scenes set in his
mother’s bourgeois home. In the paintings and prints of his
Nabi period, he often created flattened space by filling his
compositions with the contrasting rich patterns of wallpaper
and women’s dresses, as seen in paintings such as Woman
Sweeping (1899–1900). Because of their focus on intimate
interior scenes, both Vuillard and Bonnard were also called
Vuillard’s Public Gardens (1894), a series of nine
vertical decorative panels, is characteristic of his mature
work as a Nabi. As was common among the artists in the
group, who supported the idea of art as decoration, Vuillard
was commissioned to create this series as panels to be
installed in a private home. In these panels, Vuillard
portrayed women and children in the public gardens of Paris.
He avoided modeling; instead, he applied the paint in
distinct areas of patterned colours—soft shades of green,
blue, and brown—producing a two-dimensional, tapestry-like
In addition to painting, Vuillard, like most of the other
Nabis, was involved in book illustration, poster design, and
designs for the theatre. In 1893 Vuillard helped found
Aurélien Lugné-Poë’s Théâtre de l’Oeuvre, which produced
Symbolist plays. Vuillard designed stage sets and
In 1899 the Nabis exhibited together for the last time.
That year Vuillard began to paint in a more naturalistic
style. He also executed two series of masterful lithographs
that reveal his great debt to Japanese woodcuts. Vuillard
continued to receive numerous commissions to paint portraits
and decorative works for private patrons as well as for
public buildings. Over the course of nearly 15 years
beginning in 1923, he painted intimate portraits of his
artist friends Bonnard, Roussel, Denis, and sculptor
Aristide Maillol, each portrayed at work in his studio. His
public paintings included the decorations in the foyer of
the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (1913) and murals in the
Palais de Chaillot (1937) and in the League of Nations in
Vuillard retained an Intimist sensibility for his entire
career; even when painting portraits and landscapes, he
instilled his compositions with a sense of quiet
domesticity. In the early 20th century, when European art
was influenced by the development of avant-garde styles such
as Cubism and Futurism, many critics and artists viewed
Vuillard as conservative. Paintings from his Nabi period
received the most popular and critical approval, with
critics often dismissing his later work. However, in the
late 20th century, historians and critics began to devote
more attention to Vuillard’s achievements as a decorative
painter and designer.
of the artists have works accepted by the Salon this
year. Their submissions vary tremendously in technique
and subject matter, being connected only by a shared
concern with contemporary life. Renoir's 'Lise with a
Parasol' - described by one critic as 'the fat woman
daubed in white' - attracts attention because of the
freshness of the image and the directness of Renoir's
Bazille and Renoir move to a studio at 9 rue de la Paix
(renamed rue de la Condamine later in the year) - near the
Guerbois, a cafe popular with progressive artists and
Zola sits for Manet.
Cezanne submits an application for permission to copy
paintings in the Louvre.
Gauguin enlists in the French navy and joins the cruiser Jerome Napoleon.
Renoir is commissioned to decorate Prince Georges Bibesco's
house at 22 boulevard de la Tour-Maubourg through Charles Le
Coeur (brother of his friend Jules Le Coeur), who had been
the architect. He paints two ceilings after the style of
Tiepolo and Fragonard.
22nd Degas enrols as a copyist at the Louvre for the
Sisley takes a studio in the same building as Bazille and
10th Renoir paints The Engaged Couple
during a visit to Chailly.
The Engaged Couple
c. 1868 The couple portrayed here were thought to be Sisley
and his mistress Marie-Adelaide-Eugenie Lescouezec, by whom
he had a son in June 1867. More recent opinion, however, is
inclined towards the idea that the woman is Renoir's
favourite model Lise Trehot.
1st Opening of the Salon.
Among the works hung are Manet's Portrait of Ernile
Zolla and Young Woman with a Parrot, Renoir's
Lise with a Parasol, which is greatly praised by the
critics; Bazille's Flower Piece and
Portrait of the Family, another version of The
Artist's Family on a Terrace near Montpellier, which
had been rejected the previous year; Ships Coming Out
of the Harbour at Le Havre by Monet, whose other
works have been rejected; Cote du Jallais and
The Hermitage at Pontoise by Pissarro;
Chestnut Trees at St-Cloud by Sisley; Ros-bas, Finistere
by Morisot; and Portrait of Mile Eugenie Fiocre in the
Ballet 'La Source' by Degas.
