Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1868 Part II NEXT-1868 Part IV    
1860 - 1869
History at a Glance
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
1860 Part IV
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
1861 Part I
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Louis I
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
1861 Part V
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
1863 Part I
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Nernst Walther
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
"A Short History of the World"
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal

Renoir: "Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1868 Part III
Degas Edgar  "L'Orchestre"

Degas: "L'Orchestre"
  Edgar Degas

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Makart Hans: "The Plague in Florence"

Hans Makart: "The Plague in Florence"
Hans Makart
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Renoir Pierre-Auguste: "Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne"

Renoir: "Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne"
  Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Bernard Emile
Emile Henri Bernard (28 April 1868 – 16 April 1941) was a French Post-Impressionist painter and writer, who had artistic friendships with Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Eugène Boch, and at a later time, Paul Cézanne. Most of his notable work was accomplished at a young age, in the years 1886 through 1897. He is also associated with Cloisonnism and Synthetism, two late 19th-century art movements. Less known is Bernard's literary work, comprising plays, poetry, and art criticism as well as art historical statements that contain first hand information on the crucial period of modern art to which Bernard had contributed.

Emile Bernard by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1886
Émile Henri Bernard was born in Lille, France in 1868. As in his younger years his sister was sick, Émile was unable to receive much attention from his parents; he therefore stayed with his grandmother, who owned a laundry in Lille, employing more than twenty people. She was one of the greatest supporters of his art. The family moved to Paris in 1878, where Émile attended the Collège Sainte-Barbe.

He began his studies at the École des Arts Décoratifs. In 1884, joined the Atelier Cormon where he experimented with impressionism and pointillism and befriended fellow artists Louis Anquetin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.

After being suspended from the École des Beaux-Arts for "showing expressive tendencies in his paintings", he toured Brittany on foot, where he was enamored by the tradition and landscape.

In August 1886, Bernard met Gauguin in Pont-Aven. In this brief meeting, they exchanged little about art, but looked forward to meeting again.

Bernard said, looking back on that time, that "my own talent was already fully developed." He believed that his style did play a considerable part in the development of Gauguin's mature style.


Bernard spent September 1887 at the coast, where he painted La Grandmère, a portrait of his grandmother. He continued talking with other painters and started saying good things about Gauguin. Bernard went back to Paris, met with van Gogh, who as we already stated was impressed by his work, found a restaurant to show the work alongside van Gogh, Anquetin, and Toulouse-Lautrec's work at the Avenue Clichy. Van Gogh called the group the School of Petit-Boulevard.

One year later, Bernard set out for Pont-Aven by foot and saw Gauguin. Their friendship and artistic relationship grew strong quickly. By this time Bernard had developed many theories about his artwork and what he wanted it to be. He stated that he had "a desire to [find] an art that would be of the most extreme simplicity and that would be accessible to all, so as not to practice its individuality, but collectively…" Gauguin was impressed by Bernard's ability to verbalize his ideas.

1888 was a seminal year in the history of Modern art. From October 23, until December 23 Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh worked together in Arles. Gauguin had brought his new style from Pont-Aven exemplified in Vision after the Sermon: Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, a powerful work of visual symbolism of which he had already sent a sketch to van Gogh in September.


Emile Bernard. Self-portrait with portrait of Paul Gauguin, Bernard, 1888.

He also brought along Bernard's Le Pardon de Pont-Aven which he had exchanged for one of his paintings and which he used to decorate the shared workshop. see in: (ref. Druick 2001) This work was equally striking and illustrative of the style Émile Bernard had already acquainted van Gogh with when he sent him a batch of drawings in August, so much so that van Gogh made a watercolor copy of the "Pardon" (December 1888) which he sent to his brother, to recommend Bernard's new style to be promoted. The following year van Gogh still vividly remembered the painting in his written portrait of Émile Bernard in a letter to his sister Wil (Dec.10,1889):"...it was so original I absolutely wanted to have a copy."

Bernard's style was effective and coherent (see:woman at haystacks,) as can also be seen from the comparison of the two "portraits" Bernard and Gauguin sent to van Gogh at the end of September 1888 at the latter's request: self-portraits -at Gauguin's initiative- each integrating a small portrait of the other in the background. (ref. Druick 2001)

One of Émile Bernard's drawings from the August batch ("...a lane of trees near the sea with two women talking in the foreground and some strollers" – Vincent van Gogh in a letter to Bernard – Arles 1888) also appears to have inspired the work van Gogh and Gauguin did on the Allée des Alyscamps in Arles.

In 1891 he joined a group of Symbolist painters that included Odilon Redon and Ferdinand Hodler. In 1893 he started traveling, to Egypt, Spain and Italy and after that his style became more eclectic. He returned to Paris in 1904 and remained there for the remainder of his life. He taught at the École des Beaux-Arts before he died in 1941.

"[…] this creative, avant-garde young man destroyed himself in a fight against that same avant-garde he had helped to create. His rivalry with Gauguin led him out of spite along a different path: classicism. This change took place when he was living in the Middle East, in a period of great crisis. But the fact remains that the young Bernard played an essential part as an initiator for Gauguin, and that he was the inventor of a new artistic vision."


Emile Bernard. Self-portrait
  Theories on style and art: Cloisonnism and Symbolism
Bernard theorized a style of painting with bold forms separated by dark contours which became known as cloisonnism. His work showed geometric tendencies which hinted at influences of Paul Cézanne, and he collaborated with Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. Many say that it was Bernard's friend Anquetin, who should receive the credit for this "closisonisme" technique. During the spring of 1887, Bernard and Anquetin "turned against Neo-Impressionism."[citation needed] It is also likely that Bernard was influenced by the works he had seen of Cézanne. But Bernard says "When I was in Brittany, I was inspired by "everything that is superfluous in a spectacle is covering it with reality and occupying our eyes instead of our mind. You have to simplify the spectacle in order to make some sense of it. You have, in a way, to draw its plan."

"The first means that I use is to simplify nature to an extreme point. I reduce the lines only to the main contrasts and I reduce the colors to the seven fundamental colors of the prism. To see a style and not an item. To highlight the abstract sense and not the objective. And the second means were to appeal to the conception and to the memory by extracting yourself from any direct atmosphere. Appeal more to internal memory and conception. There I was expressing myself more, it was me that I was describing, although I was in front of the nature. There was an invisible meaning under the mute shape of exteriority."


