Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1866 Part IV NEXT-1867 Part II    
 
 
     
1860 - 1869
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860-1869
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1860 Part IV
Cesium
Rubidium
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Linoleum
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part I
Kansas
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Abduaziz
Louis I
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1861 Part V
Archaeopteryx
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part I
Arizona
Idaho
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
Nadar
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
ALFRED STIEGLITZ
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
(1863-1899)
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Calculus
Nernst Walther
Pasteurization
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
Kinthup
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Antiseptic
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
 
"A Short History of the World"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Nebraska
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Dynamite
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Cro-Magnon
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
Typewriter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Celluloid
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
Nihilism
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal
 
 
 

Coronation of Franz Joseph and Elisabeth as King and Queen of Hungary and Croatia
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1867 Part I
 
 
 
1867
 
 
Manchester Martyrs
 

The Manchester Martyrs – William Philip Allen, Michael Larkin, and Michael O'Brien – were members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an organisation dedicated to ending British rule in Ireland. They were executed for the murder of a police officer in Manchester, England, in 1867, during an incident that became known as the Manchester Outrages. The trio were members of a group of 30–40 Fenians who attacked a horse-drawn police van transporting two arrested leaders of the Brotherhood, Thomas J. Kelly and Timothy Deasy, to Belle Vue Gaol. Police Sergeant Charles Brett, travelling inside with the keys, was shot and killed as the attackers attempted to force the van open by blowing the lock. Kelly and Deasy were released after another prisoner in the van took the keys from Brett's body and passed them to the group outside through a ventilation grill; the pair were never recaptured, despite an extensive search.

 
Two others were also charged and found guilty of Brett's murder, Thomas Maguire and Edward O'Meagher Condon, but their death sentences were overturned: O'Meagher Condon through the intercession of the United States government – he was an American citizen – and Maguire because the evidence given against him was considered unsatisfactory. Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien were publicly hanged on a temporary structure built on the wall of Salford Gaol, on 23 November 1867, in front of a crowd of 8,000–10,000.

Brett was the first Manchester City Police officer to be killed on duty, and he is memorialised in a monument in St Ann's Church. Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien are also memorialised, both in Manchester – where the Irish community made up more than 10 percent of the population – and in Ireland, where they were regarded by many as inspirational heroes.

 
 

Portraits of the Manchester Martyrs – Michael O'Brien, William Philip Allen and Michael Larkin – in a shamrock
 
 
Background
The whole of Ireland had been under British rule since the end of the Nine Years' War in 1603. The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was founded on 17 March 1859 by James Stephens, with the aim of establishing an independent democratic republic in Ireland.

The IRB was a revolutionary fraternal organisation, rather than an insurrectionary conspiracy; Stephens believed that a "thorough social revolution" was required in Ireland before the people could become republicans. The Fenian Brotherhood was founded in New York in 1859 by John O'Mahony, ostensibly the IRB's American wing.

By 1865 the IRB had an estimated 100,000 members, and was carrying out frequent acts of violence in metropolitan Britain. The Irish community in Manchester accounted for more than 10 per cent of the population, and one contemporary estimate put the number of Fenians and Fenian sympathisers living within 50 miles (80 km) of the city at 50,000.

In 1867 the Fenians were preparing to launch an armed uprising against British rule, but their plans became known to the authorities, and several key members of the movement's leadership were arrested and convicted. Two succeeded in evading the police, Thomas J. Kelly and Timothy Deasy, and travelled from Ireland to Britain to reorganise and raise the morale of the Fenian groups there in the wake of the failed uprising. Both were Irish Americans who had fought with distinction in the American Civil War – Kelly achieving the rank of colonel and Deasy that of captain – and both had played important roles in the abortive uprising; Kelly had been declared the chief executive of the Irish Republic at a secret republican convention, and Deasy commanded a Fenian brigade in County Cork.

During the early hours of 11 September 1867, police arrested two men found loitering in Oak Street, Shudehill, suspecting them of planning to rob a shop.

Both were charged under the Vagrancy Act and held in custody. The Manchester police were initially unaware of their identities, until their colleagues in the Irish police identified them as Kelly and Deasy.

  Rescue
On 18 September 1867, Kelly and Deasy were being transferred from the courthouse to Belle Vue Gaol on Hyde Road, Gorton. They were handcuffed and locked in two separate compartments inside a police van escorted by a squad of 12 mounted policemen. The van contained six prisoners: a 12-year-old boy who was being taken to a reformatory, three women convicted of misdemeanours, and the two Fenians. As it passed under a railway arch, a man darted into the middle of the road, pointed a pistol at the driver and told him to stop. Simultaneously, a party of about 30–40 men leaped over a wall at the side of the road, surrounded the van and seized the horses, one of which they shot. The unarmed police were described by O'Meagher Condon, who organised the attack on the police van, as "a miscellaneous lot, apparently embracing the long and short and the fat and lean of the Manchester force"; they offered little resistance and soon fled.

The rescuers, after an unsuccessful attempt to force open the van with hatchets, sledgehammers, and crowbars, called upon Police Sergeant Brett, who was inside the van with the prisoners, to open the door. Brett refused, so one of the rescuers placed his revolver at the keyhole of the van to blow the lock, just as Brett looked through the keyhole to see what was happening outside. The bullet passed through his eye into his brain and killed him. The door was opened when one of the women prisoners took the keys from Brett's pocket, and passed them through a ventilator to the Fenians outside, allowing Kelly and Deasy to escape. Brett was the first Manchester police officer to be killed on duty, in an incident that became known locally as the "Manchester Outrages".

Investigation
The police suspected that Kelly and Deasy had been taken by their rescuers to Ancoats, considered at that time to be a Fenian area of Manchester. Anonymous letters alleged that the pair were being sheltered in a house on Every Street, but the 50 armed police who raided the premises found no signs of the fugitives. Despite a reward of £300 (£24,000 as of 2015) offered by the authorities, neither Kelly nor Deasy were recaptured. An article published in the 14 November edition of The Times newspaper reported that they had made their way to Liverpool, from where they had taken passage on a ship bound for New York.

 
 
The police raided Manchester's Irish quarters and brought "dozens of suspects, selected almost at random", before local magistrates; the raids have been described as a "reign of terror" for the Irish in Manchester. Amongst those arrested was Thomas Maguire, a young Royal Marine on leave, who unfortunately for him had been in the vicinity of the attack on the police van and was Irish. Such was the zeal of the police that one man with a strong Irish accent surrendered himself to the magistrates "as the only means I have of saving myself from being arrested over and over again wherever I go, as a Fenian".
 
 
Committal proceedings
On 27 September 1867 committal proceedings were heard in front of a magistrate to establish whether there was a prima facie case against the 28 accused. The team of defence barristers included Chartist leader Ernest Jones, who had spent two years in prison for making seditious speeches, and W. P. Roberts, whose fee was paid by subscribers to a defence fund to represent nine of the men.

Jones, representing Condon and O'Brien, clashed with the court almost immediately because the accused were handcuffed, saying "It appears to be discreditable to the administration of justice that men whom the law presumes to be innocent should be brought into Court handcuffed together like a couple of hounds."

Jones also objected to the presence of a number of soldiers in the courtroom, and when the magistrate refused to order the prisoners' handcuffs to be removed he "marched dramatically" out of the courtroom saying "Then as a member of the Bar I decline to sit in any Court where the police override the Magistrate ... I cannot disgrace the Bar by proceeding with the defence."

All but two of the accused – Allen and Larkin – claimed that they had witnesses who would testify that they were elsewhere when the police van was attacked. The defence argued that "the rescue was not illegal as the prisoners [Kelly and Deasy] were wrongly imprisoned", and that there was no intention of "sacrificing human life", as evidenced by only a single fatality despite the presence of so many guns and so many shots being fired.
Nevertheless, 26 of the prisoners were sent for trial before a judge and jury at the next assizes; two were released because of "unsatisfactory identification".

  Trial
Proceedings began on 28 October 1867, in front of Mr Justice Blackburne and Mr Justice Mellor. Twenty-six appeared in court on the first day in front of a grand jury, which found that there was a prima facie case against all of the defendants for murder, felony, and misdemeanour. It was decided to charge the five "principal offenders" – Allen, Larkin, Gould (O'Brien), Shore (Condon), and Maguire – under one indictment. They were therefore brought back to the courtroom the following day, when their trial proper began, despite none of them having fired the fatal shot.

Allen was a 19-year-old carpenter; Larkin was a tailor, the only married member of the group, and had five children. O'Brien, who had fought in the American Civil War, was a 30-year-old shop assistant from County Cork. O'Meagher Condon, born in Cork and 32 years old, had also fought for the Union side in the American Civil War. Thomas Maguire was a Royal Marine who had served for 10 years and had just returned home on leave.

The jury retired at 6:15 pm on the fifth day and returned at 7:30 pm to give its verdict of guilty for each of the five defendants. When asked if they had anything to say before sentence was passed, several of the convicted men made a closing speech. Allen stated his innocence, and that he regretted the death of Sergeant Brett, but that he was prepared to "die proudly and triumphantly in defence of republican principles and the liberty of an oppressed and enslaved people".

Larkin said he felt that he had received a fair trial, and that his counsel had done everything they could in his defence. He ended by saying: "So I look to the mercy of God. May God forgive all who have sworn my life away. As I am a dying man, I forgive them from the bottom of my heart. May God forgive them."

 
 
O'Brien claimed that all of the evidence given against him was false, and that as an American citizen he ought not to be facing trial in a UK court. He then went on at length to condemn the British government, the "imbecile and tyrannical rulers" of Ireland, until he was interrupted by the judge, who appealed to him to cease his remarks: "The only effect of your observations must be to tell against you with those who have to consider the sentence. I advise you to say nothing more of that sort. I do so entirely for your own sake."

O'Meagher Condon's address to the court was considered by The Times to have "excelled all the other convicts in his zeal for the Fenian cause". He admitted to having organised the attack on the police van in his role as leader of the north-west section of the movement, but claimed that he "never threw a stone or fired a pistol; I was never at the place [where the attack took place] ... it is all totally false". He went on to say that "had I committed anything against the Crown of England, I would have scorned myself had I attempted to deny it". Towards the end of his speech he shouted, "God save Ireland!", a cry taken up by his companions in the dock.

William Allen, Michael Larkin, Michael O'Brien, Thomas Maguire, and Edward O'Meagher Condon, were sentenced to death by hanging – the only punishment English law at that time allowed for murder – again crying "God save Ireland" from the dock after sentence was pronounced. Maguire was subsequently pardoned and discharged, and O'Meagher Condon's sentence was commuted on the eve of his execution.

The trial took place in what was described as a "climate of anti-Irish hysteria" by the weekly Reynold's Newspaper, which described it as a "deep and everlasting disgrace to the English government", the product of an ignoble panic which seized the governing classes. A yell of vengeance, it said, had issued from every aristocratic organ, and that before any evidence had been obtained the prisoners' guilt was assumed and their executions had been demanded.

 
 
Reprieves
In Thomas Maguire's case the witnesses who had identified the prisoners and had testified that Maguire was in the forefront of the attack had their evidence shown to be transparently false.

This resulted in over 30 English reporters sending an appeal to the Home Secretary to have him pardoned.

With such widespread doubts about the conviction of Maguire the government yielded to the pressure to grant him a pardon.

This led many to believe that the other four would not be hanged since they had been convicted on the evidence of the same witnesses who, according to Liz Curtis, had "blatantly perjured themselves in the case of Maguire".

While eminent lawyers tried through procedural means to halt the executions, leading figures such as John Bright, Charles Bradlaugh and John Stuart Mill appealed for clemency.
  Execution
A crowd estimated at 8,000–10,000[35] gathered outside the walls of Salford Gaol on the evening of 22 November 1867 to witness the public execution of the three convicted men the following morning. A platform had been built about 30 feet (9.1 m) above ground, through the outside wall of the jail facing New Bailey Street, to support the gallows. The spectators were "well supplied by the gin palaces of Deansgate and the portable beer and coffee stalls". According to Father Gadd, one of the three Catholic priests who attended to the men:

A crowd of inhuman ghouls from the purlieus of Deansgate and the slums of the City ... made the night and early morning hideous with the raucous bacchanalian strains of "Champagne Charlie", "John Brown", and "Rule Britannia". No Irish mingled with the throng ... They had obeyed the instructions of their Clergy. Throughout Manchester and Salford, silent congregations with tear-stained faces ... assembled for a celebration of early Mass for the eternal welfare of the young Irishmen doomed to die a dreadful death that morning.

 
 
The authorities took considerable pains to discourage any rescue attempt. Over 2,500 regular and special police were deployed in and around the prison, augmented by a military presence which included a detachment of the 72nd Highlanders and a squadron of the Eighth Hussars. All traffic in and out of the city was stopped. The Times newspaper reported that by the time the hangings took place, shortly after 8:00 am, "the mob were quiet and orderly", in contrast to the previous night and early morning.