10th Cezanne goes to Aix-en-Provence, where he
remains for the rest of the year.
This engraving of the Salon of 1868 shows how
closely the exhibits were crowded together.
Large paintings were generally hung above smaller
29th Monet describes his desperate financial
situation in a letter to Bazille, and implies that he has
tried to drown himself.
1868 When Monet produced this painting depicting a
comfortable bourgeois interior he was enjoying a respite
from poverty thanks to his new patron, Louis-Joachim
Gaudibert. Seated at the table are Monet's mistress, Camille
Doncieux, and their son Jean.
Berthe Morisot and her sister are introduced to Manet by
Fantin-Latour while they are copying a work by Rubens in the
15th Manet wins a silver medal for The Dead Man
at an exhibition in Le Havre.
Renoir's parents move to the neighbourhood of Louveciennes,
but he remains at Ville d'Avray. Manet makes a two-day trip
to London, where he hopes to exhibit.
Berthe Morisot, Fanny Claus and Guillemet pose on the
balcony of Manet's studio in the rue Guyot for The
Balcony - which will be exhibited at the Salon in
1st Zola decides to dedicate his novel Madeleine Ferat to Manet.
Monet receives a silver medal from the Amis de l'Art in Le
Havre and secures a new patron, Louis-Joachim Gaudibert, a
local manufacturer and amateur painter.
Poster, with a lithograph by Manet,
for Champfleury's book of cat stories.
17th Publication of Manet's lithographic poster for
Les Chats by Champfleury — the pseudonym used
by Jules Husson — a defender of Realism and close friend of
Courbet who figures in Manet's Music in the Tuilenes
Gardens and Fantin-Latour's Homage to
The book includes an illustration by Manet.
30th Manet is introduced to the radical politician
Leon Gambetta at the Cafe de Londres.
Portrait of Pissarro Painting a Blind
Although it was lack of money that forced Guillaumin
and Pissarro to take up painting blinds, the
occupation was not so demeaning as it may seem.
In fact it was quite common for artists to
supplement their earnings by doing this kind of
work, and it could require considerable skill.
Renoir, for instance, had at one time worked for a
M. Gilbert who sold 'blinds of all sorts', including
'religious blinds, perfect imitations of stained
glass for churches... monumental and artistic
Such tradesmen often gave artists commissions to
execute at home.
Guillaumin and Pissarro endeavour to eke out a living by
Guillaumin paints a portrait of Pissarro at work .
Monet is happily living at Etretat (a fishing village not
far from Le Havre) with his mistress, Camille Doncieux, and
their son Jean. Manet asks Monet whether he would like to
become a member of the circle of artists and writers who
meet at the Cafe Guerbois. Monet invites Renoir and Sisley
to join the group.
Manet shows The Spanish Singer and Boy
with a Sword at an exhibition of the Societe
Artistique des Bouches-du-Rhone in the hope of selling them,
but no sale results.
RENOIR AND LISE TREHOT
One of Renoir's closest friends after leaving the
Ecole des Beaux-Arts was Jules Le Coeur, an
architect and amateur painter, whose brother Charles
secured a commission for Renoir to decorate the
house of Prince Georges Bibesco.
In 1863 Jules, who was nine years older than Renoir,
decided to give up architecture and devote himself
entirely to painting.
Two years later he took a house and studio, where
Renoir often painted, at Marlotte in the Forest of
Around this time Le Coeur, whose wife had died in
1863, embarked on a love affair with Clemence Trehot.
by whom he had a daughter.
Clemence's father had been postmaster of Ecquevilly,
a small country town, and moved to Paris with his
family when the job was abolished.
Renoir became acquainted with Clemence and her
seventeen-year-old sister Lise in 1865, and for
eight years the Trehot sisters and the Le Coeurs
were to play an important role in his life — Lise
becoming his favourite model and probably his
It was a time of great productivity for Renoir, and
Lise posed for nearly all his most important works
of the period.