Symbolism and religious motifs appear in both Bernard and Gauguin's work. During the summer of 1889, Bernard was alone in Le Pouldu and began to paint many religious canvasses. He was upset that he had to do commercial work at the same time that he wanted to create these pieces. Bernard wrote about his relationship with the style of symbolism in many letters, articles, and statements. He said that it was of a Christian essence, divine language. Bernard believed that it "It is the invisible express by the visible," and those previous attempts of religious symbolism failed. That period of symbolism represented the nature of beauty, but did not find the truth in the beauty. Art until the renaissance was based on the invisible rather than the visible, the idea, not the shapes or concrete. The history of the painting of symbols was spiritual. Everything, meaning symbols, were forgotten with the paganist ideas and doctrines. That is what Bernard was attempting to accomplish with the rebirth of symbolism in 1890. In his idea of the new symbolism, he concentrated on maintaining a grounded art, more authentic in Bernard's mind meant reducing impressionism, not creating an optical trip like Georges-Pierre Seurat, but simplifying the actual symbol.

His concept was that through ideas, not technique, the truth is found.


Emile Bernard. Madeleine au Bois d'Amour
Musee d'Orsay at Paris


It was always Émile Bernard's great frustration that Paul Gauguin never mentioned him as an influence on pictorial symbolism (see for instance his own notes attached to the Belgian edition (1942) of his selected letters, published shortly after his death). In 2001/2002 The Art Institute of Chicago and the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam held a joint exhibition:Van Gogh and Gauguin:The Workshop of the South that put Émile Bernard's contribution in perspective. (ref. Druick 2001)

One of Émile Bernard's students was the Swedish painter Ivan Aguéli.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Emile Bernard. Breton Peasants in a Meadow, 1892.
Emile Bernard
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Vollard Ambroise

Ambroise Vollard (3 July 1866 – 21 July 1939) is regarded as one of the most important dealers in French contemporary art at the beginning of the twentieth century. He is credited with providing exposure and emotional support to numerous notable and unknown artists, including Paul Cézanne, Aristide Maillol, Renoir, Louis Valtat, Pablo Picasso, André Derain, Georges Rouault, Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. He is also well known as an avid art collector and publisher.


Paul Cézanne, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1899. Musée des Beaux-Arts
Born in Saint-Denis, Réunion, he was raised in the French Indian Ocean colony. After his matura (final exams) in La Réunion, he went to study jurisprudence in France from 1895, for a while in Montpellier, then at the École de droit in Paris, where he received his degree in 1888.

During his studies, Vollard converted himself into an "amateur-merchant" by becoming a clerk for an art dealer, and in 1893 established his own art gallery, at Rue Laffitte, then the center of the Parisian market for contemporary art. There Vollard mounted his first major exhibitions, buying almost the entire output of Cézanne, some 150 canvases to create his first exhibition in 1895. This was followed by exhibitions of Manet, Gauguin and Van Gogh (4 – 30 June 1895); for Gabriel Mourey, French correspondent of The Studio in Paris, this was simply a matter of "Scylla and Charybdis". These were then was followed by a second Cézanne exhibition (1898), the first Picasso exhibition (1901) and Matisse (1904).

Much has been made of his physical appearance and countenance (grimly described as a "large, gruff, boorish fellow" with "downcast eyes..."); however, he was also a very shrewd businessman who made a fortune with the "buy low, sell high" mantra. His clients included Albert C. Barnes, Henry Osborne Havemeyer, Gertrude Stein and her brother, Leo Stein.

Having put on the first Picasso exhibition, in 1930 Vollard commissioned Picasso to produce a suite of 100 etchings which became known as the Vollard Suite. Vollard would later write biographies of Cézanne (1914), Degas, and Renoir.

In 1937 he published his autobiography, Recollections of a Picture Dealer.

With war approaching, Vollard set out in July 1939 from his cottage in Le Tremblay-sur-Mauldre to travel to his mansion on the Rue Martignac, where he had stored 10,000 artworks. Nearing the junction to Pontchartrain, on a very wet road, his chauffeur-driven Talbot skidded and then somersaulted twice. Having fractured his cervical vertebrae, there he lay with his chauffeur until found dead, aged 73, the following morning.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1908, 
Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
  Art collection
After his death, Vollard's executor was fellow dealer Martin Fabiani, who was instructed to divide his collection between his heirs: Madelaine de Galea, an alleged mistress; and his brother Lucien.

Due to the Nazi invasion of France, which started on 10 May 1940, Fabiani hurriedly shipped 560 paintings to the United States. Leaving on the SS Excalibur from Lisbon, Portugal, the ship was intercepted by the Royal Navy in Bermuda on 25 September 1940. Designated "enemy property", the paintings were stored at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa during World War II. Post-war, on 19 April 1949, the London prize court agreed release of the pieces to Fabiani, who returned the works to Vollard's sisters. In gratitude, the sisters donated all of the lithographs by Rouault and Chagall, and a single painting by Gauguin to the National Gallery of Canada. The remaining works soon started appearing on the New York commercial art gallery market, where they were quickly sold.

Vollard's former secretary and protegé, Erich Šlomović, a young Serb with Jewish origins (b. 1915), had connections with Vollard, Fabiani as well as Lucien Vollard since about 1938. He had often stated his wish to create a museum of French art collected by him in Yugoslavia. Šlomović had amassed a collection of about 600 works, most of them prints or drawings, with a few important oil paintings, by a combination of exchange, gift, purchase and donation.

Vollard had put him in direct contact with the most prominent artists of the day and often asked him to act as agent for art selling or purchasing purposes. Beginning of 1940, Šlomović put about 200 works in storage in a Societe Generale bank branch vault in Paris. Returning home with about 450 of these works, he exhibited them in Zagreb, Croatia, in 1940. With the advance of German armies in Serbia, he went into hiding, along with his brother Egon, and his father and mother Roza. They placed the paintings in crates behind the wall of a farmhouse in the Southern Serbian village of Bacina. Šlomović, his brother and father were soon arrested, and, like many other Jews in occupied Serbia, killed by the Nazi Germans in 1942 in Belgrade. After the war these were appropriated by the Yugoslav authorities. They were shown officially only once in 1989 in Belgrade and Zagreb under the name "Slomovic Collection". A legal battle is currently (2014) underway to determine the ownership of the Belgrade collection, including the Šlomović heirs, the Vollard beneficiaries and the Serbian government.