The executioner, William Calcraft, was the most famous of the 19th century, but was reportedly nervous of executing Fenians, because of threats he had received. He was also "particularly incompetent", and was "notoriously unable to calculate the correct length of rope required for each individual hanging; he frequently had to rush below the scaffold to pull on his victim's legs to hasten death". Most accounts claim that Allen died almost instantaneously from a broken neck, but Larkin and O'Brien were not so fortunate. Father Gadd, reported that:

The other two ropes, stretched taut and tense by their breathing twitching burdens, were in ominous and distracting movement. The hangman had bungled! ... Calcraft then descended into the pit and there finished what he could not accomplish from above. He killed Larkin.

Father Gadd refused to allow Calcraft to dispatch O'Brien in the same way, and so "for three-quarters of an hour the good priest knelt, holding the dying man's hands within his own, reciting the prayers for the dying. Then the long drawn out agony ended."

 
 
Aftermath
Most of the British press had demanded "retribution swift and stern", not because the men were Irish, but because they were Fenians; "the public demand for the death penalty was not simply an expression of anti-Irish sentiment, but rather a product of the Fenian panic and popular feelings of insecurity and the desire for order." The Daily Telegraph, for instance, although like most of its contemporaries describing Brett's death as "a vulgar, dastardly murder", nevertheless supported reform in Ireland; "we may hang convicted Fenians with good conscience, but we should also thoroughly redress those evils distinctly due to English policy and still supported by English power."

Many funeral processions were held in Ireland and even in a few British cities during the weeks following the executions, sometimes attracting crowds of thousands. These demonstrations of support for the three Fenians further outraged British public opinion, and "reinforced the prevailing sentiment that the Irish moral compass was somehow off-center". The executions gave rise to an enormous groundswell of feeling among Irish communities the world over. In New Zealand, for instance, seven men were convicted of unlawful assembly in a high-profile trial following a mock funeral to Hokitika cemetery; two of the seven, a newspaper editor and a priest, pleaded guilty to seditious libel, having published "a succession of very rabid articles about the Queen's Government." The viceregal government declared the holding of a Manchester Martyr funeral procession illegal. Throughout Ireland Masses, even public ones, were said for the three, although Bishop David Moriarty of Kerry prohibited celebration of Mass for them in his diocese. Archbishop John MacHale of Tuam, on the other hand, personally assisted at a High Mass for them, and Cardinal Archbishop Paul Cullen of Dublin, while opposing public celebrations, instructed his priests to pray for the dead Fenians, and to say Mass privately for them.
  The day after the executions, Frederick Engels wrote to Karl Marx:

So yesterday morning the Tories, by the hand of Mr Calcraft, accomplished the final act of separation between England and Ireland.

The only thing that the Fenians still lacked were martyrs. They have been provided by Derby and G Hardy. Only the execution of the three has made the liberation of Kelly and Deasy the heroic deed which will now be sung to every Irish babe in the cradle in Ireland, England and America ...

To my knowledge, the only time that anybody has been executed for a similar matter in a civilised country was the case of John Brown at Harpers Ferry.

The Fenians could not have wished for a better precedent. The Southerners had at least the decency to treat J. Brown as a rebel, whereas here everything is being done to transform a political attempt into a common crime.

The cry of the condemned men was the inspiration for the song "God Save Ireland", which became Ireland's unofficial national anthem until officially replaced by "Amhrán na bhFiann" ("The Soldier's Song").

The executions were also "incalculable" in their influence on the "political awakening" of Charles Stewart Parnell.

Speaking in the House of Commons ten years later, Parnell told the House:

"I wish to say as directly as I can that I do not believe, and never shall believe, that any murder was committed in Manchester."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1867
 
 
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
 

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: Ausgleich, Hungarian: Kiegyezés) (alias Composition of 1867) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise re-established partially the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire.

 
Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Cisleithanian (Austrian) and Transleithanian (Hungarian) regions of the state were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers. Unity was maintained through rule of a single head of state, reigning as both the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and common monarchy-wide ministries of foreign affairs, defence and finance under his direct authority. The armed forces were combined with the Emperor-King as commander-in-chief.

The names conventionally used for the two realms were derived from the river Leitha, or Lajta, a tributary of the Danube and the traditional border between Austrian and Magyar lands. The Leitha however did not form the entire border nor was its whole course part of the border: the Cis- and Trans- usage was by force of custom rather than geographical accuracy.

According to Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria only three people contributed to the compromise: "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."

 
 
History
In the Middle Ages Austria was a quasi-independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, while the Kingdom of Hungary was a sovereign state outside the empire. In 1526 at the Battle of Mohács, Hungary was defeated and partially conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The crown of Hungary was inherited by the Habsburgs. The Ottomans were subsequently driven out of Hungary in 1699. From 1526 to 1804, Austria and Hungary were a personal union under the Habsburgs, but remained nominally and legally separate.

In 1804–6, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished, and the Austrian Empire was created. This Empire came to comprise all Habsburg lands ruled by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (including Hungary), largely without changing the status quo that existed between them before 1804.

 
 
After the Hungarian revolution (1848–1867)
In the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Magyars came close to regaining independence, and were defeated by the Austrian Empire only with the aid of the Russian Empire. Prime Minister Félix von Schwarzenberg and his government, operating since November 1848, pursued radically new imperial policy. It wanted to develop a uniform empire in the spirit of the imperial constitution issued by Franz Joseph I in Olmütz on 4 March 1849, and as a result, Hungary's constitution and her territorial integrity were abolished and she became subsumed into the hereditary lands. After the 1848-49 Hungarian War of Independence, a military dictatorship was created in Hungary. Every aspect of Hungarian life was put under close scrutiny and governmental control. The territory of the country was partitioned into crown lands, and the Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended. This started an era of absolutist rule in Hungary.

German became the official language of public administration.

 
The division between lands to be administered from Vienna (here deep pink) and lands to be administered from Budapest (yellow) under the 1867 Dual monarchy "Ausgleich" agreement. From 1878 Bosnia-Herzegovina (green) were jointly administered.
 
 
The edict issued on 9 October 1849 placed education under state control, the curriculum was prescribed and controlled by the state, the education of national history was confined, and history was taught from a Habsburg viewpoint.

Even the bastion of Hungarian culture, the Academy was kept under control: the institution was staffed with foreigners, mostly Germans, and the institution was practically defunct until the end of 1858. Hungarians responded with passive resistance. Anti-Habsburg and anti-German sentiments were strong. In the following years, the empire instituted several reforms, but failed to resolve these problems.

In 1866, Austria was completely defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and its position as the leading state of Germany ended forever, as the remaining German minor states were soon absorbed into the German Empire created by Prussia. Austria also lost almost all of its remaining claims and influence in Italy, which had been its chief foreign policy interest.

The state needed to redefine itself to maintain unity in the face of nationalism.

 
 
Adoption
As a consequence of the Franco-Austrian War, and the Austro-Prussian War the Habsburg Empire was on the verge of collapse in 1866, as these military endeavours resulted in monumental state debt, and a financial crisis.

The Habsburgs were forced to reconcile with Hungary to save their empire and dynasty. The Habsburgs and part of the Hungarian political elite arranged the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of the populace wanted full independence.

Hungarian statesman Ferenc Deák (Francis Deak) is considered the intellectual force behind the Compromise. Deák initially wanted independence for Hungary and supported the 1848 Revolution, but he broke with hardline nationalists and advocated a modified union under the Habsburgs. Deák took the line that, while Hungary had the right to full internal independence, questions of defence and foreign affairs were "common" to both Austria and Hungary under the Pragmatic Sanction.

  He also felt that Hungary benefited through continued unity with wealthier, more industrialized Austria, and that the Compromise would end the pressures on Austria of continually choosing between the Magyar and Slav populations of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Imperial Chancellor Beust quickly negotiated the Compromise with the Hungarian leaders. Beust was particularly eager to renew the conflict with Prussia, and thought a quick settlement with Hungary would make that possible. Franz Joseph and Deák signed the Compromise, and it was ratified by the restored Diet of Hungary on 29 May 1867.

The Compromise was negotiated and legitimised by only a very small part of Hungarian society (suffrage was very limited: less than 8 percent of the population had voting rights), and was seen by a very large part of the population as a betrayal of the Hungarian cause and the heritage of the 1848-49 War of Independence. The Compromise was very unpopular and the government resorted to force to suppress civil dissent. The Compromise caused deep and lasting schisms in Hungarian society.

 
 
Beust's desired revenge against Prussia did not materialize. When in 1870, Beust wanted Austria-Hungary to support France against Prussia, Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Andrássy was "vigorously opposed", effectively vetoing Austrian intervention.
 
 

Coronation of Franz Joseph and Elisabeth as King and Queen of Hungary and Croatia
 
 
Terms
Under the Compromise, Austria and Hungary had separate parliaments that met in Vienna and Buda (later Budapest), respectively, that passed and maintained separate laws.

Each region had its own government, headed by its own prime minister.

The "dual monarchy" consisted of the emperor-king, and the common ministers of foreign affairs, defence, and finance in Vienna. The monetary and economic terms of the Compromise were renegotiated every ten years.

Under the terms of the Compromise Hungary took over a large part of the towering Austrian state debt.

The King retained royal privileges:

-He became the supreme warlord, and kept all decisional authority on the structure, organization and administration of the army in his hands. He appointed the senior officials, had the right to declare war, and he was the commander-in-chief of the army;

-He had the right to declare state of emergency;

-He had the right of preliminary royal assent of every bill the Cabinet Council wanted to report to the National Assembly. He had the right to veto any law passed by the National Assembly;

-He had the right to dissolve the National Assembly;

and
-He had the right to appoint and dismiss the members of the Cabinet Council.

This meant a strong reduction in Hungarian sovereignty and autonomy even in comparison with the pre-1848 status quo.

Despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities.

  Continuing pressures
The resulting system was maintained until the dissolution of the dual monarchy following World War I. The favoritism shown to the Magyars, the second largest ethnic group in the dual monarchy after the Germans, caused discontent on the part of other ethnic groups like the Slovaks and Romanians. Although a "Nationalities Law" was enacted to preserve the rights of ethnic minorities, the two parliaments took very different approaches to this issue.

The basic problem in the later years was that the Compromise with Hungary only encouraged the appetites of non-Hungarian minorities in Hungary that were historically within the boundaries of the Hungarian Kingdom. The majority of Hungarians felt they had accepted the Compromise only under coercion. The Austrian Archduke, separately crowned King of Hungary, had to swear in his coronation oath not to revise or diminish the historic imperial (Hungarian) domains of the Hungarian nobility, magnates, and upper classes. These Hungarian groups never acquiesced to granting "their" minorities the recognition and local autonomy which the Austrians had given to the Magyars themselves in the Compromise.

In the Kingdom of Hungary, several ethnic minorities faced increased pressures of Magyarization. Further, the renegotiations that occurred every ten years often led to constitutional crises. Ultimately, although the Compromise hoped to fix the problems faced by a multi-national state while maintaining the benefits of a large state, the new system still faced the same internal pressures the old had. To what extent the dual monarchy stabilized the country in the face of national awakenings and to what extent it alleviated, or aggravated, the situation are debated even today.

In a letter of February 1, 1913, to Berchtold, his Foreign Minister, Archduke Franz Ferdinand said that "irredentism in our country ... will cease immediately if our Slavs are given a comfortable, fair and good life" instead of being trampled on (as they were being trampled on by the Hungarians).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Nebraska becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Nebraska
 

Nebraska, constituent state of the United States of America. It was admitted to the union as the 37th state on March 1, 1867. Nebraska is bounded by the state of South Dakota to the north, with the Missouri River making up about one-fourth of that boundary and the whole of Nebraska’s boundaries with the states of Iowa and Missouri to the east. The boundary with Kansas to the south was established when the two territories were created by the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. In the southwestern part of the state, the boundary with Colorado forms a right angle (south and west), which creates Nebraska’s panhandle, to the west of which is the boundary with Wyoming. Lincoln, in the southeastern part of the state, is the capital.

 
As one of the west-central states of the United States, Nebraska was primarily a stopover point for those migrating to the rich trapping country to the north and west as well as to the settlement and mining frontiers of the mountain and Pacific regions during the first half of the 19th century. With the development of railroads after the American Civil War (1861–65) and the consequent immigration, the fertile soils of Nebraska were plowed, and its grasslands gave rise to a range cattle industry. As a result, the state has been a major food producer since statehood.

Rivers have been important to Nebraska’s geography and settlement. A majority of Nebraskans live close to the Missouri and Platte rivers, leaving much of the state lightly populated. The Missouri was a major highway to the trans-Mississippi West in the early 19th century. The Platte River has also played a significant role in Nebraska’s history. In fact, the state’s name is derived from the Oto Indian word Nebrathka (“Flat Water”), a reference to the Platte. Area 77,347 square miles (200,329 square km). Population (2010) 1,826,341; (2014 est.) 1,881,503.