She appears in Lise with a Parasol, Girl with a Bird and Lise Holding a
Bunch of Wild Flowers, all painted in 1867;
Lise Sewing and The Gypsy Girl
(both 1868); Bather with a Griffon, A Woman of
Algeria and Lise with a White Shawl
(all 1870); and Parisian Women in Algerian
In the year Renoir painted that last picture Lise
married a young architect, Georges Briere de 1'Isle,
and her marriage brought to an end a most fruitful
Lise kept the paintings that Renoir had given her,
but destroyed all their correspondence. She outlived
him by five years, dying in 1924.
Lise with a Parasol
This romantic portrait, which gave Renoir his first
success at the Salon, was also one of the first he
painted of Lise Trehot. Zola described it as a
successful exploration of the 'modern' — Lise, he
felt, was 'one of our wives, or rather our
The composition and atmosphere owe something to
Manet, and something to Whistler's The White
REACTIONS TO RENOIR'S 'LISE WITH A PARASOL'
painting I wish to speak of is that which M. Henri [sic]
Renoir has called 'Lise', and which represents a young woman
in a white dress, sheltering beneath a parasol. This 'Lise'
seems to me the sister of the 'Camille' ofM. Monet. She is
shown facing us, coming out of the trees, her supple body
balanced, cooling herself from the boiling afternoon heat.
She is one of our wives, or rather our mistresses, painted
with great frankness and an appropriate investigation of the
EMILE ZOLA, L'Evenement, March 24th, 1868
I discovered in the furthest salon, the one known as the
'Room of the Outcasts', the figure of a fat woman daubed in
white, labelled simply 'Lise', whose author M. R. (I trust
he will allow me to designate him only by his initials) was
clearly no longer even inspired by the great example of M.
Courbet, but by the curious models ofM. Manet. And this is
how the demise of the Realist school, as it moves from
imitation to imitation, becomes more and more inevitable. So
FERDINAND DE LASTERIE, ['Opinion nationale, June 20th, 1868
M. Manet is already a master apparently, since he has some
imitators, amongst whom must be included M. Renoir, who has
painted, under the title of Lise', a woman of natural
grandeur walking in the park. This painting captures the
attention of connoisseurs, as much by the strangeness of its
effect as by the justness of its tone. This is what, in the
language of the Realists, is called 'a fine touch of colour'.
MARIUS CHAUMELIN, La Presse, June 23rd, 1868
Caricature of Emile
Zola by Le Bourgeois entitled 'The Experimental
Novel', showing the novelist and art critic in the
act of spattering a canvas with excrement.
The title page ol Mes
Haines (My Hates), the collection of 'literary and
artistic discourses' by Zola published in 1880,
which included the series of articles rejected by
L'Evenement in 1866.
of M. Renoir completes an odd trinity that started with the
very strange, expressive and notorious 'Olympia'. In the
wake of Manet, Monet was soon to create his 'Camille', the
young girl in the green dress putting on her gloves. Here
now is 'Lise', the most demure of them all. Here we have the
charming Parisian girl in the Bois, alert, mocking and
laughing, playing the 'grande dame', somewhat gauchely
savouring the shade of the wood for all the diversions that
may be had there: the dancing, the open-air cafe, the
fashionable restaurant, the amusing dining room fashioned
from a distorted tree.
Lise's hair is adorned with a dainty straw hat. She wears a
white dress, drawn in at the waist with a black sash. A
parasol shades her face. She stops amidst the forest trees
in a ray of sunlight, as if waiting for a friend. It is an
original image. The painting has great charm, beautifully
rendered effects, a delicate range of tones, a general
impression that is unified, and clear and well-conceived
lighting. The art that has gone into this painting seems
simple, but in fact it is very unusual and very interesting.
Given a subject whose charm is its light, it could hardly
have been executed with greater clarity. The sunlit whites
are delicious. Wherever the eye wanders, it is enchanted by
the most delicate of nuances and a very distinctive
lightness of touch.
All praise to a joyful canvas made by a painter with a
future, an observer who is as responsive to the picturesque
as he is careful of reality. This painting deserves to be
singled out. By an inconceivable error, which I would prefer
to think of as ignorance, she has suffered the fate of the
rejected work [although hung, the painting did not win a
prize]. At the Salon, with its array of marketable objects,
such work stands by its art, its taste and its exceptional
character, which command our attention and our study. It was
obvious to all the painters, but not to the jury.