The Paris works were discovered in 1979 when the bank was allowed to open its vault to recover unpaid storage fees. An 11-year legal dispute ensued by the heirs of both Vollard and Šlomović, which delayed their resale. A court in Amiens, France, ruled in 1996, that the paintings stored in Paris were to be awarded to the Vollard estate. These were sold off by Sotheby's in Paris and in London in June 2010, totaling 30 million euros in proceeds. These included a 1905 Derain painted at Collioure, as well as works by Mary Cassatt, Cézanne, Chagall, Degas, Picasso and Renoir.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slevogt Max

Max Slevogt (October 8, 1868 – September 20, 1932) was a German Impressionist painter and illustrator, best known for his landscapes. He was, together with Lovis Corinth and Max Liebermann, one of the foremost representatives in Germany of the plein air style.


Slevogt portrayed in a 1917 etching by Emil Orlik
He was born in Landshut, Germany, in 1868. From 1885 to 1889 he studied at the Munich Academy, and his early paintings are dark in tone, exemplifying the prevailing style in Munich. In 1889 Slevogt visited Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. In 1896, he drew caricatures for the magazines Simplicissimus and Jugend, and the next year he had his first solo exhibition in Vienna.

Toward the end of the 1890s his palette brightened. He travelled again to Paris in 1900, where he was represented in the German pavilion of the world exhibition with the work Scheherezade, and was greatly impressed by the paintings of Édouard Manet. In 1901 he joined the Berlin Secession.

A trip to Egypt in 1914 resulted in 21 paintings as well as numerous watercolors and drawings; on the return journey he stopped off in Italy. In June he acquired the country seat Neukastel. After the outbreak of World War I he was sent as official war painter to the western front. The war experience brought about a search for new style appropriate to the expression of the horrors of war. In the same year he became a member of the royal academy of the arts in Berlin.

He designed scenery for the performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni in the Dresdner state opera in 1924. In 1929 he was given a large 60th birthday exhibition in the Prussian academy of the arts in Berlin.


During the last year of his life he worked on the religious mural Golgatha in the peace church in Ludwigshafen on the Rhine. It was destroyed by bombing raids during World War II.

Max Slevogt died in Leinsweiler (at that time in the Rheinpfalz part of Bavaria) in 1932. He is buried in the burial place of the family Finkler east of his house, the so-called Slevogthof (with wall paintings) at Neukastel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Max Slevogt. Gemälde "Gartenallee"
  Max Slevogt

Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard, in full Jean-Édouard Vuillard (born November 11, 1868, Cuiseaux, France—died June 21, 1940, La Baule), French painter, printmaker, and decorator who was a member of the Nabis group of painters in the 1890s. He is particularly known for his depictions of intimate interior scenes.

Edouard Vuillard. Self-Portrait. 1889
  Vuillard studied art from 1886 to 1888 at the Académie Julian and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1889 he joined a group of art students that included Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Sérusier, Ker-Xavier Roussel, and Félix Vallotton. They called themselves the Nabis (Hebrew for “Prophets”), and they drew their inspiration from the Synthetist paintings of Paul Gauguin’s Pont-Aven period. Like Gauguin, the Nabis advocated a symbolic, rather than a naturalistic, approach to colour, and they usually applied their paint in ways that emphasized the flat surface of the canvas. Their admiration of Japanese woodcuts, which were then in vogue in Europe, inspired them to use simplified shapes and strong contours.

Vuillard, Édouard: Woman Sweeping [Credit: The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.]Vuillard lived with his widowed mother, a seamstress, until her death, and many of his works deal with domestic and dressmaking scenes set in his mother’s bourgeois home. In the paintings and prints of his Nabi period, he often created flattened space by filling his compositions with the contrasting rich patterns of wallpaper and women’s dresses, as seen in paintings such as Woman Sweeping (1899–1900). Because of their focus on intimate interior scenes, both Vuillard and Bonnard were also called Intimists.


Vuillard’s Public Gardens (1894), a series of nine vertical decorative panels, is characteristic of his mature work as a Nabi. As was common among the artists in the group, who supported the idea of art as decoration, Vuillard was commissioned to create this series as panels to be installed in a private home. In these panels, Vuillard portrayed women and children in the public gardens of Paris. He avoided modeling; instead, he applied the paint in distinct areas of patterned colours—soft shades of green, blue, and brown—producing a two-dimensional, tapestry-like effect.

In addition to painting, Vuillard, like most of the other Nabis, was involved in book illustration, poster design, and designs for the theatre. In 1893 Vuillard helped found Aurélien Lugné-Poë’s Théâtre de l’Oeuvre, which produced Symbolist plays. Vuillard designed stage sets and illustrated programs.

In 1899 the Nabis exhibited together for the last time. That year Vuillard began to paint in a more naturalistic style. He also executed two series of masterful lithographs that reveal his great debt to Japanese woodcuts. Vuillard continued to receive numerous commissions to paint portraits and decorative works for private patrons as well as for public buildings. Over the course of nearly 15 years beginning in 1923, he painted intimate portraits of his artist friends Bonnard, Roussel, Denis, and sculptor Aristide Maillol, each portrayed at work in his studio. His public paintings included the decorations in the foyer of the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (1913) and murals in the Palais de Chaillot (1937) and in the League of Nations in Geneva (1939).

Vuillard retained an Intimist sensibility for his entire career; even when painting portraits and landscapes, he instilled his compositions with a sense of quiet domesticity. In the early 20th century, when European art was influenced by the development of avant-garde styles such as Cubism and Futurism, many critics and artists viewed Vuillard as conservative. Paintings from his Nabi period received the most popular and critical approval, with critics often dismissing his later work. However, in the late 20th century, historians and critics began to devote more attention to Vuillard’s achievements as a decorative painter and designer.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Edouard Vuillard. Lunch at Vasouy.