 
 

Nebraska
 
 
History
Early history

Various prehistoric peoples inhabited Nebraska as early as 8000 bce. In the 19th century, semisedentary Native American peoples, most notably the Omaha, Oto, Pawnee, and Ponca, lived in eastern and central Nebraska. The west was the domain of the Brulé and Oglala Teton Sioux, but other tribes, such as the Arapaho, Comanche, and Cheyenne, also used the area from time to time. In the 1870s the Oto, Pawnee, and Ponca peoples, after being assigned to reservations in Nebraska, were removed to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). By 1878 several bands of the Teton Sioux (Lakota) had been relocated from northwestern Nebraska to reservations just over the border in Dakota Territory (now South Dakota).
 
 
Exploration and settlement
At the end of the 1600s both France and Spain had claimed the area that would become Nebraska, but in 1763 Spain won title to the trans-Mississippi region, including Nebraska.

Spanish efforts to develop Native American trade in the upper Missouri River region brought little success, and international politics led to the transfer of the region, again including Nebraska, to France in 1800. Three years later the United States acquired this vast area from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase.

In 1804 the Lewis and Clark Expedition visited the Nebraska side of the Missouri River and conducted the first systematic exploration of the area.

Shortly thereafter a vigorous fur trade developed along the Missouri, but Nebraska was primarily a highway to richer fur-trapping areas to the north and west. During the 1840s the Platte valley became another major migration route as thousands of settlers moved westward to Oregon, California, and Utah over the path opened by the fur trade.

Much interest soon developed in Nebraska and in the Platte valley as a potential railroad route to the Pacific.

Frontier land speculators in western Missouri and Iowa anticipated great financial gains if the Nebraska country, part of the large Native American domain between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, were opened for settlement.

  With the adoption of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and repealed the prohibition of slavery north of latitude 36°30’ that was established in the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the federal government extended political organization to the trans-Missouri region. Originally the Nebraska Territory comprised 351,558 square miles (910,531 square km), but by 1863 the organization of the Colorado, Dakota, and Idaho (including the states of Montana and Wyoming) territories had reduced Nebraska almost to its present dimensions.

Economics, geography, and politics created sectional rivalries within Nebraska in 1854. The locating of the capital of Nebraska Territory in Omaha so enraged the people south of the Platte that they sought to be annexed by Kansas. In 1867 the state capital was moved to Lincoln, south of the Platte, riling political leaders from north of the river and Omaha. Both Lincoln and Omaha emerged as major regional hubs, but, because these cities are located at the eastern end of the state, western Nebraskans often turned their attention toward Denver, Colo.

Much of the economy of the early Nebraska settlements along the Missouri River was based on land speculation. The nationwide economic panic of 1857, however, forced many to experiment with agriculture, which soon thrived. Some river towns also became important transfer points for freight and passengers going west, leading to greater commercial development. The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869 and the further railroad construction that followed also contributed to the development of the state.

 
 

State capitol building, Lincoln, Nebraska
 
 
Statehood and growth
After Nebraska’s admission to the union in 1867, and despite an economic depression and a grasshopper plague, the state’s population increased from about 120,000 to more than 1,000,000 by 1890. The Indian resistance on the frontier was broken during these years, and settlement extended westward into the panhandle. During the 1880s Omaha became an important industrial and meatpacking centre, and Lincoln became prominent as the state capital and as the seat of the University of Nebraska.

In the 1890s Nebraska’s farmers, afflicted with poor crop prices, high transportation costs, and economic depression, expressed their protest through the People’s Party (also known as the Populist Party). Although the Populist movement in Nebraska was relatively short-lived, it invigorated the political life of the state, and its champion, William Jennings Bryan, became a national figure and three-time presidential candidate. Hopes were further lifted when Omaha was selected as the site to host the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898, an event that was meant to revive the country’s economy and alleviate the financial panic of the 1890s. The exposition attracted more than two million people to Omaha over a four-month period. Prosperity returned by 1900 and continued for two decades.

In the 1920s, however, Nebraska’s agriculture was again impacted by a nationwide depression, which was in part responsible for the failure of about two-fifths of the state-chartered banks from 1921 through 1930.

  With the advent of the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, the state’s economy deteriorated further, necessitating massive federal assistance. Moreover, certain counties in southwestern Nebraska were affected by the Dust Bowl.

In 1933 the state legislature authorized the creation of public power and irrigation districts. Republican Sen. George W. Norris was influential in securing loans from the federal government that enabled these districts to construct hydroelectric and irrigation projects in the Platte and Loup river valleys. A public agency later purchased the private electric power companies outside the Omaha area, and in 1946 the Omaha Public Power District acquired the local private power company.

Nebraska thus became the first state with complete public ownership of electrical generating and distribution facilities, an ironic fact in view of its reputation for political conservatism. Norris was also a major promoter of the idea of a unicameral legislature, which Nebraskan voters endorsed in 1934. The new legislature was implemented in 1937, and Nebraska became the first and only U.S. state to have a single legislative body.

World War II brought economic recovery and other changes. Fort Crook, south of Omaha, became the site of a huge aircraft plant. In 1948 this location, renamed Offutt Air Force Base, became the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command (now U.S. Strategic Command), which stimulated the growth of the greater Omaha area.

Harl Adams Dalstrom

 
 

Omaha, Nebraska
 
 
Nebraska since World War II
In the years following World War II, the population of Nebraska began to shift from rural to urban communities. Suburban development also contributed to significant growth in the size of metropolitan areas in both area and population. Omaha spread from Douglas county into adjoining Sarpy county to the west and south, and Lincoln encompassed more of Lancaster county. Farms continued to decrease in number and increase in size.

The tapping of groundwater for irrigation also rose dramatically during the postwar years. The heavy utilization of groundwater plus the possibility that more water could be diverted from the upper reaches of the Platte system in Colorado and Wyoming made Nebraskans more sensitive to the need to conserve water resources. In addition, they became more aware of the danger of groundwater contamination by chemical fertilizers and related products.

The importance of water also led to conflict with Nebraska’s neighbouring states—most notably over the flows of the Missouri and Republican rivers—which periodically led to litigation. In 1986, for instance, Nebraska filed a suit in the U.S. Supreme Court against the state of Wyoming to stop the building of a new dam on the North Platte River. The suit was finally settled in 2001 in Nebraska’s favour.

In another case, Nebraska went to court to stop South Dakota from diverting water from the Missouri River for use in a coal-slurry pipeline. In a separate litigation, the state of Kansas filed a suit in the U.S.

Supreme Court against Nebraska in 1998 claiming that Kansas was not getting the water it was entitled to under a 1943 Republican River pact agreed to by Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. The court ruled in favour of Kansas, and in 2007 the Nebraska legislature approved a bill to finance its water debt to Kansas through new sales and income taxes on farmers in the Republican River valley.

Urban growth and rising expectations for the provision of public services put increasing fiscal pressure on the state government, which sought to replenish its coffers primarily by raising property taxes starting in the late 1940s.Protests from Nebraska’s declining farm population, which felt it was bearing a disproportionate share of the tax burden, led to the adoption of a tax reform act in 1968 that implemented a system of income, sales, and property taxes.

The combination of these three taxes meant that urban and rural residents would pay a more equitable share of taxes. Rejecting a call for a constitutional convention to address the rising costs of government, the Nebraska legislature began a process for streamlining state government by approving bonded indebtedness for major state projects and by attempting to attract new industries to broaden the tax base.

  Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, minority groups in Nebraska demanded greater civil rights. In Omaha in the mid-1960s, the frustration felt by many African Americans occasionally took the form of violence and rioting, largely a result of the growing political militancy and strained police-community relations. In the wake of this struggle, an equal opportunities commission was created and a civil rights code was enacted that made discrimination in housing and employment illegal. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the profile of African Americans in government, and overt racial tensions eased in response to the establishment of jobs programs and growing sensitivity among white residents.

Violence against Native Americans in northwestern Nebraska across the border from the Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations in South Dakota erupted in the 1970s. During this period, the grievances of Nebraska’s Native Americans were brought to light after the siege of Wounded Knee in South Dakota in 1973 by members of the American Indian Movement. Some of the defendants were tried in a federal district court in Lincoln from 1974 to 1976 for their participation in the Wounded Knee occupation.

Also in the 1970s, rapid inflation and increasing oil prices threatened the prosperity of Nebraska’s farmers, as did the collapse of land values during a nationwide recession in the 1980s. As a result of these developments and because most of Nebraska’s industrial enterprises were tied to agricultural production, it became imperative to diversify the state’s economy. In 1987 the Nebraska legislature established tax incentives for the development of new businesses and industries and to encourage the expansion of existing industries. The benefits of these tax incentives continued to be debated throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century, even as economic diversification was achieved in Omaha (where oil refining and lead smelting, as well as the manufacture of railroad, telephone, and farm equipment became important) and other urban areas. An influx of Hispanics to Nebraska in the 1970s, followed by groups of Asian immigrants in the 1980s, further diversified the labour force.

Although the Nebraska economy has prospered, the state still wrestles with issues related to its dependence on agriculture while at the same time working toward greater diversity in industry, fairness of its tax system, and relief for property, sales, and income taxes. Consequently, the state government has increased its efforts to develop new markets for Nebraska’s agricultural exports. Also, in an attempt to prompt younger Nebraskans to become farmers, the legislature passed a bill providing income tax credits to anyone who rents agricultural land, buildings, or machinery to a novice farmer or rancher. The state has also continued to provide tax incentives for businesses in rural counties.

Ronald C. Naugle

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Napoleon III withdraws his support from Maximilian of Mexico;
Fr. troops leave the country;
Maximilian of Mexico executed
 
 

Napoleon III in 1863
 
Emperor of Mexico, Franz Xaver Winterhalter,
1864
 
 
 

Edouard Manet's Execution of Emperor Maximilian (1868–1869), is one of five versions of his representation of the execution of the Austrian-born Emperor of Mexico, which took place on June 19, 1867. Manet borrowed heavily, thematically and technically, from Goya's The Third of May 1808.
 
 

Maximilian's embalmed body.
 
 
 
1867
 
 
Constitution Act, 1867
 

The Constitution Act, 1867 (originally enacted as The British North America Act, 1867, and referred to as the BNA Act), is a major part of Canada's Constitution. The Act created a federal dominion and defines much of the operation of the Government of Canada, including its federal structure, the House of Commons, the Senate, the justice system, and the taxation system. The British North America Acts, including this Act, were renamed in 1982 with the patriation of the Constitution (originally enacted by the British Parliament); however, it is still known by its original name in United Kingdom records. Amendments were also made at this time: section 92A was added, giving provinces greater control over non-renewable natural resources.

 
Preamble and Part I "Preliminary"
The Act begins with a preamble that declares that the three provinces New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (which would become Ontario and Quebec) have requested to form "one Dominion...with a Constitution similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom". This description of the Constitution has proven important in its interpretation. As Peter Hogg wrote in Constitutional Law of Canada, some have argued that since the United Kingdom had some freedom of expression in 1867, the preamble extended this right to Canada even before the enactment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982; this was a supposed basis for the Implied Bill of Rights. In New Brunswick Broadcasting Co. v. Nova Scotia (Speaker of the House of Assembly), the leading Canadian case on parliamentary privilege, the Supreme Court of Canada grounded its 1993 decision on the preamble. Moreover, since the UK had a tradition of judicial independence, the Supreme Court ruled in the Provincial Judges Reference of 1997 that the preamble shows judicial independence in Canada is constitutionally guaranteed. Political scientist Rand Dyck has criticized the preamble, saying it is "seriously out of date". He claims the Constitution Act, 1867 "lacks an inspirational introduction".

The preamble to the Constitution Act, 1867 is not the Constitution of Canada's only preamble. The Charter also has a preamble.

Part I consists of just two sections. Section 1 gives the short title of the law as The British North America Act, 1867. Section 2 indicates that all references to the Queen (then Victoria) equally apply to all her heirs and successors.

 
Front page of a copy of the Act from 1867
 
 
Part II "Union"
The British North America Act, 1867 established the Dominion of Canada by fusing the North American British "Provinces" (colonies) of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Section 3 establishes that the union would take effect within six months of passage of the Act, and Section 4 confirmed that "Canada" was the name of the new country (and the word "Canada" in the rest of act refers to new federation and not the old province).

Section 5 lists the four provinces of the new federation. These are formed by dividing the former Province of Canada, into two; its two subdivisions, Canada West and Canada East, were renamed Ontario and Quebec, respectively, and became full provinces in Section 6. Section 7 confirms that the boundaries of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were not changed. And Section 8 provides that a national census of all provinces must be held every ten years.

 
 
Part III "Executive Power"
Section 9 confirms that all executive powers remain with the Crown, as represented by a governor general or an administrator of the government, as stated in

Section 10. Section 11 creates the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.

Section 12 states that the executive branches of the provinces continue to exist and their power is exercised through the lieutenant governors, and that the powers exercised by the federal government must be exercised through the governor general, either with the advice of the privy council or alone.

