Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1867 Part II NEXT-1867 Part IV    
1860 - 1869
History at a Glance
1860 Part I
Treaty of Turin
First Taranaki War
Convention of Peking
Secession of South Carolina
Poincare Raymond
The Church Union
1860 Part II
Barrie James Matthew
Boucicault Dion
Dion Boucicault: "The Colleen Bawn"
Collins Wilkie
Wilkie Collins: "The Woman in White"
Wilkie Collins 
"The Moonstone"
"The Woman in White"
George Eliot: "The Mill on the Floss"
Di Giacoma Salvatore
Labiche Eugene-Marin
Multatuli: "Max Havelaar"
Alexander Ostrovski: "The Storm"
Chekhov Anton
Anton Chekhov
"Uncle Vanya"
1860 Part III
Degas: "Spartan Boys and Girls Exercising"
Hunt: "Finding of the Saviour in the Temple"
Manet: "Spanish Guitar Player"
Ensor James
James Ensor
Mucha Alfons
Alfons Mucha
Levitan Isaak
Isaac Levitan
Steer Philip Wilson
Philip Wilson Steer
Mahler Gustav
Mahler - Das Lied von der Erde
Gustav Mahler
Paderewski Ignace
Paderewski - Minuet
Ignace Paderewski
Suppe Franz
Franz von Suppe - Das Pensionat
Franz von Suppe
Wolf Hugo
Hugo Wolf - "Kennst du das Land"
Hugo Wolf
MacDowell Edward
MacDowell - Piano Sonata No. 1 "Tragica"
Edward MacDowell
Albeniz Isaac
Albeniz - Espana
Isaac Albeniz
1860 Part IV
Fechner Gustav Theodor
Lenoir Etienne
Walton Frederick
Across the Continent
Burke Robert O'Hara
Wills William John
Stuart John McDouall
Grant James Augustus
"The Cornhill Magazine"
"The Catholic Times"
Heenan John Camel
Sayers Tom
The Open Championship
Park William
1861 Part I
Confederate States of America
Davis Jefferson
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
American Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Hatteras
The American Civil War, 1861
1861 Part II
Siege of Gaeta
Emancipation Manifesto
Louis I
1861 Part III
Dal Vladimir
Steiner Rudolf
Whitehead Alfred North
Charles Dickens: "Great Expectations"
Dostoevsky: "The House of the Dead"
George Eliot: "Silas Marner"
Oliver Wendell Holmes: "Elsie Venner"
Tagore Rabindranath
Charles Reade: "The Cloister and the Hearth"
Wood Ellen
Mrs. Henry Wood: "East Lynne"
Spielhagen Friedrich
Friedrich Spielhagen: "Problematische Naturen"
1861 Part IV
Garnier Charles
Anquetin Louis
Louis Anquetin
Godward John William
John William Godward
Bourdelle Antoine
Antoine Bourdelle
Korovin Konstantin
Konstantin Korovin
Maillol Aristide
Aristide Maillol
Melba Nellie
Royal Academy of Music, London
The Paris version "Tannhauser"
1861 Part V
Thallium (Tl)
Hopkins Frederick Gowland
Mort Thomas Sutcliffe
Nansen Fridtjof
Fermentation theory
Baker Samuel
Baker Florence
The Bakers and the Nile
Beeton Isabella
Harden Maximilian
First horse-drawn trams in London
Order of the Star of India
Otis Elisha Graves
1862 Part I
Battle of Fort Henry
Second Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Fredericksburg
Grey Edward
Briand Aristide
The American Civil War, 1862
1862 Part II
Rawlinson George
Ogai Mori
Ivan Turgenev: "Fathers and Sons"
Flaubert: "Salammbo"
Victor Hugo: "Les Miserables"
Barres Maurice
Maeterlinck Maurice
Hauptmann Gerhart
Wharton Edith
Schnitzler Arthur
Uhland Ludwig
1862 Part III
Albert Memorial, London
Manet: "Lola de Valence"
Manet: "La Musique aux Tuileries"
Nesterov Mikhail
Mikhail Nesterov
Klimt Gustav
Gustav Klimt
Rysselberghe Theo
Theo van Rysselberghe
Berlioz: "Beatrice et Benedict"
Debussy Claude
Debussy - Preludes
Claude Debussy
Delius Frederick
Frederick Delius - On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring
Frederick Delius
German Edward
Edward German - Melody in D flat major
Edward German
Kochel Ludwig
Kochel catalogue
Verdi: "La Forza del Destino"
1862 Part IV
Bragg William
Foucault Leon
Gatling Richard Jordan
Lamont Johann
Lenard Pnilipp
Sachs Julius
Palgrave William Gifford
The Arabian Desert
International Exhibition, London
1863 Part I
West Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Chancellorsville
Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address"
The American Civil War, 1863
1863 Part II
Isma'il Pasha
January Uprising
George I of Greece
Dost Mohammad Khan
Christian IX  of Denmark
Chamberlain Austen
Lloyd George David
Second Taranaki War
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
1863 Part III
Huxley: "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature"
Charles Lyell: "The Antiquity of Man"
Massachusetts Agricultural College
D'Annunzio Gabriele
Bahr Hermann
Dehmel Richard
Hale Edward Everett
Edward Everett Hale: "Man without a Country"
Hope Anthony
Charles Kingsley: "The Water Babies"
Longfellow: "Tales of a Wayside Inn"
Quiller-Couch Arthur
Stanislavsky Constantin
Stanislavsky system
1863 Part IV
Stuck Franz
Manet: "Dejeuner sur l'herbe"
Manet: "Olympia"
Meurent Victorine-Louise
The "Salon des Refuses" in Paris
Art in Revolt
Impressionism Timeline
Signac Paul
Paul Signac
Munch Edvard
Edvard Munch
Berlioz: "Les Troyens"
Bizet: "Les Pecheurs de perles"
Mascagni Pietro
Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana
Pietro Mascagni
Weingartner Felix
Felix von Weingartner: Symphony No 6
Felix Weingartner
1863 Part V
Billroth Theodor
Butterick Ebenezer
Ford Henry
Graham Thomas
National Academy of Sciences
Sorby Henry Clifton
The Football Association, London
Grand Prix de Paris
Hearst William Randolph
Yellow journalism
Pulitzer Joseph
History of photography
Alexandra of Denmark
Royce Henry
Cuthbert Ned
Coburn Joe
Mike McCoole
1864 Part I
Schleswig-Holstein Question
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
Halleck Henry
Sherman William
Sand Creek massacre
Venizelos Eleutherios
Maximilian II of Bavaria
Louis II
First International Workingmen's Association
Confederate Army of Manhattan
The American Civil War, 1864
1864 Part II
Lombroso Cesare
Newman: "Apologia pro Vita Sua"
Syllabus of Errors
Dickens: "Our Mutual Friend"
Karlfeldt Erik Axel
Trollope: "The Small House at Allington"
Wedekind Frank
Zangwill Israel
1864 Part III
Stieglitz Alfred
History of photography
Dyce William
William Dyce
Jawlensky Alexey
Alexei von Jawlensky
Ranson Paul
Paul Ranson
Serusier Paul
Paul Serusier
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
A More Tolerant Salon
Impressionism Timeline
Whistler: "Symphony in White, No. 2"
Roberts David
David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
D'Albert Eugen
Eugen d'Albert - Piano Concerto No.2
Eugen d’Albert
Foster Stephen
Stephen Foster - Beautiful Dreamer
Offenbach: "La Belle Helene"
Strauss Richard
Richard Strauss - Metamorphosen
Richard Strauss
Fry William Henry
William Henry Fry - Santa Claus Symphony
William Henry Fry - Niagara Symphony
1864 Part IV
Lake Albert
Bertrand Joseph
Nernst Walther
Wien Wilhelm
Rawat Nain Singh
The Surveyors
First Geneva Convention
Knights of Pythias
"Neue Freie Presse""
De Rossi Giovanni Battista
"In God We Trust"
Travers Stakes
Farragut David
1865 Part I
Union blockade in the American Civil War
Charleston, South Carolina in the American Civil War
Lee Robert Edward
Conclusion of the American Civil War
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Johnson Andrew
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War
Leopold II of Belgium
Harding Warren
George V of Great Britain
Ludendorff Erich
Free State–Basotho Wars
The American Civil War, 1865
1865 Part II
Baudrillart Henri
William Stanley Jevons: "The Coal Question"
Billings Josh
Belasco David
Campbell Patrick
Lewis Carroll: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
Dodge Mary Mapes
Mary Mapes Dodge: "Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates"
Kipling Rudyard
Rudyard Kipling
Merezhkovsky Dmitry
John Henry Newman: "Dream of Gerontius"
Mark Twain: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
Walt Whitman: "Drum-Taps"
Yeats William Butler
1865 Part III
Serov Valentin
Valentin Serov
Wiertz Antoine
Antoine Wiertz
Vallotton Felix
Felix Vallotton
"Olympia" - a Sensation
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Nielsen Carl
Carl Nielsen - Aladdin Suite
Carl Nielsen
Glazunov Alexander
Glazunov - The Seasons
Alexander Glazunov
Dukas Paul
Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier"
Paul Dukas
Meyerbeer: "L'Africaine"
Sibelius Jean
Jean Sibelius - Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde"
1865 Part IV
Plucker Julius
Hyatt John Wesley
Kekule: structure of benzene
Lowe Thaddeus
Mendelian inheritance
Sechenov Ivan
Whymper Edward
The High Andes
 Bingham Hiram
Rohlfs Friedrich Gerhard
Open hearth furnace
Martin Pierre-Emile
Ku Klux Klan
"The Nation"
Marquess of Queensberry Rules
"San Francisco Examiner"
"San Francisco Chronicle"
Mitchell Maria
1866 Part I
Cuza Alexandru
"Monstrous coalition"
Carol I
Austro-Prussian War
Battle of Custoza
Battle of Trautenau
Battle of Koniggratz
Battle of Lissa
Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869
MacDonald Ramsay
Sun Yat-sen
1866 Part II
Croce Benedetto
Soderblom Nathan
Larousse Pierre
Larousse: Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century
Friedrich Lange: "History of Materialism"
Benavente Jacinto
Dostoevsky: "Crime and Punishment"
Hamerling Robert
Ibsen: "Brand"
Kingsley: "Hereward the Wake"
Rolland Romain
Wells Herbert
H.G. Wells
"The War of the Worlds"