Edouard Vuillard. The Reader. 1896


Edouard Vuillard
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
The Realist Impulse

Most of the artists have works accepted by the Salon this year. Their submissions vary tremendously in technique and subject matter, being connected only by a shared concern with contemporary life. Renoir's 'Lise with a Parasol' - described by one critic as 'the fat woman daubed in white' - attracts attention because of the freshness of the image and the directness of Renoir's brushwork.

Bazille and Renoir move to a studio at 9 rue de la Paix (renamed rue de la Condamine later in the year) - near the Guerbois, a cafe popular with progressive artists and writers.

Zola sits for Manet.
Cezanne submits an application for permission to copy paintings in the Louvre.
Gauguin enlists in the French navy and joins the cruiser Jerome Napoleon.

Renoir is commissioned to decorate Prince Georges Bibesco's house at 22 boulevard de la Tour-Maubourg through Charles Le Coeur (brother of his friend Jules Le Coeur), who had been the architect. He paints two ceilings after the style of Tiepolo and Fragonard.

22nd Degas enrols as a copyist at the Louvre for the last time.

Sisley takes a studio in the same building as Bazille and Renoir.

10th Renoir paints The Engaged Couple during a visit to Chailly.

The Engaged Couple
c. 1868

The couple portrayed here were thought to be Sisley and his mistress Marie-Adelaide-Eugenie Lescouezec, by whom he had a son in June 1867. More recent opinion, however, is inclined towards the idea that the woman is Renoir's favourite model Lise Trehot.


1st Opening of the Salon.

Among the works hung are Manet's Portrait of Ernile Zolla and Young Woman with a Parrot, Renoir's Lise with a Parasol, which is greatly praised by the critics; Bazille's Flower Piece and Portrait of the Family, another version of The Artist's Family on a Terrace near Montpellier, which had been rejected the previous year; Ships Coming Out of the Harbour at Le Havre by Monet, whose other works have been rejected; Cote du Jallais and The Hermitage at Pontoise by Pissarro; Chestnut Trees at St-Cloud by Sisley; Ros-bas, Finistere by Morisot; and Portrait of Mile Eugenie Fiocre in the Ballet 'La Source' by Degas.

10th Cezanne goes to Aix-en-Provence, where he remains for the rest of the year.

This engraving of the Salon of 1868 shows how closely the exhibits were crowded together.

Large paintings were generally hung above smaller ones.


29th Monet describes his desperate financial situation in a letter to Bazille, and implies that he has tried to drown himself.

The Luncheon

When Monet produced this painting depicting a comfortable bourgeois interior he was enjoying a respite from poverty thanks to his new patron, Louis-Joachim Gaudibert. Seated at the table are Monet's mistress, Camille Doncieux, and their son Jean.


Berthe Morisot and her sister are introduced to Manet by Fantin-Latour while they are copying a work by Rubens in the Louvre.

15th Manet wins a silver medal for The Dead Man at an exhibition in Le Havre.

Renoir's parents move to the neighbourhood of Louveciennes, but he remains at Ville d'Avray. Manet makes a two-day trip to London, where he hopes to exhibit.

Berthe Morisot, Fanny Claus and Guillemet pose on the balcony of Manet's studio in the rue Guyot for The Balcony - which will be exhibited at the Salon in 1869.

1st Zola decides to dedicate his novel Madeleine Ferat to Manet.

Monet receives a silver medal from the Amis de l'Art in Le Havre and secures a new patron, Louis-Joachim Gaudibert, a local manufacturer and amateur painter.

Poster, with a lithograph by Manet,
for Champfleury's book of cat stories.

17th Publication of Manet's lithographic poster for Les Chats by Champfleury — the pseudonym used by Jules Husson — a defender of Realism and close friend of Courbet who figures in Manet's Music in the Tuilenes Gardens and Fantin-Latour's Homage to Delacroix.
The book includes an illustration by Manet.

30th Manet is introduced to the radical politician Leon Gambetta at the Cafe de Londres.

Portrait of Pissarro Painting a Blind
с. 1868

Although it was lack of money that forced Guillaumin and Pissarro to take up painting blinds, the occupation was not so demeaning as it may seem.

In fact it was quite common for artists to supplement their earnings by doing this kind of work, and it could require considerable skill.

Renoir, for instance, had at one time worked for a M. Gilbert who sold 'blinds of all sorts', including 'religious blinds, perfect imitations of stained glass for churches... monumental and artistic blinds'.

Such tradesmen often gave artists commissions to execute at home.

Guillaumin and Pissarro endeavour to eke out a living by painting blinds.
Guillaumin paints a portrait of Pissarro at work .
Monet is happily living at Etretat (a fishing village not far from Le Havre) with his mistress, Camille Doncieux, and their son Jean. Manet asks Monet whether he would like to become a member of the circle of artists and writers who meet at the Cafe Guerbois. Monet invites Renoir and Sisley to join the group.

Manet shows The Spanish Singer and Boy with a Sword at an exhibition of the Societe Artistique des Bouches-du-Rhone in the hope of selling them, but no sale results.


One of Renoir's closest friends after leaving the Ecole des Beaux-Arts was Jules Le Coeur, an architect and amateur painter, whose brother Charles secured a commission for Renoir to decorate the house of Prince Georges Bibesco.

In 1863 Jules, who was nine years older than Renoir, decided to give up architecture and devote himself entirely to painting.

Two years later he took a house and studio, where Renoir often painted, at Marlotte in the Forest of Fontainebleau.

Around this time Le Coeur, whose wife had died in 1863, embarked on a love affair with Clemence Trehot. by whom he had a daughter.

Clemence's father had been postmaster of Ecquevilly, a small country town, and moved to Paris with his family when the job was abolished.

Renoir became acquainted with Clemence and her seventeen-year-old sister Lise in 1865, and for eight years the Trehot sisters and the Le Coeurs were to play an important role in his life — Lise becoming his favourite model and probably his mistress.

It was a time of great productivity for Renoir, and Lise posed for nearly all his most important works of the period.

She appears in Lise with a Parasol, Girl with a Bird and Lise Holding a Bunch of Wild Flowers, all painted in 1867; Lise Sewing and The Gypsy Girl (both 1868); Bather with a Griffon, A Woman of Algeria and Lise with a White Shawl (all 1870); and Parisian Women in Algerian Dress (1872).