Section 13 defines the Governor-General in Council as the governor-general acting with the advice of the privy council.

Section 14 allows the governor general to appoint deputies to exercises his powers in various parts of Canada. The commander-in-chief of all naval armed forces in Canada continues with the Crown under Section 15.

Section 16 declares Ottawa the capital of the new federation.

Part IV "Legislative Power"
The Parliament of Canada, composed of the Crown and two houses (the House of Commons of Canada and the Canadian Senate) is created by section 17.

Section 18 defines the powers and privileges of the parliament as being no greater than those of the British parliament.

Section 19 states that Parliament's first session must begin six months after the passage of the act, and

Section 20 holds that Parliament must hold a legislative session at least once every twelve months.

  Senate
At the time of the Union, there were 72 senators (Section 21), equally divided between three regions Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces (Section 22). Section 23 lays out the qualifications to become a senator. Senators are appointed by the governor general under section Section 24, and the first group of senators was proclaimed under section 25. Section 26 allows the Crown to add three or six senators at a time to the Senate, divided among the three regions, but according to section 27 no more senators can then be appointed until, by death or retirement, the number of senators drops below the regular limit. The maximum number of senators was set at 78, in Section 28. Senators were appointed for life (at the time), under Section 29, though they can resign under Section 30 and senators can be removed under the terms of section 31, in which case the vacancy can be filled by the governor general (Section 32). Section 33 gives the senate the power to rule on its own disputes over eligibility and vacancy. The speaker of the senate is appointed and dismissed by governor general under Section 34. Quorum for the Senate was initially set at 15 senators by Section 35, and voting procedures at set by Section 36.

House of Commons
The initial composition of the commons, under Section 37, consisted of 181 members, 82 for Ontario, 65 for Quebec, 19 for Nova Scotia, and 15 for New Brunswick. It is summoned by the governor general under Section 38. Section 39 forbids senators to sit in the commons. Section 40 divides the provinces in electoral districts. Section 41 continues electoral laws and voting qualifications of the time, subject to later revision, and Section 42 gives the governor general the power to issue writs of election for the first election. Section 43 allows for by-elections. Section 44 allows the house to elect its own speaker, and allows the house to replace the speaker in the case of death (Section 45) or prolonged absence (47), become a speaker is required to preside at all sitting of the house (46).

 
 
Quorum for the house was set at 20 members, including the speaker by Section 48. Section 49 says that the speaker cannot vote except in the case of a tied vote. The maximum term for a house is five years between elections under Section 50. Section 51 sets out the rules by which commons seats are to be redistributed following censuses, allowing for more seats to be added by section 52.
 
 
Money votes and royal assent
"Money bills" (dealing with taxes or appropriation of funds) must originate in the commons under section 53, and must be proposed by the governor general (i.e. the government) under section 54.

Section 55 specifies that all bills require royal assent.

Sections 56 and 57 allowed the governor general to "reserve" or the British government to "disallow" Canadian laws within three years of their passage.

Part V "Provincial constitutions"
The basic governing structures of the Canadian provinces are laid out in the part of the bill. Specific mentions are made to the four founding provinces, but the general pattern holds for all the provinces.

Executive power
Each province must have a lieutenant governor (Section 58), who serves at the pleasure of the governor general (Section 59), whose salary is paid by the federal parliament (Section 60), and who must swear an oath of allegiance (Section 61).

The powers of a lieutenant governor can be substituted for by an administrator of government (Sections 62 and 66).

All provinces also have an executive council (Sections 63 and 64).

The lieutenant governor can exercise executive power alone or "in council" (Section 65). The capital cities of the first four provinces were established by Section 66, but the Section also allows those provinces to change their capitals.

  Legislative power
Ontario and Quebec

Sections 69 and 70 established the Legislature of Ontario, comprising the lieutenant governor and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, and Sections 71 to 80 established the Parliament of Quebec, which at the time comprised the lieutenant governor, the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (renamed in 1968 to the National Assembly of Quebec), and the Legislative Council of Quebec (since abolished). The first sessions of both legislatures were set for six months after the passage of the bill (Section 81), and since that time they can regularly be summoned by the lieutenant governors (Section 82).
Section 83 prohibits provincial civil servants (excluding cabinet ministers) from sitting in the provincial legislatures. Section 84 allows for existing election laws and voting requirements to continue after the Union. Section 85 sets the life of each legislature as no more than four years, with a session at least once each twelve months under Section 86. Section 87 extends the rules regarding speakers, by-elections, quorum, etc. as set for the federal House of Commons to the legislatures of Ontario and Quebec.

Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Section 88 simply extends the pre-Union constitutions of those provinces into the post-Confederation era.

Other
Section 89 sets the times for the first provincial elections, and Section 90 extends the provisions regarding money votes, royal assent, reservation and disallowance, etc. as established for the federal parliament to the provincial legislatures.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Russia sells Alaska to U.S. for $7,200,000
 
 
Alaska Purchase
 

The Alaska Purchase was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate.

 
Russia wanted to sell its Alaskan territory, fearing that it might be seized if war broke out with Britain. Russia's primary activities in the territory had been fur trade and missionary work among the Native Alaskans. The land added 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km2) of new territory to the United States.

Reactions to the purchase in the United States were mixed, with some opponents calling it "Seward's Folly" (after Secretary of State William H. Seward), while many others praised the move for weakening both Britain and Russia as rivals to American commercial expansion in the Pacific region. The purchase threatened British control of its Pacific coast colony, giving added impetus to Canadian Confederation, which was realized just three months later, in July 1867. The Dominion of Canada would welcome British Columbia to confederation in 1871, ending US hopes of annexation and an uninterrupted connection of Alaska to the United States.

Originally organized as the Department of Alaska, the area was renamed the District of Alaska and the Alaska Territory before becoming the modern state of Alaska upon being admitted to the Union as a state in 1959.

 
 
Background
Russia was in a difficult financial position and feared losing Russian America without compensation in some future conflict, especially to the British, whom they had fought in the Crimean War (1853–1856). While Alaska attracted little interest at the time, the population of nearby British Columbia started to increase rapidly a few years after hostilities ended, with a large gold rush there prompting the creation of a British crown colony on the mainland in addition to the one that was already established on Vancouver Island, where the French and British fleets had retreated after the Battle of Petropavlovsk in the Russian Far East.

The Russians decided that in any future war with Britain, their hard-to-defend colony might become a prime target, and would be easily captured. Therefore, the Russian emperor, Alexander II, decided to sell the territory. Perhaps in the hope of starting a bidding war, both the British and the Americans were approached. However, the British expressed little interest in buying Alaska. In 1859 the Russians offered to sell the territory to the United States, hoping that its presence in the region would offset the plans of Russia's greatest regional rival, Great Britain. However, no deal was reached, as the risk of an American Civil War was a more pressing concern in Washington.

Grand Duke Konstantin, a younger brother of the Tsar, began to press for the handover of Russian America to the United States in 1857. In a memorandum to Foreign Minister Alexander Gorchakov he stated that "we must not deceive ourselves and must foresee that the United States, aiming constantly to round out their possessions and desiring to dominate undividedly the whole of North America will take the afore-mentioned colonies from us and we shall not be able to regain them."

 
The first page of Tsar Alexander II's ratification of the treaty. This page just contains the Tsar's full style. Commons-logo.svg Wikimedia Commons has a file available for full text of ratification.
 
 
This proposal was a topic in the higher echelons of the Russian government throughout 1857 and 1858. Konstantin's letter was shown to his brother, Tsar Alexander II, who wrote "this idea is worth considering" on the front page. Supporters of Konstantin's proposal to immediately withdraw from North America included Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl. Gorchakov agreed with the necessity of abandoning Russian America, but argued for a gradual process leading to its sale. He found a supporter in the naval minister and former chief manager of the Russian-American Company (RAC), Ferdinand von Wrangel. Wrangel pressed for some proceeds to be invested in the economic development of Kamchatka and the Amur Basin. The Emperor eventually sided with Gorchakov, deciding to postpone negotiations until the end of the RAC's patent, set to expire in 1861.
 
 
Over the winter of 1859-1860 De Stoeckl held meetings with American officials, though he had been instructed not to initiate discussions about the sale of the RAC assets. Communicating primarily with Assistant Secretary of State John Appleton and Senator William M. Gwin, De Stoeckl reported the interest expressed by the Americans in acquiring Russian America. While President James Buchanan kept these hearings informal, preparations were made for further negotiations. Senator Gwin tendered a hypothetical offer of five million dollars for the Russian colony, a figure Gorchakov found far too low. De Stoeckl informed Appleton and Gwin of this, the latter saying that his Congressional colleagues in Oregon and California would support a larger figure. Buchanan's increasingly unpopular presidency forced the matter to be shelved until a new presidential election. With the oncoming American Civil War, De Stoeckl proposed a renewal of the RAC's charter. Two of its ports were to be open to foreign traders and commercial agreements with Peru and Chile to be signed to give "a fresh jolt" to the company.

Additionally, the Russian Crown sought to repay money to its landowners after its emancipation reform of 1861 and borrowed 15 million pounds sterling from Rothschilds at 5% annually. When the time came to repay the loan, the Russian government was short of funds.

Russia continued to see an opportunity to weaken British power by causing British Columbia, including the Royal Navy base at Esquimalt, to be surrounded or annexed by American territory. Following the Union victory in the civil war, the Tsar instructed the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl, to re-enter into negotiations with William Seward in the beginning of March 1867. President Johnson was entangled in negotiations about reconstruction and Seward had alienated a number of Republicans, they believed that the purchase would help divert attention from the current domestic matters. The negotiations concluded after an all-night session with the signing of the treaty at 04:00 on March 30, 1867, with the purchase price set at $7.2 million, or about 2 cents per acre ($4.74/km2).

American public opinion was not universally positive; to some the purchase was known as "Seward's folly", or "Seward's icebox". American public opinion was not universally positive; to some the purchase was known as "Seward's folly", or "Seward's icebox".

  Newspaper editorials contended that taxpayer money had been wasted on a "Polar bear garden". Nonetheless, most newspaper editors argued that the U.S. would probably derive great economic benefits from the purchase; friendship with Russia was important; and it would facilitate the acquisition of British Columbia. Forty-five percent of newspapers endorsing the purchase cited the increased potential for annexing British Columbia in their support. It has been argued by Preston Jones of John Brown University that Seward's Folly is a myth. He shows that media accounts were generally positive about the Alaska Purchase and that the issue was after the purchase, many people in Alaska were unhappy with the neglect from the Federal Government to the new territory and they kept repeating a few of the same negative quotes from the time. In Harper's Monthly, W. H. Dall in 1872 published that "...there can be no doubt that the feelings of a majority of the citizens of the United States are in favor of it..." while referring to purchasing the territories of Russia in America. A review of dozens of newspapers of the day reveals general support for the purchase, especially in California and most of the 48 major newspapers supported the purchase at the time. Historian Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer summarized the minority opinion of some American newspaper editors who opposed the purchase:

Already, so it was said, we were burdened with territory we had no population to fill. The Indians within the present boundaries of the republic strained our power to govern aboriginal peoples. Could it be that we would now, with open eyes, seek to add to our difficulties by increasing the number of such peoples under our national care? The purchase price was small; the annual charges for administration, civil and military, would be yet greater, and continuing. The territory included in the proposed cession was not contiguous to the national domain. It lay away at an inconvenient and a dangerous distance. The treaty had been secretly prepared, and signed and foisted upon the country at one o'clock in the morning. It was a dark deed done in the night… The New York World said that it was a "sucked orange." It contained nothing of value but furbearing animals, and these had been hunted until they were nearly extinct. Except for the Aleutian Islands and a narrow strip of land extending along the southern coast the country would be not worth taking as a gift… Unless gold were found in the country much time would elapse before it would be blessed with Hoe printing presses, Methodist chapels and a metropolitan police. It was "a frozen wilderness."

 
 
American ownership
With the purchase of Alaska, negotiated by Secretary Seward, the United States acquired an area twice as large as Texas, but it was not until the great Klondike gold strike in 1896 that Alaska came to be seen generally as a valuable addition to American territory.

Senator Charles Sumner, as chair of the Foreign Relations Committee, sponsored the bill. He told the nation that the Russians estimated that Alaska contained about 2,500 Russians and those of mixed race (that is, a Russian father and native mother), and 8,000 indigenous people, in all about 10,000 people under the direct government of the Russian fur company, and possibly 50,000 Inuit and Alaska Natives living outside its jurisdiction. The Russians were settled at 23 trading posts, placed at accessible islands and coastal points. At smaller stations only four or five Russians were stationed to collect furs from the natives for storage and shipment when the company's boats arrived to take it away. There were two larger towns. New Archangel, now named Sitka, had been established in 1804 to handle the valuable trade in the skins of the sea otter and in 1867 contained 116 small log cabins with 968 residents. St. Paul in the Pribilof Islands had 100 homes and 283 people and was the center of the seal fur industry.