"The Invisible Man"
"A Short History of the World"
1866 Part III
Bakst Leon
Leon Bakst
Fry Roger
Kandinsky Vassili
Vassili Kandinsky
A Defender Appears
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Busoni Ferruccio
Ferruccio Busoni - Berceuse Elegiaque
Ferruccio Busoni
Offenbach: "La Vie Parisienne"
Smetana: "The Bartered Bride"
Satie Eric
Erik Satie: Nocturnes
Eric Satie
1866 Part IV
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Morgan Thomas Hunt
Nicolle Charles
Werner Alfred
Whitehead Robert
Whitehead torpedo
Doudart de Lagree Ernest
Panic of 1866
Thomas Morris
MacGregor John
1867 Part I
Manchester Martyrs
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
Alaska Purchase
North German Confederation
Reform Act of 1867
Battle of Mentana
Mary of Teck
Baldwin Stanley
Rathenau Walther
Pilsudski Joseph
1867 Part II
Bagehot Walter
Walter Bagehot: "The English Constitution"
Freeman Edward Augustus
Freeman: The History of the Norman Conquest of England
Marx: "Das Kapital"
Thoma Ludwig
Soseki Natsume
Russell George William
Reymont Wladislau
Bennett Arnold
Balmont Konstantin
Pirandello Luigi
Galsworthy John
Charles de Coster: "The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel"
Ouida: "Under Two Flags"
Trollope: "The Last Chronicle of Barset"
Turgenev: "Smoke"
Zola: "Therese Raquin"
Ibsen: "Peer Gynt"
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville
Kollwitz Kathe
Kathe Kollwitz
Nolde Emil
Emil Nolde
Bonnard Pierre
Pierre Bonnard
Manet's Personal Exhibition
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"
Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"
Toscanini Arturo
Verdi: "Don Carlos"
Granados Enrique
Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
Enrique Granados
1867 Part IV
Curie Marie
Michaux Pierre
Monier Joseph
Brenner Railway
Mining industry of South Africa
Thurn and Taxis
Chambers John Graham
London Athletic Club
Barnardo Thomas John
1868 Part I
British Expedition to Abyssinia
Battle of Magdala
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tenure of Office Act
Province of Hanover
Russian Turkestan
Mihailo Obrenovic III
Milan I of Serbia
Glorious Revolution
Horthy Nicholas
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
1868 Part II
International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
Charles Darwin: "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication"
Louisa May Alcott: "Little Women"
Robert Browning: "The Ring and the Book"
Wilkie Collins: "The Moonstone"
Dostoevsky: "The Idiot"
George Stefan
Gorki Maxim
Rostand Edmond
Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano De Bergerac"
1868 Part III
Bernard Emile
Emile Bernard
Vollard Ambroise
Slevogt Max
Max Slevogt
Vuillard Edouard
Edouard Vuillard
The Realist Impulse
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bantock Granville
Bantock "Overture The Frogs"
Granville Bantock
Brahms: "Ein deutsches Requiem"
Schillings Max
Max von Schillings: Mona Lisa
Max von Schillings
Wagner: "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg"
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1
1868 Part IV
Lartet Louis
Haber Fritz
Millikan Robert Andrews
Richards Theodore William
Scott Robert Falcon
Armour Philip Danforth
Badminton House
Garvin James Louis
Harmsworth Harold
Trades Union Congress
"Whitaker's Almanack"
Sholes Christopher Latham
1869 Part I
Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant
French legislative election, 1869
Prohibition Party
Red River Rebellion
Chamberlain Neville
Gandhi Mahatma
1869 Part II
Matthew Arnold: "Culture and Anarchy"
Eduard Hartmann: "The Philosophy of the Unconscious"
Mill: "On The Subjection of Women"
First Vatican Council
Blackmore Richard Doddridge
Blackmore: "Lorna Doone"
Flaubert: "Sentimental Education"
Gide Andre
Gilbert: "Bab Ballads"
Halevy Ludovic
Bret Harte: "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"
Victor Hugo: "The Man Who Laughs"
Leacock Stephen
Mark Twain: "The Innocents Abroad"
Tolstoy: "War and Peace"
1869 Part III
Lutyens Edwin
Poelzig Hans
Carus Carl Gustav
Carl Gustav Carus
Somov Konstantin
Konstantin Somov
Matisse Henri
Henri Matisse
Manet Falls Foul of the Censor
Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
Bruckner: Symphony No. 0
Pfitzner Hans
Pfitzner - Nachts
Hans Pfitzner
Wagner Siegfried
Siegfried Wagner "Prelude to Sonnenflammen"
Richard Wagner: "Das Rheingold"
Roussel Albert
Albert Roussel - Bacchus et Ariane
Albert Roussel
Wood Henry
1869 Part IV
Francis Galton: "Hereditary Genius"
Periodic law
Nachtigal Gustav
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Girton College, Cambridge
1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game
Co-operative Congress
Lesseps Ferdinand
Suez Canal