ZACHARIE ASTRUC, L'Etendard, June 27th, 1868
Portrait of Emile Zola
EMILE ZOLA Novelist and critic
Defender of lost or unpopular
causes ranging from Impressionism to Captain Dreyfus,
novelist and journalist of distinction. Emile Zola
(1840-1902) was born in the town of Aix-en-Provence, where
he went to school with Cezanne. He came to Paris in the
early 1860s and, after unsuccessful attempts to become a
playwright, obtained a job with the publishing house of
Hachette, then became the literary editor of the radical
Thanks to his friendship with Cezanne, Zola was able to keep
abreast of current art controversies. In 1863 he visited the
Salon des Refuses, and in 1866 wrote an enthusiastic defence
of Manet in L'Evenement, complaining bitterly about
the artist's rejection from the Salon of that year. This
article was published as a pamphlet — with additions, some
suggested by the painter - which was on sale at Manet's
personal exhibition. In February 1868 Manet painted his
well-known portrait of the writer, and for the next decade
Zola was to be an inveterate defender of the group of
artists who frequented the Cafe Guerbois. In 1880 he
published a selection of his art criticism - with the
aggressive title Mes Raines (My Hates).
Zola's visual sensibilities were very largely moulded by his
preoccupations as a Realist writer - applying to the de
scnption of human life a kind of scientific rigour based on
material circumstances and facts, which he accumulated
with dedicated enthusiasm. After the war of 1870 and the
failure of the Commune, he embarked on Rougon-Macquart:
histoire naturelle et sociale d'unefamille sous le second
Empire, a massive cyclical work running to some twenty
volumes, completed in 1893, which brought him fame and
wealth. Because a concern with contemporary life was part of
the Impressionists' approach, Zola regarded them as the
visual equivalent of the literary Realists — indeed, in his
reviews he frequently referred to the Impressionists as
Realists and tended to overemphasize their credentials as
exponents of this doctrine.
By 1879, when he was acting as Paris correspondent for the
Russian magazine Viestnik Europi (Le Message de I'Europe,
Zola's enthusiasm for the Impressionists had begun to wane.
'The tragedy', he wrote in his review of the 1880 Salon, 'is
that there is not one artist of the group who has forcibly
and definitively expressed the formula which all of them
share and which is scattered through all their individual
From that moment the relationship between Zola and the
Impressionists steadily deteriorated, until finally in 1886
it reached breaking point when he published L'Oeuvre,
a novel about the Parisian art world in which the principal
character — a frustrated, unsuccessful, embittered and
creatively impotent artist - was clearly recognizable as a
combination of Cezanne and Manet.
Bantock (7 August 1868 – 16 October 1946) was a British
composer of classical music.
Sir Granville Bantock
Granville Ransome Bantock was born in London. His father was
an eminent Scottish surgeon. He was intended by his
parents for the Indian Civil Service but he suffered
poor health and initially turned to chemical
engineering. At the age of 20, when he began
studying composers' manuscripts, at South Kensington
Museum Library, he was drawn into the musical world.
His first teacher was Dr Gordon Saunders at Trinity
College of Music. In 1888 he entered the Royal
Academy of Music where he studied harmony and
composition with Frederick Corder winning the Macfarren Prize in the
first year it was awarded.
Early conducting engagements took him around the
world with a musical comedy troupe. He founded a
music magazine, The New Quarterly Music Review, but this lasted only a few
years. In 1897, he became conductor at the New Brighton
Tower concerts, where he pioneered the works of Joseph Holbrooke, Frederic Hymen Cowen, Charles Steggall, Edward
German, Hubert Parry, Charles Villiers Stanford, Corder and
others, frequently devoting whole concerts to a single
composer. He was also conductor of the Liverpool Orchestral
Society with which he premiered Delius's Brigg Fair on 18
January 1908. He became Principal of the Birmingham
and Midland Institute school of music in 1900. He was a close
friend of fellow composer Havergal Brian. He was Peyton
Professor of Music at the University of Birmingham from 1908
to 1934 (in which post he succeeded Sir Edward Elgar).