An Aleut name, "Alaska", was chosen by the Americans. This name had earlier, in the Russian era, denoted the Alaska Peninsula, which the Russians had called Alyaska (also Alyaksa is attested, especially in older sources).

The seal fishery was one of the chief considerations that induced the United States to purchase Alaska. It provided considerable revenue to the United States by the lease of the privilege of taking seals, in fact an amount in excess of the price paid for Alaska. From 1870 to 1890, the seal fisheries yielded 100,000 skins a year. The company to which the administration of the fisheries was entrusted by a lease from the U.S. government paid a rental of $50,000 per annum and in addition thereto $2.62½ per skin for the total number taken. The skins were transported to London to be dressed and prepared for world markets. The business grew so large that the earnings of English laborers after the acquisition of Alaska by the United States amounted by 1890 to $12,000,000.

However, exclusive U.S. control of this resource was eventually challenged, and the Bering Sea Controversy resulted when the United States seized over 150 sealing ships flying the British flag, based out of the coast of British Columbia. The conflict between the United States and Great Britain was resolved by an arbitration tribunal in 1893. The waters of the Bering Sea were deemed to be international waters, contrary to the U.S.'s contention that they were an internal sea. The U.S. was required to make a payment to Great Britain, and both nations were required to follow regulations which were developed to preserve the resource.

  Transfer ceremony
The transfer ceremony took place in Sitka on October 18, 1867. Russian and American soldiers paraded in front of the governor's house; the Russian flag was lowered and the American flag raised amid peals of artillery.

A description of the events was published in Finland six years later, written by a blacksmith named T. Ahllund, who had been recruited to work in Sitka only less than two years previously.

“ We had not spent many weeks at Sitka when two large steam ships arrived there, bringing things that belonged to the American crown, and a few days later the new governor also arrived in a ship together with his soldiers. The wooden two-story mansion of the Russian governor stood on a high hill, and in front of it in the yard at the end of a tall spar flew the Russian flag with the double-headed eagle in the middle of it. Of course, this flag now had to give way to the flag of the United States, which is full of stripes and stars.

On a predetermined day in the afternoon a group of soldiers came from the American ships, led by one who carried the flag. Marching solemnly, but without accompaniment, they came to the governor's mansion, where the Russian troops were already lined up and waiting for the Americans. Now they started to pull the [Russian double-headed] eagle down, but — whatever had gone into its head — it only came down a little bit, and then entangled its claws around the spar so that it could not be pulled down any further.

A Russian soldier was therefore ordered to climb up the spar and disentangle it, but it seems that the eagle cast a spell on his hands, too — for he was not able to arrive at where the flag was, but instead slipped down without it. The next one to try was not able to do any better; only the third soldier was able to bring the unwilling eagle down to the ground. While the flag was brought down, music was played and cannons were fired off from the shore; and then while the other flag was hoisted the Americans fired off their cannons from the ships equally many times. After that American soldiers replaced the Russian ones at the gates of the fence surrounding the Kolosh [i.e. Tlingit] village. ”


When the business with the flags was finally over, Captain of 2nd Rank Aleksei  Alekseyevich Peshchurov said: "General Rousseau, by authority from His Majesty, the Emperor of Russia, I transfer to the United States the territory of Alaska." General Lovell Rousseau accepted the territory. (Peshchurov had been sent to Sitka as commissioner of the Russian government in the transfer of Alaska.)

A number of forts, blockhouses and timber buildings were handed over to the Americans. The troops occupied the barracks; General Jefferson C. Davis established his residence in the governor's house, and most of the Russian citizens went home, leaving a few traders and priests who chose to remain.

 
 

The signing of the Alaska Treaty of Cessation on March 30, 1867. L–R: Robert S. Chew, William H. Seward, William Hunter, Mr. Bodisco, Eduard de Stoeckl, Charles Sumner and Frederick W. Seward.
 
 
Aftermath
After the transfer, a number of Russian citizens remained in Sitka, but very soon nearly all of them decided to return to Russia, which was still possible to do at the expense of the Russian-American Company. Ahllund's story "corroborates other accounts of the transfer ceremony, and the dismay felt by many of the Russians and creoles, jobless and in want, at the rowdy troops and gun-toting civilians who looked on Sitka as merely one more western frontier settlement." Ahllund gives a vivid account of what life was like for civilians in Sitka under U.S. rule, and it helps to explain why hardly any of the Russian subjects wanted to stay there. Moreover, Ahllund's article is the only known description of the return voyage on the Winged Arrow, a ship especially purchased in order to transport the Russians back to their native country. "The over-crowded vessel, with crewmen who got roaring drunk at every port, must have made the voyage a memorable one." Ahllund mentions stops at the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands, Tahiti, Brazil, London, and finally Kronstadt, the port for St. Petersburg, where they arrived on August 28, 1869.
 
 
Financial return
Economist David R. Barker has argued that the U.S. federal government has not earned a positive financial return on the purchase of Alaska. According to Barker, tax revenue and mineral and energy royalties to the federal government have been less than federal costs of governing Alaska plus interest on the borrowed funds used for the purchase.

John M. Miller has taken the argument further, contending that U.S. oil companies that developed Alaskan petroleum resources did not earn profits sufficient to compensate for the risks they have incurred.

Other economists and scholars, including Scott Goldsmith and Terrence Cole, have criticized the metrics used to reach those conclusions, noting that most continental Western states would fail to meet the bar of "positive financial return" using the same criteria and contending that looking at the increase in net national income, instead of simply U.S. Treasury revenue, paints a much more accurate picture of the financial return of Alaska as an investment.

  Alaska Day
Alaska Day celebrates the formal transfer of Alaska from Russia to the United States, which took place on October 18, 1867.

The October 18, 1867 date is by the Gregorian calendar, which came into effect in Alaska the following day to replace the Julian calendar used by the Russians (the Julian calendar in the 19th century was 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar). For the selling party back in the Russia's capital city of St Petersburg, where the next day already started due to nearly 12 hours clock time difference, the handover occurred on October 7, 1867 (not 6th) of St. Petersburg time and date under the Julian calendar.

The official celebration of the October 18 Alaska Day is held in Sitka, where schools release students early, many businesses close for the day, and events such as a parade and reenactment of the flag raising are held.

Alaska Day is also a holiday for all state workers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
North German Confederation
 
The North German Confederation (1867–1871) was a federation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.
 
It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the later German Empire (1871–1918), when several south German states such as Bavaria joined.

After several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation (founded in 1815), the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies.

It came to war between those states on one hand and states such as Austria on the other.

After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia and its allies founded the North German Federation.

At first, it was a military alliance between independent states (August-Bündnis), but the states already had the intention to later form a federation or confederation with a constitution.

This was realised in 1867.

The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany; many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire.
 
The North German Confederation (red). The southern German states that joined in 1870 to form the German Empire are in orange. Alsace-Lorraine, the territory annexed following the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, is in tan. The red territory in the South marks the original princedom of the House of Hohenzollern, rulers of the Kingdom of Prussia.
 
 
Until the constitution of 1867
In 1815, after the final defeat of Napoleon, the German princes and free cities established the German Confederation as a loose successor of the former Holy Roman Empire. The sovereignty remained with the individual German states. There were several attempts to create a modern nation state, most prominently in the Revolution of 1848. A major issue in the struggle was the rivalry between Austria, the traditional principal power in Germany, and the ascending Prussia. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 demonstrated the military superiority of Prussia, led by its ingenious and energetic minister-president Otto von Bismarck.
 
 
After the war Prussia annexed most of its adversaries' territories north of the river Main, such as the Kingdom of Hanover, and with the other North German states it signed on 18 August the North German Confederation Treaty. The alliance had 15 members then, with 80 percent of the inhabitants living in Prussia. (A notable exclave of the North German Confederation was the Prussian territory of Hohenzollern in the south.) Hesse-Darmstadt was part of the new Confederation only with its northern part. A South German Confederation, as mentioned in the Peace of Prague, did not come into existence.

From the beginning the alliance was supposed to become a nation state with a federal constitution. On 15 December 1866, Bismarck presented a proposal to the representatives of the allied governments. Their complaints did not seriously alter the proposal. On 7 February 1867, the common proposal of the governments was ready. It was the intention not to impose the new constitution but to stipulate it together with a representation of the people. To this end a konstituierender North German parliament was elected on 12 February. This Norddeutscher Reichstag accepted the constitution, with relatively minor changes, on 16 April 1867. It became law on 1 July. Consequently, a new Reichstag was elected, the only one during the (following) existence of the North German Confederation. Bismarck became the first and only North German Bundeskanzler, the head of the executive.

  Four years of legislation
The constitution opened the Confederation for the south German states to join. But in the situation of 1866/1867, France would not have accepted such an enlargement of Prussia's power. Bismarck, shortly after the war with Austria and amid negotiations about the constitution, could not afford a military conflict with France.

During the roughly four years of the North German Confederation its major action existed in legislation unifying Northern Germany. The Reichstag decided on laws concerning (e.g.):

-free movement of the citizens within the territory of the Confederation (1867)
-a common postal system (1867/1868)
-common passports (1867)
-Prussian military laws replacing local military regulation (1867)
-equal rights for the different denominations (1869)

The North German Confederation became a member of the Zollverein, the German customs union of 1834.

After negotiations in 1867, on 1 January 1868 it was transformed to a closer organisation with new institutions: a council for the governments and a parliament. Bismarck hoped that the Zollverein might become the vehicle of German unification. But in the 1868 Zollverein elections the South Germans voted mainly for anti-Prussian parties.

 
 

The North German Confederation (borders in red; Kingdom of Prussia in blue).
 
 
German Empire
In mid-1870, a diplomatic crisis concerning the Spanish throne led eventually to the Franco-Prussian War. During the war, in November 1870, the North German Confederation and the south German states of Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden (together with parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which had not originally joined the confederation) united to form a new nation state. It was originally called Deutscher Bund (German Confederation), but on 10 December 1870 the Reichstag of the North German Confederation adopted the name Deutsches Reich (German Realm or German Empire) and granted the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia as President of the Confederation. During the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. A new Reichstag was elected on 3 March 1871. The 16 April 1871 constitution of the Empire was nearly identical to that of the North German Confederation and the Empire adopted the North German Confederation's flag.
 
 

First session of the (then still provisional) Reichstag on the 24 February 1867
 
 

Political system
The North German Constitution of 16 April 1867 created a national parliament with universal suffrage (for men above the age of 25), the Reichstag. Another important organ was the Bundesrat, the 'federal council' of the representatives of the allied governments. To adopt a law, a majority in the Reichstag and in the Bundesrat was necessary. This gave the allied governments, meaning the states and their princes, an important veto.

Executive power was vested in a president, a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the ruling family of Prussia. He was assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him — an office that Bismarck designed with himself in mind. There was no formal cabinet; the heads of the departments were not called ministers but secretaries. Those were installed and dismissed by the chancellor.

For all intents and purposes, the confederation was dominated by Prussia. It had four-fifths of the confederation's territory and population — more than the other 21 members combined. The presidency was a hereditary office of the Prussian crown. Bismarck was also foreign minister of Prussia, a post he held for virtually his entire career. In that role he instructed the Prussian deputies to the Bundesrat. Prussia had 17 of 43 votes in the Bundesrat despite being by far the largest state, but could easily get a majority by making alliances with the smaller states.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
 
Reform Act of 1867
 

The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 102 (known informally as the Reform Act of 1867 or the Second Reform Act) was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised part of the urban male working class in England and Wales for the first time.

Before the Act, only one million of the seven million adult males in England and Wales could vote; the Act immediately doubled that number. Moreover, by the end of 1868 all male heads of household were enfranchised as a result of the end of compounding of rents. However, the Act introduced only a negligible redistribution of seats. The overall intent was to help the Conservative Party, yet it resulted in their loss of the 1868 general election.

 
Background
For the decades after the Great Reform Act of 1832, cabinets, in that era leading from both Houses, had resisted attempts to push through further reform, and in particular left unfulfilled the six demands of the Chartist movement.

After 1848, this movement declined rapidly, and elite opinion began to change. It was thus only 28 years after the initial, quite modest, Great Reform Act that leading politicians thought it prudent to introduce further electoral reform. John Russell attempted this in 1860, but the Prime Minister, a fellow Liberal, Lord Palmerston was against any further electoral reform. When Palmerston died in 1865, however, the floodgates for reform were opened.

The Union victory in the American Civil War in 1865 emboldened the forces in Britain that demanded more democracy and public input into the political system, to the dismay of the upper class landed gentry who identified with the US Southern States planters and feared the loss of influence and a popular radical movement. Influential commentators included Walter Bagehot, Thomas Carlyle, Anthony Trollope and John Stuart Mill.