Verdi: "Don Carlos"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1867 Part III
Delville Jean
Jean Delville (b Leuven, 19 Jan 1867; d Brussels, 19 Jan 1953).

Jean Delville. Self-Portrait
  Belgian painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, with Jean-François Portaels and the Belgian painter Joseph Stallaert (1825–1903).

Among his fellow students were Eugène Laermans, Victor Rousseau and Victor Horta.

From 1887 he exhibited at L’Essor, where in 1888 Mother (untraced), which depicts a woman writhing in labour, caused a scandal.

Although his drawings of the metallurgists working in the Cockerill factories near Charleroi were naturalistic, from 1887 he veered towards Symbolism: the drawing of Tristan and Isolde (1887; Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.), in its lyrical fusion of the two bodies, reveals the influence of Richard Wagner.

Circle of the Passions (1889), inspired by Dante Alighieri’s Divina commedia, was burnt c. 1914; only drawings remain (Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.). Jef Lambeaux copied it for his relief Human Passions (1890–1900; Brussels, Parc Cinquantenaire).

Delville became associated with Joséphin Péladan, went to live in Paris and exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, created there by Péladan (1892–5). A devoted disciple of Péladan, he had his tragedies performed in Brussels and in 1895 painted his portrait (untraced).
He exhibited Dead Orpheus (1893; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), an idealized head, floating on his lyre towards reincarnation, and Angel of Splendour (1894; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), a painting of great subtlety.

Jean Delville. The Oracle at Dodona
Jean Delville
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Peter von Cornelius (Cornelius Peter), German painter, d. (b. 1783)

Peter von Cornelius
Peter von Cornelius
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique , French painter, d. (b. 1780)

Ingres, Self-portrait
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Kollwitz Kathe

Kathe Kollwitz, original name Käthe Schmidt (born July 8, 1867, Königsberg, East Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia]—died April 22, 1945, near Dresden, Germany), German graphic artist and sculptor who was an eloquent advocate for victims of social injustice, war, and inhumanity.


Kathe Kollwitz
  The artist grew up in a liberal middle-class family and studied painting in Berlin (1884–85) and Munich (1888–89). Impressed by the prints of fellow artist Max Klinger, she devoted herself primarily to graphic art after 1890, producing etchings, lithographs, woodcuts, and drawings. In 1891 she married Karl Kollwitz, a doctor who opened a clinic in a working-class section of Berlin. There she gained firsthand insight into the miserable conditions of the urban poor.

Kollwitz’s first important works were two separate series of prints, respectively entitled Weavers’ Revolt (c. 1894–98) and Peasants’ War (1902–08). In those works she portrayed the plight of the poor and oppressed with the powerfully simplified, boldly accentuated forms that became her trademark. The death of her youngest son in battle in 1914 profoundly affected her, and she expressed her grief in another cycle of prints that treat the themes of a mother protecting her children and of a mother with a dead child. From 1924 to 1932 Kollwitz also worked on a granite monument for her son, which depicted her husband and herself as grieving parents. In 1932 it was erected as a memorial in a cemetery near Ypres, Belgium.