In the year Renoir painted that last picture Lise married a young architect, Georges Briere de 1'Isle, and her marriage brought to an end a most fruitful relationship.

Lise kept the paintings that Renoir had given her, but destroyed all their correspondence. She outlived him by five years, dying in 1924.
Lise with a Parasol

This romantic portrait, which gave Renoir his first success at the Salon, was also one of the first he painted of Lise Trehot. Zola described it as a successful exploration of the 'modern' — Lise, he felt, was 'one of our wives, or rather our mistresses'.
The composition and atmosphere owe something to Manet, and something to Whistler's The White Girl .
The other painting I wish to speak of is that which M. Henri [sic] Renoir has called 'Lise', and which represents a young woman in a white dress, sheltering beneath a parasol. This 'Lise' seems to me the sister of the 'Camille' ofM. Monet. She is shown facing us, coming out of the trees, her supple body balanced, cooling herself from the boiling afternoon heat. She is one of our wives, or rather our mistresses, painted with great frankness and an appropriate investigation of the modern world.

EMILE ZOLA, L'Evenement, March 24th, 1868

I discovered in the furthest salon, the one known as the 'Room of the Outcasts', the figure of a fat woman daubed in white, labelled simply 'Lise', whose author M. R. (I trust he will allow me to designate him only by his initials) was clearly no longer even inspired by the great example of M. Courbet, but by the curious models ofM. Manet. And this is how the demise of the Realist school, as it moves from imitation to imitation, becomes more and more inevitable. So be it!

FERDINAND DE LASTERIE, ['Opinion nationale, June 20th, 1868

M. Manet is already a master apparently, since he has some imitators, amongst whom must be included M. Renoir, who has painted, under the title of Lise', a woman of natural grandeur walking in the park. This painting captures the attention of connoisseurs, as much by the strangeness of its effect as by the justness of its tone. This is what, in the language of the Realists, is called 'a fine touch of colour'.

MARIUS CHAUMELIN, La Presse, June 23rd, 1868

Caricature of Emile Zola by Le Bourgeois entitled 'The Experimental Novel', showing the novelist and art critic in the act of spattering a canvas with excrement.
The title page ol Mes Haines (My Hates), the collection of 'literary and artistic discourses' by Zola published in 1880, which included the series of articles rejected by L'Evenement in 1866.
The Lise' of M. Renoir completes an odd trinity that started with the very strange, expressive and notorious 'Olympia'. In the wake of Manet, Monet was soon to create his 'Camille', the young girl in the green dress putting on her gloves. Here now is 'Lise', the most demure of them all. Here we have the charming Parisian girl in the Bois, alert, mocking and laughing, playing the 'grande dame', somewhat gauchely savouring the shade of the wood for all the diversions that may be had there: the dancing, the open-air cafe, the fashionable restaurant, the amusing dining room fashioned from a distorted tree.

Lise's hair is adorned with a dainty straw hat. She wears a white dress, drawn in at the waist with a black sash. A parasol shades her face. She stops amidst the forest trees in a ray of sunlight, as if waiting for a friend. It is an original image. The painting has great charm, beautifully rendered effects, a delicate range of tones, a general impression that is unified, and clear and well-conceived lighting. The art that has gone into this painting seems simple, but in fact it is very unusual and very interesting. Given a subject whose charm is its light, it could hardly have been executed with greater clarity. The sunlit whites are delicious. Wherever the eye wanders, it is enchanted by the most delicate of nuances and a very distinctive lightness of touch.

All praise to a joyful canvas made by a painter with a future, an observer who is as responsive to the picturesque as he is careful of reality. This painting deserves to be singled out. By an inconceivable error, which I would prefer to think of as ignorance, she has suffered the fate of the rejected work [although hung, the painting did not win a prize]. At the Salon, with its array of marketable objects, such work stands by its art, its taste and its exceptional character, which command our attention and our study. It was obvious to all the painters, but not to the jury.

ZACHARIE ASTRUC, L'Etendard, June 27th, 1868

Portrait of Emile Zola
EMILE ZOLA Novelist and critic
Defender of lost or unpopular causes ranging from Impressionism to Captain Dreyfus, novelist and journalist of distinction. Emile Zola (1840-1902) was born in the town of Aix-en-Provence, where he went to school with Cezanne. He came to Paris in the early 1860s and, after unsuccessful attempts to become a playwright, obtained a job with the publishing house of Hachette, then became the literary editor of the radical weekly L'Evenement.

Thanks to his friendship with Cezanne, Zola was able to keep abreast of current art controversies. In 1863 he visited the Salon des Refuses, and in 1866 wrote an enthusiastic defence of Manet in L'Evenement, complaining bitterly about the artist's rejection from the Salon of that year. This article was published as a pamphlet — with additions, some suggested by the painter - which was on sale at Manet's personal exhibition. In February 1868 Manet painted his well-known portrait of the writer, and for the next decade Zola was to be an inveterate defender of the group of artists who frequented the Cafe Guerbois. In 1880 he published a selection of his art criticism - with the aggressive title Mes Raines (My Hates).

Zola's visual sensibilities were very largely moulded by his preoccupations as a Realist writer - applying to the de scnption of human life a kind of scientific rigour based on material circumstances and facts, which he accumulated
with dedicated enthusiasm. After the war of 1870 and the failure of the Commune, he embarked on Rougon-Macquart: histoire naturelle et sociale d'unefamille sous le second Empire, a massive cyclical work running to some twenty volumes, completed in 1893, which brought him fame and wealth. Because a concern with contemporary life was part of the Impressionists' approach, Zola regarded them as the visual equivalent of the literary Realists — indeed, in his reviews he frequently referred to the Impressionists as Realists and tended to overemphasize their credentials as exponents of this doctrine.

By 1879, when he was acting as Paris correspondent for the Russian magazine Viestnik Europi (Le Message de I'Europe, Zola's enthusiasm for the Impressionists had begun to wane. 'The tragedy', he wrote in his review of the 1880 Salon, 'is that there is not one artist of the group who has forcibly and definitively expressed the formula which all of them share and which is scattered through all their individual works.'