In 1934, he was elected Chairman of the Corporation of
Trinity College of Music in London. He was knighted in
1930. His students included the conductor and composer
Anthony Bernard and the composer Eric Fogg.
He was influential in the founding of the City of
Birmingham orchestra (later the City of Birmingham Symphony
Orchestra), whose first performance in September 1920 was of
his overture Saul. Bantock's Hebridean Symphony was recorded
by the CBO on 28 January 1925 at Riley Hall, Constitution
Hill, Birmingham. This acoustic version, conducted by Adrian
Boult, was never released.
His music was influenced by folk song of the Hebrides (as
in his 1915 Hebridean Symphony) and the works of Richard
Wagner. Many of his works have an "exotic" element,
including the choral epic Omar Khayyám (1906–09). Among
his other better-known works are the overture The Pierrot of
the Minute (1908) and the Pagan Symphony (1928). Many of his
works have been commercially recorded since the early 1990s.
Shortly after the composer's death in London, in 1946, a
Bantock Society was established. Its first president was
Jean Sibelius, whose music Bantock championed during the
early years of the century. Sibelius dedicated his Third
Symphony to Bantock.
Edward Elgar dedicated the second of his Pomp and
Circumstance Marches to Bantock.
A German Requiem, To
Words of the Holy Scriptures, Op. 45 (German: Ein
deutsches Requiem, nach Worten der heiligen Schrift) by
a large-scale work for chorus, orchestra, and a soprano
and a baritone soloist, composed between 1865 and 1868.
It comprises seven movements, which together last 65 to
80 minutes, making this work Brahms's longest
composition. A German Requiem is sacred but
non-liturgical, and unlike a long tradition of the Latin
Requiem, A German Requiem, as its title states, is a
Requiem in the German language.
Brahms's mother died in February 1865, a loss that caused
him much grief and may well have inspired Ein deutsches
Requiem. Brahms's lingering feelings over Robert Schumann's
death in July 1856 may also have been a motivation, though
his reticence about such matters makes this uncertain.
His original conception was
for a work of six movements; according to their eventual
places in the final version, these were movements 1–4 and
6–7. By the end of April 1865, Brahms had completed the
first, second, and fourth movements. The second movement
used some previously abandoned musical material written in
1854, the year of Schumann's mental collapse and attempted
suicide, and of Brahms's move to Düsseldorf to assist Clara
Schumann and her young children.
Brahms completed all but
what is now the fifth movement by August 1866. Johann
Herbeck conducted the first three movements in Vienna on 1
December 1867. This partial premiere went poorly due to a
misunderstanding in the timpanist's score. Sections marked
as pf were played as f or ff, essentially drowning out the
rest of the ensemble in the fugal section of the third
movement. The first performance of the six movements
premiered in the Bremen Cathedral six months later on Good
Friday, 10 April 1868, with Brahms conducting and Julius
Stockhausen as the baritone soloist. The performance was a
great success and marked a turning point in his career.
In May 1868 Brahms composed
an additional movement, which became the fifth movement
within the final work. The new movement, which was scored
for soprano soloist and choir, was first sung in Zürich on
12 September 1868 by Ida Suter-Weber, with Friedrich Hegar
conducting the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich. The final,
seven-movement version of A German Requiem was premiered in
Leipzig on 18 February 1869 with Carl Reinecke conducting
the Gewandhaus Orchestra and Chorus, and soloists Emilie
Bellingrath-Wagner and Franz Krückl (de).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brahms - Ein Deutsches Requiem - Van
Dam Battle Karajan - Wiener Philharmoniker
Herbert von Karajan conducts Wiener
„Selig sind, die da Leid tragen" (Moderatamente lento con
„Denn alles Fleisch, es ist wie Gras" (Allegro non troppo) 11:20
„Herr, lehre doch mich" (Andante moderato) 26:38
„Wie lieblich sind deine Wohnungen" (Moderatamente mosso) 38:25
„Ihr habt nun Traurigkeit" 44:10
„Denn wir haben hie keine bleibende Statt" (Andante, vivace,
„Selig sind die Toten" (Solenne) 1:06:05
Max von Schillings
(April 19, 1868 – Berlin, July 24, 1933) was a German
conductor, composer and theatre director. He was chief
conductor at the Berlin State Opera from 1919 to 1925.