  In 1866, Prime Minister Earl Russell (as John became) introduced a Reform Bill. It was a cautious bill, which proposed to enfranchise "respectable" working men, excluding unskilled workers and what was known as the "residuum", those seen by MPs as the "feckless and criminal" poor. This was ensured by a £7 householder qualification, which had been calculated to require an income of 26 shillings a week [n 1]. This entailed two "fancy franchises," emulating measures of 1854, a £10 lodger qualification for the boroughs, and a £50 savings qualification in the counties. Liberals claimed that 'the middle classes, strengthened by the best of the artisans, would still have the preponderance of power'.

When it came to the vote, however, this bill split the Liberal Party: a split partly engineered by Benjamin Disraeli, who incited those threatened by the bill to rise up against it. On one side were the reactionary conservative Liberals, known as the Adullamites; on the other were pro-reform Liberals who supported the Government. The Adullamites were supported by Tories and the liberal Whigs were supported by radicals and reformists.

The bill was thus defeated and the Liberal government of Russell resigned.

 
 
Birth of the Act
The Conservatives formed a ministry on 26 June 1866, led by Lord Derby as Prime Minister and Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer. They were faced with the challenge of reviving Conservatism: Palmerston, the powerful Liberal leader, was dead and the Liberal Party split and defeated. Thanks to manoeuvring by Disraeli, Derby's Conservatives saw an opportunity to be a strong, viable party of government; however, there was still a Liberal majority in the House of Commons. The Adullamites, led by Robert Lowe, had already been working closely with the Conservative Party. The Adullamites were anti-reform, as were the Conservatives, but the Adullamites declined the invitation to enter into Government with the Conservatives as they thought that they could have more influence from an independent position. Despite the fact that he had blocked the Liberal Reform Bill, in February 1867, Disraeli introduced his own Reform Bill into the House of Commons.

By this time the attitude of many in the country had ceased to be apathetic regarding reform of the House of Commons. Huge meetings especially the 'Hyde Park riots' and the feeling that many of the skilled working class were respectable had persuaded many that there should be a Reform Bill. However, wealthy Conservative MP Lord Cranborne[n 2] resigned his government ministry in disgust at the bill's introduction.

The Reform League, agitating for universal suffrage, became much more active and organized demonstrations of hundreds of thousands of people in Manchester, Glasgow and other towns.

 
Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone at The Derby, parodying the perceived victor in debates in a split Liberal-led Commons while Disraeli's fellow Conservative, Lord Derby led as Prime Minister from the House of Lords.
 
 
Though these movements did not normally use revolutionary language like some Chartists had in the 1840s, they were powerful movements. The high point came when a demonstration in May 1867 in Hyde Park was banned by the government. Thousands of troops and policemen were prepared, but the crowds were so huge that the government did not dare to attack. The Home Secretary, Spencer Walpole, was forced to resign.
 
 

A Punch cartoon from August 1867 portraying the bill as a leap in the dark
 
 
Faced with the possibility of popular revolt going much further, the government rapidly included into the bill amendments which enfranchised far more people. Consequently, the bill was more far-reaching than any Members of Parliament had thought possible or really wanted; Disraeli appeared to accept most reform proposals so long as they did not come from William Ewart Gladstone. An amendment tabled by the opposition (but not Gladstone himself) trebled the new number eligible to vote under the bill, yet Disraeli simply accepted it. The bill enfranchised most men who lived in urban areas. The final proposals were as follows: a borough franchise for all who paid rates in person (that is, not compounders), and extra votes for graduates, professionals and those with over £50 savings. These last "fancy franchises" were seen by Conservatives as a weapon against a mass electorate.

However, Gladstone attacked the bill; a series of sparkling parliamentary debates with Disraeli resulted in the bill being much more radical. Ironically, having been given his chance by the belief that Gladstone's bill had gone too far in 1866, Disraeli had now gone further.

Disraeli was able to persuade his party to vote for the bill on the basis that the newly enfranchised electorate would be grateful and vote Conservative at the next election. Despite this prediction, in 1868, the Conservatives lost the first general election in which the newly enfranchised voted.

The bill ultimately aided the rise of the radical wing of the Liberal Party and helped Gladstone to victory. The Act was tidied up with many further Acts to alter electoral boundaries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Bebel August - first socialist member of N. German Reichstag
 
 

August Bebel
 
 
 
1867
 
 
Battle of Mentana
 

The Battle of Mentana was fought on November 3, 1867 near the village of Mentana between French-Papal troops and the Italian volunteers led by Garibaldi Giuseppe, who were attempting to capture Rome, then the main centre of the peninsula still outside of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. The battle ended in a victory by the French-Papal troops.

 
Background
When the first Italian Parliament met in Turin, Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy was proclaimed King of Italy on March 17, 1861, and Rome was declared capital of Italy on March 27, 1861. However, the Italian government could not take its seat in Rome because Emperor Napoleon III maintained a French garrison there to prop up Pope Pius IX. This created an unstable political situation that led to much strife, both internal and external. In 1862 Giuseppe Garibaldi, the hero of the unification, organized an expedition from Sicily, under the slogan Roma o Morte (Rome or Death) that attempted to take Rome. However, after crossing the Straits of Messina, the expedition was stopped at Aspromonte (known as the Aspromonte incident of 1862) by Italian troops. Garibaldi was wounded, taken prisoner, but subsequently released. This act was forced on the Italian government by Napoleon III, who threatened military intervention if Garibaldi were not stopped.

On September 15, 1864, the September Convention was signed by the Italian government and Napoleon III. The Italian government agreed to protect the Papal States against external menaces and agreed to move the capital of Italy from Turin to Florence. The French garrison would be withdrawn from Rome within two years, during which time the Papal army would reorganize itself into a credible force. This unpopular agreement led to numerous riots (primarily in Turin which objected to its loss of status) and to renewed demands for the Italian government to take possession of its capital, Rome.

 
 
Garibaldi's expedition
On August 12, 1866, in the aftermath of the Third Italian War of Independence, Italy gained Mantua and Venice. Now only Rome and its neighbourhood were missing to complete the territorial unity of the state. In December of the same year, the last French battalions embarked from Civitavecchia to France.

On September 9, 1867, at a congress in Geneva, Garibaldi declared that the Papacy was "the negation of God ... shame and plague of Italy". At the time, his popularity was at its apex, since he was the only Italian general who had obtained significant successes during the last war against Austria. He was therefore left free to organize a small army of about 10,000 volunteers. The plan was to march against Rome, while a riot was to break out inside the city.

However, Garibaldi's overt moves allowed the French emperor Napoleon III to send a relief force in time to Rome. Apart from this official support, the Papal army was at the time composed mostly of French and European volunteers.

Invasion of Lazio
Garibaldi's volunteers invaded Lazio, the region that contains Rome, in October 1867. A small contingent, led by Enrico Cairoli with his brother Giovanni and 70 companions, made a daring attempt to take Rome. The group embarked in Terni and floated down the Tiber.

 
Gerolamo Induno: Il garibaldino.
 
 
Their arrival in Rome was to coincide with an uprising inside the city. On 22 October 1867, the revolutionaries inside Rome seized control of the Capitoline Hill and of Piazza Colonna. In the meantime, Giuseppe monti and Gaetano Tognetti let explode a mine under the caserma Serristori in Borgo, which was the seat of the Papal Zouaves, devastating the building and killing 27 persons. However, when the Cairoli and their companions arrived at Villa Glori, on the northern outskirts of Rome, the uprising had already been suppressed. During the night of 22 October 1867, the group was surrounded by Papal Zouaves, and Giovanni was severely wounded. Enrico was mortally wounded and bled to death in Giovanni's arms.

At the summit of Villa Glori, near the spot where Enrico died, there is a plain white column dedicated to the Cairoli brothers and their 70 companions. About 100 meters to the left from the top of the Spanish Steps, there is a bronze monument of Giovanni holding the dying Enrico in his arm. A plaque lists the names of their companions. Giovanni never recovered from his wounds and from the tragic events of 1867. According to an eyewitness, when Giovanni died on 11 September 1869:

In the last moments, he had a vision of Garibaldi and seemed to greet him with enthusiasm. I heard (so says a friend who was present) him say three times: "The union of the French to the Papal political supporters was the terrible fact!" he was thinking about Mentana. Many times he called Enrico, that he might help him! then he said: "but we will certainly win; we will go to Rome!

The last group of rebels inside Rome, in the quarter of Trastevere, was bloodily captured on October 25. The captured Roman rebels were executed in 1868.

Garibaldi with about 8,100 men, had reached the neighbourhood of Rome, occupying Tivoli, Acquapendente and Monterotondo. Here he halted his march, waiting for an insurrection which never occurred. Minor fights ensued, but without relevant results. Three days later he advanced on the Via Nomentana, in order to spur the rebels to action, but returned to Monterotondo the following day.

On the same day, Italian troops had crossed the boundary to halt the Garibaldine army, and a French force had disembarked in Civitavecchia.

 
 

The Battle of Mentana
 
 
Battle
In the first hours of November 3, the Papal troops, under general Hermann Kanzler, and the French expeditionary corps, under general Balthazar de Polhès, moved from Rome to attack Garibaldi's army along the Via Nomentana. The Allies were well trained and organized, and the French troops were armed with the new Chassepot rifle; Garibaldi's volunteers were less well organized, and nearly without any artillery or cavalry, apart a small squadron led by Garibaldi's son, Ricciotti.

The Papal vanguards met Garibaldi's volunteers about 1.5 km south of the village Mentana, midway from Rome to Monterotondo. The three battalions defending the position were quickly dislodged. However, Garibaldi's resistance stiffened in the fortified village, and repeated Papal attacks were all pushed back until nightfall. The situation changed when three companies of Zouaves occupied the road from Mentana and Monterotondo. Garibaldi intervened in person, but could not prevent his troops being routed. The survivors entrenched in the castle of Mentana; some surrendered the following morning, and others fled to Monterotondo.

On November 4 Garibaldi retreated to the Kingdom of Italy with 5,100 men. In Mentana, the monument Ara dei Caduti (Altar of the Fallen) is built over the mass grave of the Italian patriots who died in the battle.

Subsequently, a French garrison remained in Civitavecchia until August 1870, when it was recalled following the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Rome was captured by the Italian Army on September 20, 1870, finally giving Italy possession of its capital.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Mary of Teck
 

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Empress consort of India, as the wife of King-Emperor George V ( George V of Great Britain).

 
Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a member of the British Royal Family. She was informally known as "May", after her birth month. At the age of 24 she was betrothed to Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement he died unexpectedly of pneumonia. The following year she became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became King. Before her husband's accession she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall and Princess of Wales.

As queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill health and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war and the rise of socialism and nationalism. After George's death in 1936, she became queen mother when her eldest son, Edward, ascended the throne, but to her dismay he abdicated later the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, Albert, who succeeded to the throne as George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned.

 
 

Princess Victoria Mary shortly before her marriage to the Duke of York in 1893
  Early life
Princess Victoria Mary ("May") of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at Kensington Palace, London. Her father was Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel. She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Charles Thomas Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury, and her three godparents were Queen Victoria, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII and May's future father-in-law), and Princess Augusta, the Duchess of Cambridge. Before she became Queen, she was known to her family, friends and the public by the diminutive name of "May", after her birth month.

May's upbringing was "merry but fairly strict". She was the eldest of four children, the only girl, and "learned to exercise her native discretion, firmness and tact" by resolving her three younger brothers' petty boyhood squabbles. They played with their cousins, the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age. May was educated at home by her mother and governess (as were her brothers until they were sent to boarding schools). The Duchess of Teck spent an unusually long time with her children for a lady of her time and class, and enlisted May in various charitable endeavours, which included visiting the tenements of the poor.

 
 
Although her mother was a grandchild of King George III, May was only a minor member of the British Royal Family. Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth, and carried the lower royal style of Serene Highness because his parents' marriage was morganatic.[8] However, the Duchess of Teck was granted a parliamentary annuity of £5000, and received about £4000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge. Despite this, the family was deeply in debt and lived abroad from 1883, in order to economise. The Tecks travelled throughout Europe, visiting their various relations. They stayed in Florence, Italy, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries, churches, and museums.

In 1885, the Tecks returned to London, and took up residence at White Lodge, in Richmond Park. May was close to her mother, and acted as an unofficial secretary, helping to organise parties and social events. She was also close to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and wrote to her every week.
During the First World War, the Crown Princess of Sweden helped pass letters from May to her aunt, who lived in enemy territory in Germany until her death in 1916.

 
 
Engagements
In December 1891, May was engaged to her second cousin once removed, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. The choice of May as bride for the Duke owed much to Queen Victoria's fondness for her, as well as to her strong character and sense of duty. However, Albert Victor died six weeks later, in the worldwide influenza pandemic that swept through Britain in the winter of 1891–92.

Albert Victor's brother, Prince George, Duke of York, now second in line to the throne, evidently became close to May during their shared period of mourning, and Queen Victoria still favoured May as a suitable candidate to marry a future king. In May 1893, George proposed, and May accepted. They were soon deeply in love, and their marriage was a success. George wrote to May every day they were apart and, unlike his father, never took a mistress.