From that moment the relationship between Zola and the Impressionists steadily deteriorated, until finally in 1886 it reached breaking point when he published L'Oeuvre, a novel about the Parisian art world in which the principal character — a frustrated, unsuccessful, embittered and creatively impotent artist - was clearly recognizable as a combination of Cezanne and Manet.
  Impressionism Timeline
1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870
1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878
1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886
1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894
1895 1896 1897 1898 1899      
Bantock Granville
Sir Granville Bantock (7 August 1868 – 16 October 1946) was a British composer of classical music.

Sir Granville Bantock
Granville Ransome Bantock was born in London. His father was an eminent Scottish surgeon. He was intended by his parents for the Indian Civil Service but he suffered poor health and initially turned to chemical engineering. At the age of 20, when he began studying composers' manuscripts, at South Kensington Museum Library, he was drawn into the musical world. His first teacher was Dr Gordon Saunders at Trinity College of Music. In 1888 he entered the Royal Academy of Music where he studied harmony and composition with Frederick Corder winning the Macfarren Prize in the first year it was awarded.

Early conducting engagements took him around the world with a musical comedy troupe. He founded a music magazine, The New Quarterly Music Review, but this lasted only a few years. In 1897, he became conductor at the New Brighton Tower concerts, where he pioneered the works of Joseph Holbrooke, Frederic Hymen Cowen, Charles Steggall, Edward German, Hubert Parry, Charles Villiers Stanford, Corder and others, frequently devoting whole concerts to a single composer. He was also conductor of the Liverpool Orchestral Society with which he premiered Delius's Brigg Fair on 18 January 1908. He became Principal of the Birmingham and Midland Institute school of music in 1900. He was a close friend of fellow composer Havergal Brian. He was Peyton Professor of Music at the University of Birmingham from 1908 to 1934 (in which post he succeeded Sir Edward Elgar).

In 1934, he was elected Chairman of the Corporation of Trinity College of Music in London. He was knighted in 1930. His students included the conductor and composer Anthony Bernard and the composer Eric Fogg.

He was influential in the founding of the City of Birmingham orchestra (later the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra), whose first performance in September 1920 was of his overture Saul. Bantock's Hebridean Symphony was recorded by the CBO on 28 January 1925 at Riley Hall, Constitution Hill, Birmingham. This acoustic version, conducted by Adrian Boult, was never released.

His music was influenced by folk song of the Hebrides (as in his 1915 Hebridean Symphony) and the works of Richard Wagner. Many of his works have an "exotic" element, including the choral epic Omar Khayyám (1906–09).[6] Among his other better-known works are the overture The Pierrot of the Minute (1908) and the Pagan Symphony (1928). Many of his works have been commercially recorded since the early 1990s.

Shortly after the composer's death in London, in 1946, a Bantock Society was established. Its first president was Jean Sibelius, whose music Bantock championed during the early years of the century. Sibelius dedicated his Third Symphony to Bantock.

Edward Elgar dedicated the second of his Pomp and Circumstance Marches to Bantock.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
The Frogs (of Aristophanes), Comedy Overture
by Sir Granville Bantock
London Promenade Orchestra
Sir Granville Bantock, conductor
Granville Bantock
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
A German Requiem, To Words of the Holy Scriptures, Op. 45 (German: Ein deutsches Requiem, nach Worten der heiligen Schrift) by Brahms Johannes , is a large-scale work for chorus, orchestra, and a soprano and a baritone soloist, composed between 1865 and 1868. It comprises seven movements, which together last 65 to 80 minutes, making this work Brahms's longest composition. A German Requiem is sacred but non-liturgical, and unlike a long tradition of the Latin Requiem, A German Requiem, as its title states, is a Requiem in the German language.
Brahms's mother died in February 1865, a loss that caused him much grief and may well have inspired Ein deutsches Requiem. Brahms's lingering feelings over Robert Schumann's death in July 1856 may also have been a motivation, though his reticence about such matters makes this uncertain.

His original conception was for a work of six movements; according to their eventual places in the final version, these were movements 1–4 and 6–7. By the end of April 1865, Brahms had completed the first, second, and fourth movements. The second movement used some previously abandoned musical material written in 1854, the year of Schumann's mental collapse and attempted suicide, and of Brahms's move to Düsseldorf to assist Clara Schumann and her young children.

Brahms completed all but what is now the fifth movement by August 1866. Johann Herbeck conducted the first three movements in Vienna on 1 December 1867. This partial premiere went poorly due to a misunderstanding in the timpanist's score. Sections marked as pf were played as f or ff, essentially drowning out the rest of the ensemble in the fugal section of the third movement. The first performance of the six movements premiered in the Bremen Cathedral six months later on Good Friday, 10 April 1868, with Brahms conducting and Julius Stockhausen as the baritone soloist. The performance was a great success and marked a turning point in his career.

In May 1868 Brahms composed an additional movement, which became the fifth movement within the final work. The new movement, which was scored for soprano soloist and choir, was first sung in Zürich on 12 September 1868 by Ida Suter-Weber, with Friedrich Hegar conducting the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich. The final, seven-movement version of A German Requiem was premiered in Leipzig on 18 February 1869 with Carl Reinecke conducting the Gewandhaus Orchestra and Chorus, and soloists Emilie Bellingrath-Wagner and Franz Krückl (de).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brahms - Ein Deutsches Requiem - Van Dam Battle Karajan - Wiener Philharmoniker
Herbert von Karajan conducts Wiener Philharmoniker
„Selig sind, die da Leid tragen" (Moderatamente lento con espressione) 0:00
„Denn alles Fleisch, es ist wie Gras" (Allegro non troppo) 11:20
„Herr, lehre doch mich" (Andante moderato) 26:38
„Wie lieblich sind deine Wohnungen" (Moderatamente mosso) 38:25
„Ihr habt nun Traurigkeit" 44:10
„Denn wir haben hie keine bleibende Statt" (Andante, vivace, allegro) 52:25
„Selig sind die Toten" (Solenne) 1:06:05
Johannes Brahms
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Rossini Gioachino d. (b. 1792)

Gioachino Rossini, photographed by Étienne Carjat, 1865
Gioachino Rossini
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Schillings Max

Max von Schillings (April 19, 1868 – Berlin, July 24, 1933) was a German conductor, composer and theatre director. He was chief conductor at the Berlin State Opera from 1919 to 1925.