Mona Lisa (1915) was internationally successful and was
performed at the Metropolitan Opera. The composer
married Barbara Kemp, the soprano who sang the title
role. Before Mona Lisa, Schillings had already written
three operas: Ingwelde (1894), Der Pfeifertag (1899) and
Der Moloch (1906).
Born in Düren, Max von Schillings was brother to the
photographer Carl Georg Schillings. He received his
first musical training in violin, piano and theory
at the same time as his formal education in Bonn.
His teachers were Caspar Joseph Brambach and Otto
von Königslow. Schillings later studied
jurisprudence, philosophy, literature and art
history at the University of Munich. On October 1,
1892, he married his cousin Caroline Josefa Peill in
Römlinghoven. They were divorced in 1923, and on
June 11, 1923, he married the opera singer Barbara
Kemp in Berlin-Charlottenburg.
Max Schillings was
given a professorship by the Royal Bavarian Ministry
of the Interior (Königliches Bayerisches
Staatsministerium des Innern) on February 16, 1903.
In October 1911, he was named an Honorary Doctor of
Philosophy by the Philosophy Faculty at the
University of Heidelberg. He was awarded the
Ehrenkreuz (Ger. honorary cross) by the Order of the
Württemberg Crown, the fifth highest rank awarded.
With this honor, he was allowed to use the name Max
von Schillings. In Düren, the street between
Goethestraße and Aachener Straße was renamed "Schillingsstraße".
As early as the
1890s, he was given a position as an assistant at
the Bayreuth Festival; later he was engaged as a
conductor and music teacher in Munich. Between 1908
and 1918 he was the Intendant at the Königlichen
Hoftheater (Royal Court Theatre) in Stuttgart, for
which he received the honor mentioned above. From
1918 to 1925, he succeeded Richard Strauss as
intendant of the State Opera in Berlin, whilst
concurrently being the musical director of the
summer-time Zoppot Forest Opera. In the second half
of this decade, he undertook concert tours which
took him through Europe and to the USA.
Having returned to Germany, he
took over the job of President of the Prussian Academy of
the Arts in 1932, succeeding Max Liebermann. From March 1933
until his death, Schillings was also the artistic director
of the Städtische Oper Berlin. He died in 1933 from a
pulmonary embolism in Berlin. His ashes were entombed at
His composition work
includes several operas, melodramas, choral works, chamber
music pieces, violin and piano concertos, symphonic poems
and works for stage (see list below). His most important
work is undoubtedly his opera Mona Lisa (first performed on
September 26, 1915 in Stuttgart), which became one of the
most-performed operas in Germany until his death. He stands
beside Engelbert Humperdinck and Richard Strauss as one of
the composers who re-established the music form of melodrama
at the start of the 20th century. Schillings was renowned as
a music educator - one of his more famous students was
Wilhelm Furtwängler. He was the dedicatee of "Sea Drift" by
Max von Schillings was an
opponent of the Weimar Republic and a declared anti-Semite.
The expulsion and exclusion of important Jewish and
free-thinking artists from the Prussian Academy of the Arts
began during his time as President - some artists affected
were Käthe Kollwitz, Heinrich Mann, Ricarda Huch, Alfred
Döblin, Thomas Mann, Max Liebermann, Alfons Paquet, Franz
Werfel and Jakob Wassermann. He laid off Arnold Schoenberg
from the teaching staff of the Academy, in contravention of
Schoenberg's contract and in 1933, he ordered Franz Schreker,
the leader of masterclasses in composition at the Academy,
into early retirement.
von Nürnberg ("The Master-Singers of Nuremberg") is
a music drama (or opera) in three acts, written and
composed by Wagner Richard.
It is among the longest operas commonly performed,
usually taking around four and a half hours. It was
first performed at the Königliches Hof- und
National-Theater, today's home of the Bavarian State
Opera, in Munich, on 21 June 1868. The conductor at the
premiere was Hans von Bülow.