 
 

Princess Victoria Mary, Duchess of Cornwall and York, in Ottawa, 1901
  Duchess of York
May married Prince George, Duke of York, in London on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.

The new Duke and Duchess of York lived in York Cottage on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, and in apartments in St James's Palace. York Cottage was a modest house for royalty, but it was a favourite of George, who liked a relatively simple life. They had six children: Edward, Albert, Mary, Henry, George, and John.

The Duchess loved her children, but she put them in the care of a nanny, as was usual in upper-class families at the time. The first nanny was dismissed for insolence and the second for abusing the children.

This second woman, anxious to suggest that the children preferred her to anyone else, would pinch Edward and Albert whenever they were about to be presented to their parents, so that they would start crying and be speedily returned to her. On discovery, she was replaced by her effective and much-loved assistant, Charlotte Bill.

Sometimes, Mary appears to have been a distant mother. At first, she failed to notice the nanny's abuse of the young Princes Edward and Albert, and her youngest son, Prince John, was housed in a private farm on the Sandringham Estate, in the care of Mrs. Bill, perhaps to hide his epilepsy from the public.

However, despite her austere public image and her strait-laced private life, Mary was a caring mother in many respects, revealing a fun-loving and frivolous side to her children and teaching them history and music.

 
 
Edward wrote fondly of his mother in his memoirs: "Her soft voice, her cultivated mind, the cosy room overflowing with personal treasures were all inseparable ingredients of the happiness associated with this last hour of a child's day ... Such was my mother's pride in her children that everything that happened to each one was of the utmost importance to her. With the birth of each new child, Mama started an album in which she painstakingly recorded each progressive stage of our childhood". He expressed a less charitable view, however, in private letters to his wife after his mother's death: "My sadness was mixed with incredulity that any mother could have been so hard and cruel towards her eldest son for so many years and yet so demanding at the end without relenting a scrap. I'm afraid the fluids in her veins have always been as icy cold as they are now in death."

As Duke and Duchess of York, George and May carried out a variety of public duties. In 1897, she became the Patron of the London Needlework Guild in succession to her mother. The Guild, initially established as The London Guild in 1882, was renamed several times, and was named after May between 1914 and 2010. Samples of her own embroidery range from chair seats to tea cosies.

On 22 January 1901, Queen Victoria died, and May's father-in-law ascended the throne as King Edward VII. For most of the rest of that year, George and May were styled Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York. For eight months they toured the British Empire, visiting Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt, Ceylon, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, South Africa and Canada. No royal had undertaken such an ambitious tour before. She broke down in tears at the thought of leaving her children, who were to be left in the care of their grandparents, for such a long time.

 
 
Princess of Wales
On 9 November 1901, nine days after arriving back in Britain and on the King's sixtieth birthday, George was created Prince of Wales. The family moved their London residence from St James's Palace to Marlborough House. As Princess of Wales, May accompanied her husband on trips to Austria-Hungary and Württemberg in 1904. The following year, she gave birth to her last child, John. It was a difficult labour, and although May recovered quickly, her newborn son suffered respiratory problems.

From October 1905 the Prince and Princess of Wales undertook another eight-month tour, this time of India, and the children were once again left in the care of their grandparents. They passed through Egypt both ways and on the way back stopped in Greece. The tour was almost immediately followed by a trip to Spain for the wedding of King Alfonso XIII to Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, at which the bride and groom narrowly avoided assassination. Only a week after returning to Britain, May and George went to Norway for the coronation of George's brother-in-law and sister, King Haakon VII and Queen Maud.

 
 

The Queen with her daughter Mary during the First World War
  Queen consort
On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died. Mary's husband ascended the throne as King George V, and she became queen consort. When her husband asked her to drop one of her two official names, Victoria Mary, she chose to be called Mary, preferring not to take the name of her husband's grandmother, Queen Victoria.

Queen Mary was crowned with the King on 22 June 1911 at Westminster Abbey. Later in the year, the new King and Queen travelled to India for the Delhi Durbar held on 12 December 1911, and toured the sub-continent as Emperor and Empress of India, returning to Britain in February. The beginning of Mary's period as consort brought her into conflict with her mother-in-law, Queen Alexandra.
Although the two were on friendly terms, Alexandra could be stubborn; she demanded precedence over Mary at the funeral of Edward VII, was slow in leaving Buckingham Palace, and kept some of the royal jewels that should have been passed to the new Queen.

During the First World War, Queen Mary instituted an austerity drive at the palace, where she rationed food, and visited wounded and dying servicemen in hospital, which caused her great emotional strain.

After three years of war against Germany, and with anti-German feeling in Britain running high, the Russian Imperial Family, which had been deposed by a revolutionary government, was refused asylum, possibly in part because the Tsar's wife was German-born. News of the Tsar's abdication provided a boost to those in Britain who wished to replace their own monarchy with a republic.

 
 
After republicans used the couple's German heritage as an argument for reform, George abandoned his German titles and renamed the royal house from the German "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to the British "Windsor".

Other royals anglicised their names; the Battenbergs became the Mountbattens, for example. The Queen's relatives also abandoned their German titles, and adopted the British surname of Cambridge (derived from the Dukedom held by Queen Mary's British grandfather). The war ended in 1918 with the defeat of Germany and the abdication and exile of the Kaiser.
 
 

Queen Mary of the United Kingdom
  Two months after the end of the war, Queen Mary's youngest son, John, died at the age of thirteen. She described her shock and sorrow in her diary and letters, extracts of which were published after her death: "our poor darling little Johnnie had passed away suddenly ... The first break in the family circle is hard to bear but people have been so kind & sympathetic & this has helped us [the King and me] much."

Her staunch support of her husband continued during the latter half of his reign. She advised him on speeches, and used her extensive knowledge of history and royalty to advise him on matters affecting his position. He appreciated her discretion, intelligence and judgement. She maintained an air of self-assured calm throughout all her public engagements in the years after the war, a period marked by civil unrest over social conditions, Irish independence and Indian nationalism.

In the late 1920s, George V became increasingly ill with lung problems, exacerbated by his heavy smoking. Queen Mary paid particular attention to his care. During his illness in 1928, one of his doctors, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, was asked who had saved the King's life.

He replied, "The Queen". In 1935, King George V and Queen Mary celebrated their silver jubilee, with celebrations taking place throughout the British Empire. In his jubilee speech, George paid public tribute to his wife, having told his speechwriter, "Put that paragraph at the very end. I cannot trust myself to speak of the Queen when I think of all I owe her."

 
 
Queen mother
George V died on 20 January 1936, after his physician, Lord Dawson of Penn, gave him an injection of morphine and cocaine that may have hastened his death. Queen Mary's eldest son, Edward, Prince of Wales, ascended the throne as Edward VIII. She was now officially queen mother, though she did not use that title, and was instead known as Her Majesty Queen Mary.
 
 

King George V and Queen Mary
  Within the year, Edward caused a constitutional crisis by announcing his desire to marry his twice-divorced American mistress, Wallis Simpson. Mary disapproved of divorce, which was against the teaching of the Anglican church, and thought Simpson wholly unsuitable to be the wife of a king. After receiving advice from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin, as well as the Dominion governments, that he could not remain King and marry Simpson, Edward abdicated. Though loyal and supportive of her son, Mary could not comprehend why Edward would neglect his royal duties in favour of his personal feelings. Simpson had been presented formally to both King George V and Queen Mary at court, but Mary later refused to meet her either in public or privately. She saw it as her duty to provide moral support for her second son, the reserved and stammering Prince Albert, Duke of York, who ascended the throne on Edward's abdication, taking the name George VI. When Mary attended the coronation, she became the first British dowager queen to do so. Edward's abdication did not lessen her love for him, but she never wavered in her disapproval of his actions.

Mary took an interest in the upbringing of her granddaughters, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, and took them on various excursions in London, to art galleries and museums. (The Princesses' own parents thought it unnecessary for them to be taxed with any demanding educational regime.)

During the Second World War, George VI wished his mother to be evacuated from London. Although she was reluctant, she decided to live at Badminton House, Gloucestershire, with her niece, Mary Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort, the daughter of her brother Lord Cambridge.

 
 
Her personal belongings were transported from London in seventy pieces of luggage. Her household, which comprised fifty-five servants, occupied most of the house, except for the Duke and Duchess's private suites, until after the war. The only people to complain about the arrangements were the royal servants, who found the house too small, though Queen Mary annoyed her niece by having the ancient ivy torn from the walls as she considered it unattractive and a hazard. From Badminton, in support of the war effort, she visited troops and factories, and directed the gathering of scrap materials. She was known to offer lifts to soldiers she spotted on the roads. In 1942, her youngest surviving son, Prince George, Duke of Kent, was killed in an air crash while on active service. Mary finally returned to Marlborough House in June 1945, after the war in Europe had resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany.
 
 

Queen Mary of the United Kingdom
  Mary was an eager collector of objects and pictures with a royal connection. She paid above-market estimates when purchasing jewels from the estate of Dowager Empress Marie of Russia and paid almost three times the estimate when buying the family's Cambridge Emeralds from Lady Kilmorey, the mistress of her late brother Prince Francis.[53] In 1924, the famous architect Sir Edwin Lutyens created Queen Mary's Dolls' House for her collection of miniature pieces.[54] Indeed, she has sometimes been criticised for her aggressive acquisition of objets d'art for the Royal Collection. On several occasions, she would express to hosts, or others, that she admired something they had in their possession, in the expectation that the owner would be willing to donate it. Her extensive knowledge of, and research into, the Royal Collection helped in identifying artefacts and artwork that had gone astray over the years.[56] The Royal Family had lent out many objects over previous generations. Once she had identified unreturned items through old inventories, she would write to the holders, requesting that they be returned.

In 1952, King George VI died, the third of Queen Mary's children to predecease her; her eldest granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth, ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Mary died the next year of lung cancer (referred to publicly as "gastric problems"[58]) on 24 March 1953 at the age of 85, only ten weeks before her granddaughter's coronation. Mary let it be known that, in the event of her death, the coronation was not to be postponed. Her remains lay in state at Westminster Hall, where large numbers of mourners filed past her coffin. She is buried beside her husband in the nave of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 
 
Legacy
Sir Henry "Chips" Channon wrote that she was "above politics ... magnificent, humorous, worldly, in fact nearly sublime, though cold and hard. But what a grand Queen."

The ocean liners RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Mary 2; the Royal Navy battlecruiser, HMS Queen Mary, which was destroyed at the Battle of Jutland in 1916; Queen Mary University of London;[63] Queen Mary Reservoir in Surrey, United Kingdom; Queen Mary College, Lahore; Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong; Queen Mary's Peak, the highest mountain in Tristan da Cunha; Queen Mary Land in Antarctica; and Queen Mary's College in Chennai, India, are named in her honour.

Actresses who have portrayed Queen Mary on stage and screen include Dame Wendy Hiller (on the London stage in Crown Matrimonial), Dame Flora Robson (in A King's Story), Dame Peggy Ashcroft (in Edward & Mrs. Simpson), Phyllis Calvert (in The Woman He Loved), Gaye Brown (in All the King's Men), Dame Eileen Atkins (in Bertie and Elizabeth), Miranda Richardson (in The Lost Prince), Margaret Tyzack (in Wallis & Edward), Claire Bloom (in The King's Speech) and Judy Parfitt (in W.E.).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Baldwin Stanley
 

Stanley Baldwin, (born Aug. 3, 1867, Bewdley, Worcestershire, Eng.—died Dec. 14, 1947, Astley Hall, near Stourport-on-Severn, Worcestershire [now in Hereford and Worcester]), British Conservative politician, three times prime minister between 1923 and 1937; he headed the government during the General Strike of 1926, the Ethiopian crisis of 1935, and the abdication crisis of 1936.

 

Stanley Baldwin
  A relative of the author Rudyard Kipling and the painter Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Baldwin was the only son of Alfred Baldwin, chairman of the Great Western Railway and head of a large concern that included iron and steel manufactories and collieries. Young Baldwin was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He managed his father’s diversified heavy industries for several years. From 1908 to 1937 he was a member of the House of Commons.

In December 1916 he became parliamentary private secretary to Andrew Bonar Law, chancellor of the Exchequer in David Lloyd George’s World War I coalition ministry. From 1917 to 1921 Baldwin served as financial secretary of the treasury, and in 1921 he became president of the Board of Trade. In October 1922, Bonar Law and Baldwin induced a majority of the Conservative members of Parliament to repudiate Lloyd George’s coalition. Baldwin was then appointed chancellor of the Exchequer in the new Conservative government headed by Bonar Law. Sent to Washington, D.C., in January 1923 to settle the British World War I debt to the United States, Baldwin was widely criticized at home for negotiating terms less favourable to Great Britain than had been expected. When ill health forced Bonar Law to retire from his position, it nonetheless was Baldwin whom King George V asked, on May 22, 1923, to form a government. For six months, in the face of uneasy developments abroad, such as the Italian seizure of Corfu, and mounting unemployment at home, Baldwin’s government pursued a tranquil course. In October he appealed for a mandate to reverse Bonar Law’s free-trade policy; but a mandate was refused, and Baldwin’s first ministry ended Jan. 22, 1924.