Schillings' opera Mona Lisa (1915) was internationally successful and was performed at the Metropolitan Opera. The composer married Barbara Kemp, the soprano who sang the title role. Before Mona Lisa, Schillings had already written three operas: Ingwelde (1894), Der Pfeifertag (1899) and Der Moloch (1906).


Max von Schillings
Born in Düren, Max von Schillings was brother to the photographer Carl Georg Schillings. He received his first musical training in violin, piano and theory at the same time as his formal education in Bonn. His teachers were Caspar Joseph Brambach and Otto von Königslow. Schillings later studied jurisprudence, philosophy, literature and art history at the University of Munich. On October 1, 1892, he married his cousin Caroline Josefa Peill in Römlinghoven. They were divorced in 1923, and on June 11, 1923, he married the opera singer Barbara Kemp in Berlin-Charlottenburg.

Max Schillings was given a professorship by the Royal Bavarian Ministry of the Interior (Königliches Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern) on February 16, 1903. In October 1911, he was named an Honorary Doctor of Philosophy by the Philosophy Faculty at the University of Heidelberg. He was awarded the Ehrenkreuz (Ger. honorary cross) by the Order of the Württemberg Crown, the fifth highest rank awarded. With this honor, he was allowed to use the name Max von Schillings. In Düren, the street between Goethestraße and Aachener Straße was renamed "Schillingsstraße".

As early as the 1890s, he was given a position as an assistant at the Bayreuth Festival; later he was engaged as a conductor and music teacher in Munich. Between 1908 and 1918 he was the Intendant at the Königlichen Hoftheater (Royal Court Theatre) in Stuttgart, for which he received the honor mentioned above. From 1918 to 1925, he succeeded Richard Strauss as intendant of the State Opera in Berlin, whilst concurrently being the musical director of the summer-time Zoppot Forest Opera. In the second half of this decade, he undertook concert tours which took him through Europe and to the USA.

Having returned to Germany, he took over the job of President of the Prussian Academy of the Arts in 1932, succeeding Max Liebermann. From March 1933 until his death, Schillings was also the artistic director of the Städtische Oper Berlin. He died in 1933 from a pulmonary embolism in Berlin. His ashes were entombed at Frankfurt-am-Main.

His composition work includes several operas, melodramas, choral works, chamber music pieces, violin and piano concertos, symphonic poems and works for stage (see list below). His most important work is undoubtedly his opera Mona Lisa (first performed on September 26, 1915 in Stuttgart), which became one of the most-performed operas in Germany until his death. He stands beside Engelbert Humperdinck and Richard Strauss as one of the composers who re-established the music form of melodrama at the start of the 20th century. Schillings was renowned as a music educator - one of his more famous students was Wilhelm Furtwängler. He was the dedicatee of "Sea Drift" by Frederick Delius.

Max von Schillings was an opponent of the Weimar Republic and a declared anti-Semite. The expulsion and exclusion of important Jewish and free-thinking artists from the Prussian Academy of the Arts began during his time as President - some artists affected were Käthe Kollwitz, Heinrich Mann, Ricarda Huch, Alfred Döblin, Thomas Mann, Max Liebermann, Alfons Paquet, Franz Werfel and Jakob Wassermann. He laid off Arnold Schoenberg from the teaching staff of the Academy, in contravention of Schoenberg's contract and in 1933, he ordered Franz Schreker, the leader of masterclasses in composition at the Academy, into early retirement.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Preludio de la ópera MONA LISA de Max von Schillings

Kiel Philarmonic Orchestra
Klauspeter Seibel

Max von Schillings
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ("The Master-Singers of Nuremberg") is a music drama (or opera) in three acts, written and composed by Wagner Richard. It is among the longest operas commonly performed, usually taking around four and a half hours. It was first performed at the Königliches Hof- und National-Theater, today's home of the Bavarian State Opera, in Munich, on 21 June 1868. The conductor at the premiere was Hans von Bülow.

The story takes place in Nuremberg during the middle of the 16th century. At the time, Nuremberg was a free imperial city, and one of the centers of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. The story revolves around the real-life guild of Meistersinger (Master Singers), an association of amateur poets and musicians, mostly from the middle class and often master craftsmen in their main professions. The mastersingers developed a craftsmanlike approach to music-making, with an intricate system of rules for composing and performing songs. The work draws much of its charm from its faithful depiction of the Nuremberg of the era and the traditions of the mastersinger guild. One of the main characters, the cobbler-poet Hans Sachs, is based on an actual historical figure: Hans Sachs (1494–1576), the most famous of the historical mastersingers.

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg occupies a unique place in Wagner's oeuvre. It is the only comedy among his mature operas (he having come to reject his early Das Liebesverbot), and is also unusual in being set in a historically well-defined time and place rather than a mythical or legendary setting. It is the only mature Wagner opera to be based on an entirely original story, devised by Wagner himself. It is also the only one of Wagner's mature operas in which there are no supernatural or magical powers or events. It incorporates many of the operatic conventions that Wagner had railed against in his essays on the theory of opera: rhymed verse, arias, choruses, a quintet, and even a ballet. Die Meistersinger is, like L'Orfeo, Capriccio, and Wagner's own earlier Tannhäuser, a musical composition in which the composition of music is a pivotal part of the story.

Composition history
Wagner's autobiography Mein Leben (My Life) described the genesis of Die Meistersinger. Taking the waters at Marienbad in 1845 he began reading Georg Gottfried Gervinus' Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung (History of German Poetry). This work included chapters on Mastersong and on Hans Sachs.

I had formed a particularly vivid picture of Hans Sachs and the mastersingers of Nuremberg. I was especially intrigued by the institution of the Marker and his function in rating master-songs ... I conceived during a walk a comic scene in which the popular artisan-poet, by hammering upon his cobbler's last, gives the Marker, who is obliged by circumstances to sing in his presence, his come-uppance for previous pedantic misdeeds during official singing contests, by inflicting upon him a lesson of his own.