Kollwitz greeted the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the German revolution of 1918 with hope, but she eventually became disillusioned with Soviet communism. During the years of the Weimar Republic, she became the first woman to be elected a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, where from 1928 to 1933 she was head of the Master Studio for Graphic Arts.

Kollwitz continued to devote herself to socially effective, easily understood art. The Nazis’ rise to power in Germany in 1933 led to her forced resignation from the academy.

Kollwitz’s last great series of lithographs, Death (1934–36), treats that tragic theme with stark and monumental forms that convey a sense of drama. In 1940 her husband died, and in 1942 her grandson was killed in action during World War II. The bombing of Kollwitz’s home and studio in 1943 destroyed much of her life’s work. She died a few weeks before the end of the war in Europe.

Kollwitz was the last great practitioner of German Expressionism and is often considered to be the foremost artist of social protest in the 20th century. A museum dedicated to Kollwitz’s work opened in Cologne, Germany, in 1985, and a second museum opened in Berlin one year later. The Diary and Letters of Kaethe Kollwitz was published in 1988.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outbreak. 1903
Kathe Kollwitz
  Art of the 20th century

Art of the 20th century Timeline (1900-1999)
Nolde Emil

Emil Nolde, original name Emil Hansen (born Aug. 7, 1867, Nolde, near Bocholt, Ger.—died April 15, 1956, Seebüll, near Niebüll, W.Ger.), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, and watercolourist known for his violent religious works and his foreboding landscapes.


Emil Nolde
  Born of a peasant family, the youthful Nolde made his living as a wood-carver. He was able to study art formally only when some of his early works were reproduced and sold as postcards.

In Paris Nolde began to paint works that bear a superficial affinity to Impressionistic painting. In 1906 he was invited to join Die Brücke, an association of Dresden-based Expressionist artists who admired his “storm of colour.” But Nolde, a solitary and intuitive painter, dissociated himself from that tightly knit group after a year and a half.

“Dance Around the Golden Calf” [Credit: Courtesy of the Nolde-Foundation; photograph, Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich]Fervently religious and racked by a sense of sin, Nolde created such works as Dance Around the Golden Calf (1910) and In the Port of Alexandria from the series depicting The Legend of St. Maria Aegyptica (1912), in which the erotic frenzy of the figures and the demonic, masklike faces are rendered with deliberately crude draftsmanship and dissonant colours.

In the Doubting Thomas from the nine-part polyptych The Life of Christ (1911–12), the relief of Nolde’s own religious doubts may be seen in the quiet awe of St. Thomas as he is confronted with Jesus’ wounds.
During 1913 and 1914 Nolde was a member of an ethnological expedition that reached the East Indies. There he was impressed with the power of unsophisticated belief, as is evident in his lithograph Dancer (1913).

Back in Europe, Nolde led an increasingly reclusive life on the Baltic coast of Germany. His almost mystical affinity for the brooding terrain led to such works as his Marsh Landscape (1916), in which the low horizon, dominated by dark clouds, creates a majestic sense of space. Landscapes done after 1916 were generally of a cooler tonality than his early works. But his masterful realizations of flowers retain the brilliant colours of his earlier works. He was a prolific graphic artist especially noted for the stark black-and-white effect that he employed in crudely incised woodcuts.

Nolde was an early advocate of Germany’s National Socialist Party, but, when the Nazis came to power, they declared his work “decadent” and forbade him to paint. After World War II he resumed painting but often merely reworked older themes. His last self-portrait (1947) retains his vigorous brushwork but reveals the disillusioned withdrawal of the artist in his 80th year.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Emil Nolde. Remote Girls

Emil Nolde
  Art of the 20th century

Art of the 20th century Timeline (1900-1999)
Rousseau Theodore , French painter, d. (b. 1812)

Théodore Rousseau
Theodore Rousseau
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Bonnard Pierre

Pierre Bonnard, (born October 3, 1867, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France—died January 23, 1947, Le Cannet), French painter and printmaker, member of the group of artists called the Nabis and afterward a leader of the Intimists; he is generally regarded as one of the greatest colourists of modern art. His characteristically intimate, sunlit domestic interiors and still lifes include The Dining Room (1913) and Bowl of Fruit (c. 1933).


Pierre Bonnard. Self-portrait (c. 1889)
  After taking his baccalaureate, in which he distinguished himself in classics, Bonnard studied law at the insistence of his father, and for a short time in 1888 he worked in a government office.

In the meantime he attended the École des Beaux-Arts, but, failing to win the Prix de Rome (a prize to study at the French Academy in Rome), he transferred to the Académie Julian, where he came into contact with some of the major figures of the new artistic generation—Maurice Denis, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Paul Sérusier, Édouard Vuillard, and Félix Vallotton.

In 1890, after a year’s military service, he shared a studio in Montmartre with Denis and Vuillard. Later they were joined by the theatrical producer Aurélien Lugné-Poë, with whom Bonnard collaborated on productions for the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre, in Paris. At this time he became influenced by Japanese prints, which had earlier attracted the Impressionists.

During the 1890s Bonnard became one of the leading members of the Nabis, a group of artists who specialized in painting intimate domestic scenes as well as decorative curvilinear compositions akin to those produced by painters of the contemporary Art Nouveau movement.

Bonnard’s pictures of charming interiors lighted by oil lamps, nudes on voluptuous beds, and Montmartre scenes made him a recorder of France’s Belle Époque.

It was typical of his humour and taste for urban life at the time that he illustrated Petites scènes familières and Petit solfège illustré (1893), written by his brother-in-law Claude Terrasse, and executed the lithograph series Quelques aspects de la vie de Paris (“Aspects of Paris Life”), which was issued by the art dealer Ambroise Vollard in 1899. He also contributed illustrations to the celebrated avant-garde review La Revue blanche. A new phase in book illustration was inaugurated with Bonnard’s decoration of the pages in Paul Verlaine’s book of Symbolist poetry, Parallèlement, published by Vollard in 1900. He undertook the illustration of other books during the 1900s.