The story takes place in
Nuremberg during the middle of the 16th century. At the
time, Nuremberg was a free imperial city, and one of the
centers of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. The story
revolves around the real-life guild of Meistersinger (Master
Singers), an association of amateur poets and musicians,
mostly from the middle class and often master craftsmen in
their main professions. The mastersingers developed a
craftsmanlike approach to music-making, with an intricate
system of rules for composing and performing songs. The work
draws much of its charm from its faithful depiction of the
Nuremberg of the era and the traditions of the mastersinger
guild. One of the main characters, the cobbler-poet Hans
Sachs, is based on an actual historical figure: Hans Sachs
(1494–1576), the most famous of the historical
Die Meistersinger von
Nürnberg occupies a unique place in Wagner's oeuvre. It is
the only comedy among his mature operas (he having come to
reject his early Das Liebesverbot), and is also unusual in
being set in a historically well-defined time and place
rather than a mythical or legendary setting. It is the only
mature Wagner opera to be based on an entirely original
story, devised by Wagner himself. It is also the only one of
Wagner's mature operas in which there are no supernatural or
magical powers or events. It incorporates many of the
operatic conventions that Wagner had railed against in his
essays on the theory of opera: rhymed verse, arias,
choruses, a quintet, and even a ballet. Die Meistersinger
is, like L'Orfeo, Capriccio, and Wagner's own earlier
Tannhäuser, a musical composition in which the composition
of music is a pivotal part of the story.
Wagner's autobiography Mein Leben (My Life) described the
genesis of Die Meistersinger. Taking the waters at Marienbad
in 1845 he began reading Georg Gottfried Gervinus'
Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung (History of German
Poetry). This work included chapters on Mastersong and on
I had formed a
particularly vivid picture of Hans Sachs and the
mastersingers of Nuremberg. I was especially intrigued by
the institution of the Marker and his function in rating
master-songs ... I conceived during a walk a comic scene in
which the popular artisan-poet, by hammering upon his
cobbler's last, gives the Marker, who is obliged by
circumstances to sing in his presence, his come-uppance for
previous pedantic misdeeds during official singing contests,
by inflicting upon him a lesson of his own.
Gervinus' book also
mentions a poem by the real-life Hans Sachs on the subject
of Protestant reformer Martin Luther, called Die
Wittenbergisch Nachtigall (The Wittenberg Nightingale). The
opening lines for this poem, addressing the Reformation,
were later used by Wagner in act 3 scene 5 when the crowd
acclaims Sachs: Wacht auf, es nahet gen den Tag; ich hör'
singen im grünen Hag ein wonnigliche Nachtigall. (Awake, the
dawn is drawing near; I hear, singing in the green grove, a
In addition to this, Wagner
added a scene drawn from his own life, in which a case of
mistaken identity led to a near-riot: this was to be the
basis for the finale of act 2.
Out of this situation
evolved an uproar, which through the shouting and clamour
and an inexplicable growth in the number of participants in
the struggle soon assumed a truly demoniacal character. It
looked to me as if the whole town would break out into a
riot...Then suddenly I heard a heavy thump, and as if by
magic the whole crowd dispersed in every direction...One of
the regular patrons had felled one of the noisiest rioters
... And it was the effect of this which had scattered
everybody so suddenly.
This first draft of the
story was dated "Marienbad 16 July 1845". Wagner later said,
in Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde (1851) (A Communication
to my Friends) that Meistersinger was to be a comic
opera to follow a tragic opera, i.e. Tannhäuser. Just as the
Athenians had followed a tragedy with a comic satyr play, so
Wagner would follow Tannhäuser with Meistersinger: the link
being that both operas included song-contests.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wagner - Die
Meistersinger von Nurnberg - Overture
Giuseppe Sinopoli, Conductor
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich
wrote his Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Winter Daydreams
(Russian: Зимние грёзы, Zimniye gryozy), Op. 13, in 1866
(February 15, 1868), just after he accepted a
professorship at the Moscow Conservatory: it is the
composer's earliest notable work. The composer's brother
Modest claimed this work cost Tchaikovsky more labor and
suffering than any of his other works. Even so, he
remained fond of it, writing to his patroness Nadezhda
von Meck in 1883 that "although it is in many ways very
immature, yet fundamentally it has more substance and is
better than any of my other more mature works." He
dedicated the symphony to Nikolai Rubinstein.