 
 
Baldwin returned to office Nov. 4, 1924, following the downfall of the first Labour prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald. The economic reforms—including the restoration of the wartime McKenna duties (a 40-percent income tax and a 50-percent excess-profits tax), the gold standard, and the silk tax—proposed by Baldwin’s appointee to the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, failed to prevent a further slump in the coal trade. When the miners went on strike (May 4, 1926) and they were supported with sympathetic strikes in other vital industries, Baldwin proclaimed a state of emergency, organized volunteers to maintain essential services, and refused to negotiate further with labour until the strike was called off (it ended May 12, 1926). The following year he secured passage of the antiunion Trade Disputes Act.

A Conservative electoral defeat over the issues of unemployment and the Trade Disputes Act caused Baldwin to resign June 4, 1929.
 
 

Stanley Baldwin
  Returning to the government in 1931 as lord president of the council in MacDonald’s national coalition ministry, he promoted the 10 percent ad valorem tariff and the Ottawa agreements of 1932, which established economic protectionism and impelled numerous Liberal ministers to resign. Upon Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in Germany in 1933, Nazism first became recognized as an international threat. Because Baldwin feared the domestic political consequences of British rearmament and a firm foreign policy to meet that threat, he failed to act, later saying, “My lips were sealed.”

From June 7, 1935, to May 28, 1937, Baldwin once more was prime minister. In view of the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, the unopposed German reoccupation of the Rhineland, and German-Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War, he began to strengthen the military establishment while showing little outward concern. His government faced public outrage over the agreement (December 1935) between Sir Samuel Hoare, the British foreign secretary, and Pierre Laval, the French premier, to permit fascist Italy to have its way in Ethiopia. At home, the determination of the new king, Edward VIII, to marry an American divorcée, Wallis Warfield Simpson, endangered the prestige of the monarchy and perhaps the unity of the British Empire. Baldwin procured Edward’s abdication (Dec. 10, 1936) and satisfied public opinion. Five months later he resigned in favour of Neville Chamberlain, accepted an earldom, and retired from politics.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1867
 
 
Rathenau Walther
 

Walther Rathenau, (born September 29, 1867, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany]—died June 24, 1922, Berlin), German-Jewish statesman, industrialist, and philosopher who organized Germany’s economy on a war footing during World War I and, after the war, as minister of reconstruction and foreign minister, was instrumental in beginning reparations payments under the Treaty of Versailles obligations and in breaking Germany’s diplomatic isolation.

 

Walther Rathenau
  Rathenau was the son of Emil Rathenau, the founder of the immense Allgemeine-Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) combine. He studied philosophy, physics, chemistry, and engineering at Berlin and Strassburg (Strasbourg) and received his doctorate in 1889.

He subsequently held a number of executive positions in German industry and, at the outbreak of World War I, headed the AEG. One of the few German industrialists who realized that governmental direction of the nation’s economic resources would be necessary for victory, Rathenau convinced the government of the need for a War Raw Materials Department in the War Ministry.

As its head from August 1914 to the spring of 1915, he ensured the conservation and distribution of raw materials essential to the war effort.

He thus played a crucial part in Germany’s efforts to maintain its economic production in the face of the tightening British naval blockade.

He then returned to business and writing, but, when the collapse of the Western front became imminent in the autumn of 1918, he proposed a desperate levée en masse (“call to arms”) to turn defeat into victory.
 
 
After the war, Rathenau helped found the middle-class German Democratic Party and advocated a policy of cooperation with the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Convinced that the days of unrestricted capitalism were over, he advocated in his Die neue Wirtschaft (1918; “The New Economy”) industrial self-government combined with employee participation and effective state control rather than the wholesale nationalization of industry by the state.
 
 

Walther Rathenau
  Rathenau combined democratic convictions and a strong belief in international cooperation with economic experience and a knowledge of foreign countries.

He entered the government of Karl Joseph Wirth in May 1921 as minister of reconstruction, and in that post he initially advocated a policy of fulfillment of Germany’s obligations under the Treaty of Versailles as part of a general European reconstruction scheme.

On January 31, 1922, he became foreign minister. Although Western-oriented, on April 16, 1922, he negotiated with the Soviet Union the Treaty of Rapallo, which reestablished normal relations and strengthened economic ties between the two countries that had been outcasts from the concert of European powers. This affronted the Western Allies, since it marked the first time since the war’s end that Germany had asserted its position as an independent agent in international affairs.

Despite this diplomatic success, which was hailed by many Germans, Rathenau was increasingly reviled at home. To the extreme right he represented the whole German postwar system, which they hated, and he was also, as author of the Treaty of Rapallo, the promoter of “creeping communism.”

The extreme nationalists’ hatred of him was intensified by his being Jewish. Rathenau was assassinated on the way to his office by right-wing fanatics. His collected works were published in 1918.

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1867
 
 
Pilsudski Joseph
 

Józef Piłsudski, in full Józef Klemens Piłsudski (born December 5, 1867, Żułów, Poland, Russian Empire [now in Lithuania]—died May 12, 1935, Warsaw, Poland), Polish revolutionary and statesman, the first chief of state (1918–22) of the newly independent Poland established in November 1918. After leading a coup d’état in 1926, he rejected an offer of the presidency but remained politically influential while serving as minister of defense until 1935.

 

Józef Piłsudski
  Early life and political activities
Piłsudski was the second son of an impoverished Polish nobleman. His mother, née Maria Billewicz, inspired him with hatred for the Russian imperial regime, which was treating the Poles with great harshness after their insurrection of 1863.

On leaving the secondary school in Wilno (modern Vilnius), Piłsudski studied medicine at Kharkov in 1885 but was suspended as politically suspect in 1886. Returning to Wilno, he consorted with young socialists. Piłsudski was arrested in March 1887 on a false charge of plotting the assassination of the tsar Alexander III and was banished to eastern Siberia for five years.

Piłsudski returned in 1892, determined to organize an insurrection and to work for the reestablishment of Poland’s independence. He joined the newly founded Polish Socialist Party (PPS), of which he soon became a leader. He started a clandestine newspaper, Robotnik (“The Worker”), in Wilno.

In July 1899 he married, in a Protestant church, the beautiful Maria Juszkiewicz, the divorced wife of a Polish civil engineer, and moved to Łódź, where he continued to edit and print his paper.

In February 1900 he was incarcerated by the Russians in the Warsaw citadel. He feigned insanity so successfully that he was transferred to a military hospital in St. Petersburg, from which he escaped in May 1901. He took refuge in Kraków in Austrian Poland, but in April 1902 he was back in Russian Poland looking after the party organization.

 
 
When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in February 1904, Piłsudski went to Tokyo to solicit Japanese assistance for an insurrection in Poland. He had been preceded by Roman Dmowski, his rival in the nationalist movement, who had told the Japanese that Piłsudski’s plan was impracticable. The two Polish leaders agreed to disagree. Piłsudski returned clandestinely to Russian Poland to help direct the revolutionary movement that was spreading throughout the empire. After the Russian revolution was put down late in 1905, a split occurred within the PPS: the left wing, which proposed to delete from the party’s program the stipulation that its main aim was an independent Poland, broke with Piłsudski’s group, which insisted on that stipulation.
 
 

Józef Piłsudski
  Attempts to organize a Polish army
Aware of the Russian Empire’s structural weakness and foreseeing a European war, Piłsudski concluded that it was imperative to organize the nucleus of a future Polish army.

In 1908 he formed a secret Union of Military Action—financed with a sum of money stolen from a Russian mail train by an armed band led by Piłsudski himself.

In 1910, with the help of the Austrian military authorities, he was able to convert his secret union into a legal Union of Riflemen, actually a school for Polish officers. At a meeting of Polish sympathizers in Paris in 1914, he declared that war was imminent and that

the problem of the independence of Poland will be definitely solved only if Russia is beaten by Austria-Hungary and Germany, and Germany vanquished by France, Great Britain and the United States; it is our duty to bring that about.

World War I justified Piłsudski’s prediction. Until 1916 the three brigades of the Polish Legion, technically under Austro-Hungarian command, distinguished themselves against the Russians.

On November 5, 1916, Germany and Austria-Hungary, short of manpower, proclaimed the independence of Poland, hoping that Polish divisions could be deployed on the Eastern Front so that German divisions could be moved to the west.

 
 
Piłsudski, appointed head of the military department of the newly created Polish council of state, accepted the idea of a Polish army on condition that it be part of a sovereign Polish state. His position was unexpectedly reinforced by the Russian Revolution of March 1917.

The German government, however, refused to bind itself as to Poland’s future, demanding instead that the existing Polish units should swear “fidelity in arms with the German and Austrian forces.” Piłsudski, refusing to comply, was arrested in July 1917 and imprisoned in Magdeburg.
 
 

Józef Piłsudski, 1919
  An independent Poland
Released after the German collapse in the west, Piłsudski arrived in Warsaw on November 10, 1918, as a national hero.

Four days later he was unanimously accepted as head of state and commander in chief of the Polish army.

From that moment he ceased to be the man of a party, though his main support came from the left and from the centre; the right saw its leader in Dmowski, who had been heading the Polish National Committee in Paris and was now appointed by Piłsudski to be Poland’s first delegate at the peace conference, together with Ignacy Paderewski.

Piłsudski devoted himself to protecting Poland against the Russian Red Army, which was trying to fight its way into Germany in order to consolidate the revolution there.

He led the Polish forces far to the east, occupying large areas that had belonged to Poland before the 18th-century partitions.

He envisioned a federal state comprising Poles, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians, whereas Dmowski argued that these areas should simply be incorporated within a unitary Poland.

In 1920 a counteroffensive by the Red Army forced the Poles to retreat westward almost to the suburbs of Warsaw, but Piłsudski, made marshal of Poland on March 19, conceived and directed a maneuver that in August brought victory to Poland.

 
 
After the adoption of a democratic constitution and a new general election, Piłsudski transmitted his powers on December 14, 1922, to his friend Gabriel Narutowicz, the newly elected president of the republic, who two days later was assassinated. Stanisław Wojciechowski, another of Piłsudski’s old colleagues, was next elected president, the marshal agreeing to serve as chief of the general staff.
 
 

Józef Piłsudski, 1920
  When a right-wing government assumed power, Piłsudski resigned gradually from the functions he held and in 1923 went into retirement at Sulejówek, near Warsaw, with his second wife, née Aleksandra Szczerbińska, and his two daughters.

Piłsudski became disillusioned with the working of the parliamentary system. On May 12, 1926, during a time of political crisis and economic depression, he marched on Warsaw at the head of a few regiments, causing the government, including President Wojciechowski, to resign two days later.

The parliament elected Piłsudski president of the republic on May 31, but he refused the honour, and another of his old friends, Ignacy Mościcki, was elected instead.

In the new government Piłsudski assumed the Ministry of Defense, which he held until his death.

During the ensuing years he was the major influence behind the scenes in Poland, especially in the field of foreign policy.

Later years
With few exceptions, Piłsudski’s former socialist friends abandoned him and joined a centre-left coalition, which in the summer of 1930 started a mass campaign to overthrow his “dictatorship.”

Piłsudski’s reaction was ruthless; to “cleanse” political life, he had 18 party leaders arrested and imprisoned in the fortress of Brześć.
 
 
Though all of them were subsequently released, and their political parties were not dissolved, the country was ruled by Piłsudski’s men. The most prominent among them was Colonel Józef Beck, Piłsudski’s former chef de cabinet, who became deputy foreign minister in December 1930 and foreign minister in November 1932.
 
 

Marshal Piłsudski by Wojciech Kossak, 1928
  After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany on January 30, 1933, Piłsudski was compelled to accept Hitler’s suggestion of a 10-year German-Polish nonaggression agreement (January 24, 1934).

To show that Poland’s intentions were above suspicion, Beck was sent to Moscow in February, and the existing Soviet-Polish nonaggression treaty was prolonged to December 31, 1945. Later Hitler repeatedly suggested a German-Polish alliance against the U.S.S.R., but Piłsudski took no notice of the proposal; he also declined to meet with Hitler.
Piłsudski sought to gain time, believing that Poland should be ready to fight when the necessity arose. Such were the last instructions he gave to Beck. Shortly afterward he died in Warsaw of cancer of the liver. He was buried in a crypt of the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków, among Polish kings.

A romantic revolutionary, a great soldier without formal military training, a man of rare audacity and willpower as well as great insight into European politics, Piłsudski was nevertheless poorly equipped to rule a modern state. He left Poland undeveloped economically and with an army that was ready to fight heroically but was doomed because of its composition and inadequate armament.

Kazimierz Maciej Smogorzewski

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CONTENTS
  BACK-1866 Part IV NEXT-1867 Part II