Bonnard’s ability as a large-scale decorator is sometimes overlooked, in view of his more quiet, domestic paintings in the Intimist style. But about 1906 he painted Pleasure, Study, Play, and the Voyage, a series of four decorations made to resemble tapestries, for the salon of Misia Natanson, the wife of one of the editors of La Revue blanche. These pictures show that he was an heir to the French grand tradition of pictorial design that may be traced to Charles Le Brun, the director of all artistic activity under Louis XIV, and François Boucher, the most fashionable painter in the mid-18th century.

By about 1908 Bonnard’s Intimist period had concluded. A picture such as Nude Against the Light (1908) was painted not only on a bigger scale but also with broader and more colouristic effects. Because of his increasing interest in landscape painting, he had begun painting scenes in northern France. In 1910 he discovered the south of France, and he became the magical painter of this region. The Mediterranean was considered by many of the period to be a source of French civilization. Bonnard was eager to emphasize the connections between his art and France’s classical heritage. This was evident in the pose of certain of his figures, which hark back to ancient Hellenistic sculpture. He was also enamoured of the colouristic tradition of the 16th-century Venetian school. The Abduction of Europa (1919), for example, is in a direct line of descent from the work of Titian.

The subjects of Bonnard’s pictures are simple, but the means by which he rendered such familiar themes as a table laden with fruit or a sun-drenched landscape show that he was one of the most subtle masters of his day; he was particularly fascinated with tricks of perspective, as the Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne had been. In The Dining Room (1913), for example, he employed different levels of perspective and varied the transitions of tone, from warm to cool.

By about 1915 Bonnard realized that he had tended to sacrifice form for colour, so from that point until the late 1920s he painted nudes that reflect a new concern for structure without losing their strong colour values. In the 1920s he undertook a series of paintings on one of his most famous themes—a nude in a bath. From the end of the 1920s onward, the subject matter of his pictures hardly varied—still lifes, searching self-portraits, seascapes at Saint-Tropez on the Riviera, and views of his garden at Le Cannet, near Cannes, where he had moved in 1925 after marrying his model and companion of 30 years, Maria Boursin. These are paintings intense with colour.

The chronological order of Bonnard’s paintings is difficult to determine, for he would make sketches in pencil or colour and then use them as the basis for several pictures on which he would work simultaneously.

Pierre Bonnard. Woman with Dog. 1891
When working in the studio, he would rely on his memory of the subject and constantly retouch the surface, building up a mosaic of colours. It is impossible, therefore, to give more than approximate dates for many of his works. In 1944 Bonnard illustrated a group of early letters, which were published in facsimile under the appropriate title of Correspondances. Formes et couleurs.

Denys Sutton

Encyclopædia Britannica


Pierre Bonnard. Behind the Fence.1895
Pierre Bonnard
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
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Cezanne Paul : "The Rape"

Paul Cezanne: "The Rape"
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Impressionism Timeline (1863-1899)
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Manet's Personal Exhibition

Capitalizing on the vast number of people expected to visit the Universal Exhibition, Manet and Courbet each erect a pavilion in the Place de l'Alma, near one of the entrances, in order to display their own work. Despite widespread publicity and the amount of money lavished on the pavilions, both exhibitions are no more than a partial success and neither receive much critical acclaim.

Bazille and Renoir rent a studio together at 20 rue Visconti, near St-Germain-des-Pres.
Sisley takes an apartment in the Batignolles quarter.

1st Zola publishes an enthusiastic article about Manet in L'Artiste.

3rd Manet asks his mother for money from his inheritance so he can stage a one-man show near the Champ-de-Mars, where the Universal Exhibition is to be held. She subsequently advances him 28,305 francs to cover the cost of building a temporary gallery.

View of the Universal Exhibition
Manet painted this panoramic view of the Universal Exhibition from a point in the rue Franklin near the Troca-dero. The balloon from which Nadar took photographs of the city can be seen in the top right-hand corner. On the left are the Pont de l'Alma and the Pont d'lena, leading into the exhibition grounds.

Cover of one of the many illustrated publications produced to promote the Universal Exhibition.

12th Ingres retrospective at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts — of special interest to Degas, who regards Ingres as one of the greatest exponents of the classical tradition.

17th Manet sits for Fantin-Latour.


5th Renoir's Diana , Bazille's The Artist's Family on a Terrace near Montpellier and works by Cezanne, Pissarro and Sisley are rejected by the Salon jury.


  RENOIR Diana

Although Renoir had originally intended this painting to be 'nothing more than a study of a nude', he thought that by adding a bow and the carcass of a deer it would become less 'improper'.

It was painted specifically for the Salon of 1867 -but strangely, m view of its academic nature, it was rejected by the jury.

30th The rejected artists forward a petition to the Minister of Fine Arts demanding another Salon des Refuses.

In a letter to his parents, Bazille mentions that he is thinking of trying to organize an independent exhibition.

Berthe Morisot exhibits at Cadart's gallery.

2nd Opening of the Salon.

Fantin-Latour's Portrait of Edouard Manet and two paintings by Degas — each entitled Family Portrait - are hung, but Monet's Women in the Garden is rejected. In view of Monet's poverty and the fact that his mistress, Camille Doncieux, is pregnant, Bazille buys the painting for 2500 francs payable in instalments of 50 francs a month.

8th Courbet's 'Pavilion of Realism', devoted to his own work, opens in the Place de Г Alma near the Universal Exhibition. It receives plenty of publicity, but little critical acclaim.

Courbet's 'Pavilion of Realism'. Like Manet's pavilion,
it was caricatured in Le Journal amusant.


3rd Opening of the Universal Exhibition.

Some 11 million people flock to see it - but only 98,000 visit the fine-art section, which includes no Impressionist works.

22nd Manet's one-man show opens in a specially built pavilion near the Pont de L'Alma, facing one of the entrances of the Universal Exhibition. He has about fifty works on display, but the exhibition is not a popular success.