Gervinus' book also mentions a poem by the real-life Hans Sachs on the subject of Protestant reformer Martin Luther, called Die Wittenbergisch Nachtigall (The Wittenberg Nightingale). The opening lines for this poem, addressing the Reformation, were later used by Wagner in act 3 scene 5 when the crowd acclaims Sachs: Wacht auf, es nahet gen den Tag; ich hör' singen im grünen Hag ein wonnigliche Nachtigall. (Awake, the dawn is drawing near; I hear, singing in the green grove, a blissful nightingale)

In addition to this, Wagner added a scene drawn from his own life, in which a case of mistaken identity led to a near-riot: this was to be the basis for the finale of act 2.

Out of this situation evolved an uproar, which through the shouting and clamour and an inexplicable growth in the number of participants in the struggle soon assumed a truly demoniacal character. It looked to me as if the whole town would break out into a riot...Then suddenly I heard a heavy thump, and as if by magic the whole crowd dispersed in every direction...One of the regular patrons had felled one of the noisiest rioters ... And it was the effect of this which had scattered everybody so suddenly.

This first draft of the story was dated "Marienbad 16 July 1845". Wagner later said, in Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde (1851) (A Communication to my Friends)  that Meistersinger was to be a comic opera to follow a tragic opera, i.e. Tannhäuser. Just as the Athenians had followed a tragedy with a comic satyr play, so Wagner would follow Tannhäuser with Meistersinger: the link being that both operas included song-contests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wagner - Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg  - Overture
Staatskapelle Dresden
Giuseppe Sinopoli, Conductor

24th January 1998
Live at Suntory Hall, Tokyo

Richard Wagner
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1

Tchaikovsky Peter Ilich wrote his Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Winter Daydreams (Russian: Зимние грёзы, Zimniye gryozy), Op. 13, in 1866 (February 15, 1868), just after he accepted a professorship at the Moscow Conservatory: it is the composer's earliest notable work. The composer's brother Modest claimed this work cost Tchaikovsky more labor and suffering than any of his other works. Even so, he remained fond of it, writing to his patroness Nadezhda von Meck in 1883 that "although it is in many ways very immature, yet fundamentally it has more substance and is better than any of my other more mature works." He dedicated the symphony to Nikolai Rubinstein.

1. Dreams of a Winter Journey. Allegro tranquillo (2222 4200 timp str)
2. Land of Desolation, Land of Mists. Adagio cantabile ma non tanto (2222 2000 str)
This movement has an essentially monothematic structure, based on subtle gradations and variations on a single melody.
3. Scherzo. Allegro scherzando giocoso (2222 2200 timp str)
This was the earliest movement to be written. Salvaged from the third movement of a piano sonata in C-sharp minor that he had written as a student, Tchaikovsky transposed the movement down a semitone to C minor and replaced the trio with the first of a whole line of orchestral waltzes.
4. Finale. Andante lugubre—Allegro maestoso (3222 4231 timp cymbals bass-drum str)
Tchaikovsky uses the folk-song "Распашу ли я млада, младeшенка" (Raspashu li ya mlada, mladeshenka) as the basis for both the introduction and the second subject. This song also colors the vigorous first subject. Tchaikovsky had borrowed the folk-song motive into the prelude and the finale of his Cantata for the Opening of the Polytechnic Exhibition in Moscow 1872 (commemorating the bicentenary of the birth of Peter the Great).


The symphony is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets (A, B-flat), two bassoons, four horns (E-flat, F), two trumpets (C, D), three trombones, tuba, timpani, cymbals, bass drum and strings.


Tchaikovsky started writing this symphony in March 1866. Work proved sluggish. A scathing review by César Cui of the cantata he had written as a graduation piece from the St. Petersburg Conservatory shattered his morale. He also composed day and night. All these factors strained Tchaikovsky's mental and physical health tremendously. He started suffering from insomnia, from pains in his head which he thought to be strokes, and became convinced he would not live to finish the symphony. A successful performance of his revised Overture in F in St. Petersburg lifted his spirits. So did a change of scene for the summer with his family. Nevertheless, he soon worked himself again into nervous and physical exhaustion by continuing to compose day and night. A doctor declared him "one step away from insanity," ordering complete rest. Tchaikovsky complied.
Despite his lack of progress, Tchaikovsky sought the opinion of his former teachers, Anton Rubinstein and Nikolai Zaremba, when he returned to St Petersburg at the end of August. He had hoped for their approval of what he had written as well as accepting at least part of it for a St Petersburg concert of the Russian Musical Society (RMS). Neither situation happened. Both men were negative, refusing to perform any of the symphony. He stopped work to fulfill his first public commission, a festival overture based on the Danish national anthem to celebrate the Moscow visit of the future Tsar Alexander III of Russia with his new Danish bride. Once the commission was finished, Tchaikovsky completed the symphony before the conservatory's Christmas break. This included modifications requested by Rubinstein and Zaremba as a condition for reconsidering the work.
Tchaikovsky resubmitted the manuscript to Rubinstein and Zaremba during the Christmas break. Even with their insisted changes, they still disapproved of the symphony on the whole; however, this time they passed the adagio and scherzo as "being fit for performance". These two movements were played at an RMS concert in St Petersburg on February 23, 1867, with no success. Tchaikovsky, who had looked upon St Petersburg as the premier musical location in Russia and been obsessed with having his symphony performed there first, was thoroughly disillusioned — not only with St Petersburg audiences, but also with the critical judgments of both his former teachers. He discarded all the revisions they had demanded, standing with one exception by his original version. The exception, it turned out, was unavoidable. At Zaremba's insistence, he had composed a new second subject for the opening movement. He had discarded the papers that contained his original second subject, and he could not remember what he had originally composed. Tchaikovsky had to let the second subject as approved by Zaremba stand as it was.

Back in Moscow, Anton's brother Nikolai was willing to perform the symphony; only the composer's insistence on a St Petersburg performance held him back. Tchaikovsky now allowed him to conduct the scherzo at a Moscow concert of the RMS on December 22. Though the scherzo met with little success, Rubinstein was still ready to perform the complete work. This finally took place on February 15, 1868, to great success. Surprisingly, though, the symphony would have to wait 15 years for its next performance. The first performance of the revised version took place in Moscow on December 1, 1883, under the baton of Max Erdmannsdörfer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tchaikovsky : Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op.13 " Winter Dreams "
Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op. 13
"Winter Dreams"

Bernard Haitink
Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra

Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks

  BACK-1868 Part II NEXT-1868 Part IV