1. Dreams of a Winter Journey. Allegro tranquillo (2222 4200
2. Land of Desolation, Land of Mists. Adagio cantabile ma
non tanto (2222 2000 str)
This movement has an essentially monothematic structure,
based on subtle gradations and variations on a single
3. Scherzo. Allegro scherzando giocoso (2222 2200 timp str)
This was the earliest movement to be written. Salvaged from
the third movement of a piano sonata in C-sharp minor that
he had written as a student, Tchaikovsky transposed the
movement down a semitone to C minor and replaced the trio
with the first of a whole line of orchestral waltzes.
4. Finale. Andante lugubre—Allegro maestoso (3222 4231 timp
cymbals bass-drum str)
Tchaikovsky uses the folk-song "Распашу ли я млада,
младeшенка" (Raspashu li ya mlada, mladeshenka) as the basis
for both the introduction and the second subject. This song
also colors the vigorous first subject. Tchaikovsky had
borrowed the folk-song motive into the prelude and the
finale of his Cantata for the Opening of the Polytechnic
Exhibition in Moscow 1872 (commemorating the bicentenary of
the birth of Peter the Great).
The symphony is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes,
two clarinets (A, B-flat), two bassoons, four horns (E-flat,
F), two trumpets (C, D), three trombones, tuba, timpani,
cymbals, bass drum and strings.
Tchaikovsky started writing this symphony in March 1866.
Work proved sluggish. A scathing review by César Cui of the
cantata he had written as a graduation piece from the St.
Petersburg Conservatory shattered his morale. He also
composed day and night. All these factors strained
Tchaikovsky's mental and physical health tremendously. He
started suffering from insomnia, from pains in his head
which he thought to be strokes, and became convinced he
would not live to finish the symphony. A successful
performance of his revised Overture in F in St. Petersburg
lifted his spirits. So did a change of scene for the summer
with his family. Nevertheless, he soon worked himself again
into nervous and physical exhaustion by continuing to
compose day and night. A doctor declared him "one step away
from insanity," ordering complete rest. Tchaikovsky
Despite his lack of progress, Tchaikovsky sought the opinion
of his former teachers, Anton Rubinstein and Nikolai Zaremba,
when he returned to St Petersburg at the end of August. He
had hoped for their approval of what he had written as well
as accepting at least part of it for a St Petersburg concert
of the Russian Musical Society (RMS). Neither situation
happened. Both men were negative, refusing to perform any of
the symphony. He stopped work to fulfill his first public
commission, a festival overture based on the Danish national
anthem to celebrate the Moscow visit of the future Tsar
Alexander III of Russia with his new Danish bride. Once the
commission was finished, Tchaikovsky completed the symphony
before the conservatory's Christmas break. This included
modifications requested by Rubinstein and Zaremba as a
condition for reconsidering the work.
Tchaikovsky resubmitted the manuscript to Rubinstein and
Zaremba during the Christmas break. Even with their insisted
changes, they still disapproved of the symphony on the
whole; however, this time they passed the adagio and scherzo
as "being fit for performance". These two movements were
played at an RMS concert in St Petersburg on February 23,
1867, with no success. Tchaikovsky, who had looked upon St
Petersburg as the premier musical location in Russia and
been obsessed with having his symphony performed there
first, was thoroughly disillusioned — not only with St
Petersburg audiences, but also with the critical judgments
of both his former teachers. He discarded all the revisions
they had demanded, standing with one exception by his
original version. The exception, it turned out, was
unavoidable. At Zaremba's insistence, he had composed a new
second subject for the opening movement. He had discarded
the papers that contained his original second subject, and
he could not remember what he had originally composed.
Tchaikovsky had to let the second subject as approved by
Zaremba stand as it was.
Back in Moscow, Anton's brother Nikolai was willing to
perform the symphony; only the composer's insistence on a St
Petersburg performance held him back. Tchaikovsky now
allowed him to conduct the scherzo at a Moscow concert of
the RMS on December 22. Though the scherzo met with little
success, Rubinstein was still ready to perform the complete
work. This finally took place on February 15, 1868, to great
success. Surprisingly, though, the symphony would have to
wait 15 years for its next performance. The first
performance of the revised version took place in Moscow on
December 1, 1883, under the baton of Max Erdmannsdörfer.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tchaikovsky : Symphony No. 1 in G
minor, Op.13 " Winter Dreams "