30th Manet and Zola reprint Zola's article from L'Artiste in pamphlet form, to sell at Manet's exhibition. It includes a portrait of Manet by Bracquemond and an etching of Olympia.


3rd Sisley paints in Honfleur.

7th Sisley's son Pierre is born to his mistress, Marie-Adelaide-Eugenie Lescouezec.

29th Le Journal amusant devotes two pages of caricatures to Manet's exhibition.

The pavilions erected by Manet and Courbet close to the Universal Exhibition attracted a good deal of satirical attention. These two architectural caricatures by Georges Randon appeared in Le Journal amusant. Courbet's pavilion (left) bears the ironical inscriptions 'To the Temple of Memory' and 'Courbet, Master Painter', while Manet's (far left; is labelled To the Friends of the Old French Vaudeville' and 'Comic Museum'.

30th Morisot departs for Lorient, a Breton port that is one of her favourite painting sites.


15th Manet departs for a holiday in Trouville with his friend Antonin Proust, a journalist, aspiring politician and amateur painter.

25th Monet's son Jean is born to Camille Doncieux in Paris; Monet, who is in a state of great impoverishment, is staying with his parents in Le Havre — where Sisley is painting, too.

The Artist's Family on a Terrace near Montpellier

Bazille's family posed for this charming portrait on the terrace of the family home outside Montpellier, where they owned extensive vineyards. Bazille himself is on the extreme left.

Monet joins Bazille and Renoir in their studio at 20 rue Visconti. Manet starts work on a series of politically emotive paintings depicting the execution of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico.

Bazille at his Easel

This portrait of Bazille intent on painting was probably done in the studio Renoir shared with Monet, Sisley and Bazille (a snow scene by Monet is visible on the wall). A similar portrait of Renoir at his easel was produced by Bazille.

2nd Manet attends Baudelaire's funeral.


FANTIN-LATOUR Portrait of Edouard Manet 1867
In the preface to his catalogue, written with the help of Zacharie Astruc, Manet explained why he had found it necessary" to stage an exhibition of his work:

Official recognition, encouragement and prizes are, in fact, regarded as proofs of talent; the public has been informed, in advance, what to admire, what to avoid, according as to whether the works are accepted or rejected. On the other hand, the artist is told that it is the public's spontaneous reaction to his works which makes them so unwelcome to the various selection committees. In these circumstances the artist is advised to be patient and wait. But wait for what? Until there are no selection committees? He would be much better off if he could make direct contact with the public, and find out its reactions. Today the artist is not saying 'come and see some perfect paintings' but 'come and see some sincere ones'.

It is sincerity which gives to works of art a character which seems to convert them into acts of protest, when all the artist is trying to do is to express his own impressions.

Monsieur Manet has never wished to protest. On the contrary, the protest, which he never expected, has been directed against himself; this is because there is a traditional way of teaching form, techniques and appreciation, and because those who have been brought up to believe in those principles will admit no others, a fact which makes them childishly intolerant. Any works which do not conform to those formulae they regard as worthless. They not only arouse criticism, but provoke hostility, even active hostility. To be able to exhibit is the all important thing, the sine qua поп for the artist, because what happens is that, after looking at a thing for a length of time, what at first seemed unfamiliar, or even shocking, becomes familiar. Gradually it comes to be understood and accepted. Time itself imperceptibly refines and softens the apparent hardness of a picture.

By exhibiting, an artist finds friends and allies in his search for recognition. Monsieur Manet has always recognized talent when he has seen it; he has no intention of overthrowing old methods of painting, or creating new ones. He has merely tried to be himself, and nobody else.

EDOUARD MANET, 'Reasons for Holding a Private Exhibition', 1867
Photograph of the Nouvelle-Athenes, which replaced the Cafe Guerbois as the Impressionists' favourite meeting place around 1877.
George Moore — the raffish Irish novelist and haunter of French artistic circles — once said: 'He who would know something of my life, must know something about the academy of fine arts. Not the official stupidity you read of in the daily papers, but the real French academy, the cafe.'

Impressionism grew and flourished in cafes, of which there were at least 24,000 in the Paris area. Indeed, establishments such as the Volpini, the Voltaire, the Dome, the Coupole, the Brasserie Lip and the Deux Magots played a central role in the cultural life of the period.

By their very nature the cafes attracted those who were alienated by the anonymity of the modern industrial city, and their attractiveness was enhanced during and after the Second Empire by the wide pavements of the new boulevards created by Baron Haussmann's comprehensive replanning of Paris.

This pen-and-ink drawing made by Manet in 1869 is thought
to show the interior of the Cafe Guerbois.
At first Manet frequented the Cafe de Bade at 23 boulevard des Italiens, but in 1864 he moved into an apartment at 34 boulevard des Batignolles, in the area where Baudelaire, Bazille, Caillebotte, Alphonse Daudet, Fantin-Latour, and later Cezanne, Mallarme, Pissarro and Renoir all lived. By 1866 he had started using the Cafe Guerbois, at 11 rue des Batignolles, where he met his friends most evenings (Thursday being the most popular). In addition to the artists, the circle included writers such as Zola, Duranty, Duret and Armand Silvestre, who in his autobiographical Аи Pays des souvenirs, written in 1892, provided a fascinating account of the Guerbois' golden years. The group of painters who frequented the cafe were dubbed by the critics 'L'Ecole des Batignolles' -and if Impressionism could be said to have a birthplace, the Cafe Guerbois was it. As Monet later recalled, 'Nothing could have been more stimulating than the regular discussions which we used to have there, with their constant clashes of opinion. They kept our wits sharpened, and supplied us with a stock of enthusiasm which lasted us for weeks, and kept us going until the final realization of an idea was accomplished. From them we emerged with a stronger determination and with our thoughts clearer and more sharply defined.'
By 1877, however, the Cafe Guerbois had begun to lose its popularity to the Nouvelle-Athenes in the Place Pigalle. The Nouvelle-Athenes had a distinguished pedigree. Under the Empire it had been frequented by the leading figures of the opposition to Napoleon III — men such as Clemenceau, Gourbet, Gambetta, Nadar, Daudet and Castagnary. Two significant icons of Impressionism — Degas' The Absinthe Drinker, showing the actress Ellen Andree with Marcellin Desboutin (who had been one of the first habitues), and Manet's George Moore at the Cafe — were painted at the Nouvelle-Athenes.

George Moore at the Cafe
1878 or 1879

Situated at the Nouvelles-Athenes this portrait of the Irish writer was roughed out in light brushwork without any preliminary drawing. If intended as a study for a more finished painting, the project must have been abandoned at an early stage.

Among those who frequented the cafe were Renoir, Monet, Pissarro and occasionally Cezanne; the writers Villiers de l'lsle Adam, Ary Renan and Zola's friend Paul Alexis; the musicians Chabrier and Cabaner; and Manet's favourite model, Victorine Meurent, who posed for Olympia and Dejeuner sur I'herbe. The Nouvelle-Athenes also witnessed the schism developing amongst the Impressionists — stimulated by Degas, who was often to be found there, supported by his 'gang', which consisted of Forain, Raffaelli, Zandomeneghi and, whenever he wras in Paris, the Florentine critic Diego Martelli. Indeed, Caillebotte complained that Degas was guilty of introducing 'disunity into our midst, and spends all his time haranguing people in the Nouvelle-Athenes.'

By the mid 1880s the Impressionists were beginning to spend more time outside Paris — Monet in Giverny, Pissarro in Eragny, Cezanne in Aix-en-Provence, Renoir in Essoyes and elsewhere. As a result, the casual meetings in cafes were supplanted by more organized dinners, held either at the restaurant in the boulevard Voltaire belonging to Eugene Murer — where the owner offered his friends free hospitality on Wednesday evenings — or at the Cafe Riche in the boulevard des Italiens.

Women on a Cafe Terrace, Evening
In this vignette of cafe night-life, Degas gives particular emphasis to the expression of combined boredom and professional allurement that masks the women's faces.
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Bizet: "La Jolie Fille de Perth"
La jolie fille de Perth (The Fair Maid of Perth) is an opera in four acts by Bizet Georges  (1838–1875), from a libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jules Adenis, after the novel by Sir Walter Scott. Many writers have reserved severe criticism for the librettists for their stock devices and improbable events, while praising Bizet's advance on his earlier operas in construction of set pieces and his striking melodic and instrumental ideas.

It was first performed at the Théâtre Lyrique (Théâtre-Lyrique Impérial du Châtelet), Paris, on 26 December 1867.

Performance history
Although commissioned by Carvalho in 1866 and completed by Bizet by the end of that year (with the soprano lead intended for Christine Nilsson), the dress rehearsal took place in September 1867 and the first performance three months later. It was next revived in Paris on 3 November 1890 at the Éden-Théâtre for eleven performances.

La jolie fille de Perth was performed in Brussels in 1868 and Geneva in 1885; in German it was given in Weimar and Vienna in 1883, and in English in Manchester and London in 1917.

It was staged at the Wexford Festival in 1968, the Théâtre Impérial de Compiègne in 1998 and the Buxton Festival in 2006, and recorded by the BBC in Manchester for the Bizet centenary in 1975.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bizet: La Jolie Fille de Perth - Serenade
Condcts and orchestration by Naoki Tokuoka
Georges Bizet
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Gounod: "Romeo et Juliette"

Roméo et Juliette (Romeo and Juliet) is an opera in five acts by Gounod Charles to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, based on The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. It was first performed at the Théâtre Lyrique (Théâtre-Lyrique Impérial du Châtelet), Paris on 27 April 1867. This opera is notable for the series of four duets for the main characters and the waltz song "Je veux vivre" for the soprano.

Performance history
Gounod's opera Faust had become popular at the Théâtre Lyrique since its premiere in 1859 (it was performed over 300 times between 1859 and 1868) and this led to a further commission from the director Carvalho. Behind the scenes there were difficulties in casting the lead tenor, and Gounod was said to have composed the last act twice, but after the public general rehearsal and first night it was hailed as a major success for the composer.

Its success was aided by the presence of dignitaries in Paris for the Exhibition, several of whom attended performances. A parody soon appeared at the Théâtre Déjazet, entitled Rhum et eau en juillet (Rum and Water in July).

The opera entered the repertoire of the Opéra-Comique on 20 January 1873 (with Deloffre and Carvalho returning to their roles from the premiere), where it received 391 performances in 14 years. On 28 November 1888 Roméo et Juliette transferred to the Paris Opéra, with Adelina Patti and Jean de Reszke in the leading roles.[3] The opera was first seen in London (with Patti and Mario) on 11 July 1867 and in New York (with Minnie Hauk) at the Academy of Music on 15 November of that year.

In 1912, the opera was recorded complete for the first time , with Agustarello Affre as Roméo, Yvonne Gall as Juliette, Henri Albers as Capulet and Marcel Journet as Laurent.

Adelina Patti and Mario in Act 2 (London, 1867)

Critical reception
Sutherland Edwards, music critic of the St. James's Gazette, wrote the following about the opera following its first London performance in 1867:

Gounod's Roméo et Juliette, in which the composer is always pleasing, though seldom impressive, might be described as the powerful drama of Romeo and Juliet reduced to the proportions of an eclogue for Juliet and Romeo. One remembers the work as a series of very pretty duets, varied by a sparkling waltz air for Juliet, in which Madame Patti displays that tragic genius, which belongs to her equally, with the highest capacity for comedy. [Vaccai's] Romeo e Giulietta is an admirable opera for Giulietta; in which Romeo is not forgotten.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anna Netrebko - Roberto Alagna "Love Duet" Romeo et Juliette
Anna Netrebko -Roberto Alagna "Love Duet" Romeo et Juliette - 2007
Charles Gounod
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Offenbach: "La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein"
La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein (The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein) is an opéra bouffe (a form of operetta), in three acts and four tableaux by Offenbach Jacques to an original French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy. The story is a satirical critique of unthinking militarism and concerns a spoiled and tyrannical young Grand Duchess who learns that she cannot always get her way.

The opera premiered in Paris in 1867 and starred Hortense Schneider in the title role. Thereafter, it was heard in New York, London and elsewhere, and it is still performed and recorded.

Offenbach's career was at its height in the 1860s with the premieres of some of his most popular and enduring works, such as La belle Hélène (1864) and La vie parisienne (1866). With the original production of the latter still running, Offenbach and his librettists hurried to prepare a new opera, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, to play during the Paris Exposition (Exposition universelle) of 1867.
Offenbach assisted Meilhac and Halévy in shaping the libretto. They were eager to ensure a hit, and so they engaged the immensely popular Hortense Schneider, who had created the title role in La Belle Hélène, among other Offenbach roles, paying her the extraordinarily rich monthly sum of 4,500 francs. Schneider, in addition to her vocal gifts, was well able to portray the commanding and saucy character of the Grand Duchess, which parodied Catherine the Great.

The April 1867 premiere was an immediate hit, and a parade of European royalty, drawn to Paris by the Exposition, attended performances of the operetta. Among those attending were French emperor Napoleon III; the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom; Tsar Alexander II of Russia and his son Grand Duke Vladimir; Franz-Joseph, Emperor of Austria-Hungary; Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia; and other crowned heads, generals, and ministers.

1868 Jules Chéret poster

Of the military satire in the piece, Bismarck remarked, "C'est tout-a-fait ça!" (That's exactly how it is!)

Three years later the Franco-Prussian War broke out, and the operetta was later banned in France, because of its antimilitarism, after the French defeat.

Performance history

19th century

It was first performed at the Théâtre des Variétés in Paris on 12 April 1867 and starred Hortense Schneider as the Duchess, who was highly successful in the title role A Viennese production soon opened.

The piece was first heard in New York City, in French, in September 1867 at the Théâtre Français, where it ran for six months.

In November 1867, the opera appeared at Covent Garden, in an English translation by Charles Kenney, and a subsequent tour of that production starred Emily Soldene.

The operetta was produced in English in New York City at the New York Theatre in 1868, at Wood's Museum and Metropolitan beginning November 14, 1870, and at the Union Square Theatre beginning July 3, 1872.

In 1869, the work was revived in Paris, with Zulma Bouffar in the lead. The opera was heard in Australia in 1873, starring Alice May, who also took the title role at the Gaiety Theatre, London in 1876.

Another English adaptation was presented at the Savoy Theatre in London by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in 1897–98 with a new translation by Charles Brookfield and lyrics by Adrian Ross, starring Florence St. John, Florence Perry, Walter Passmore and Henry Lytton.

The production ran for 99 performances and was reviewed as vivacious, but sanitized and "prudish".

  20th century and beyond
Productions during the 20th century included one at Daly's Theatre in London in 1937. In the U.S., there were several presentations by the Santa Fe Opera in 1971, which were repeated in 1972, 1974 and again in 1979. The singers for Santa Fe included Huguette Tourangeau in the title role in 1972, and Donald Gramm and Richard Stilwell in both 1971 and 1972. A 1977 production was given at the Collegiate Theatre in London, produced by Park Lane Opera, starring Patricia Routledge. A French production starring Régine Crespin was televised in 1980, and New York City Opera mounted the piece in 1982.

A notable production was designed and staged by Laurent Pelly in 2004 at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris. It was conducted by Marc Minkowski and starred Felicity Lott, Sandrine Piau and Yann Beuron. Minkowski restored several numbers cut after the first production. Both a CD and a DVD of the production are available, and it was televised in France in December 2004. Opera Philadelphia also mounted a production in 2004, starring Stephanie Blythe. Los Angeles Opera produced the piece in 2005, conducted by Emmanuel Villaume, with Frederica von Stade and directed by Gary Marshall. Theater Basel had a production under Hervé Niquet with Anne Sofie von Otter in the title role in 2009. In 2011, both Opera Boston (starring Stephanie Blythe) and the Comic Opera Guild, near Detroit, Michigan presented the work.

It is scheduled to be part of the Santa Fe Opera's 2013 season, conducted by Emmanuel Villaume, and with Susan Graham in the title role.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacques Offenbach "La Grand-Duchesse de Gerolstein" Overture
Vienna State Opera Orchestra
Hermann Scherchen, conductor
Jacques Offenbach
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Johann Strauss II: The "Blue Danube"

The Blue Danube is the common English title of An der schönen blauen Donau, Op. 314 (German for "By the Beautiful Blue Danube"), a waltz by the Austrian composer Johann Strauss II (Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"), composed in 1866. Originally performed in February, 1867 at a concert of the Wiener Männergesangsverein (Vienna Men's Choral Association), it has been one of the most consistently popular pieces of music in the classical repertoire. Its initial performance was considered only a mild success, however, and Strauss is reputed to have said, "The devil take the waltz, my only regret is for the coda—I wish that had been a success!"

After the original music was written, the words were added by the Choral Association's poet, Joseph Weyl. Strauss later added more music, and Weyl needed to change some of the words. Strauss adapted it into a purely orchestral version for the 1867 Paris World's Fair, and it became a great success in this form. The instrumental version is by far the most commonly performed today. An alternate text was written by Franz von Gernerth (de), "Donau so blau" (Danube so blue). "The Blue Danube" premiered in the United States in its instrumental version on 1 July 1867 in New York, and in Great Britain in its choral version on 21 September 1867 in London at the promenade concerts at Covent Garden.

When Strauss's stepdaughter, Alice von Meyszner-Strauss, asked the composer Johannes Brahms to sign her autograph-fan, he wrote down the first bars of The Blue Danube, but adding "Leider nicht von Johannes Brahms" ("Alas! not by Johannes Brahms").

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
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Toscanini Arturo
Arturo Toscanini, (born March 25, 1867, Parma, Italy—died Jan. 16, 1957, New York City, N.Y., U.S.), Italian conductor, considered one of the great virtuoso conductors of the first half of the 20th century.

Arturo Toscanini
  Toscanini studied at the conservatories of Parma and Milan, intending to become a cellist.
At the age of 19, when playing at the opera house at Rio de Janeiro, he was called upon to fill in for the conductor and performed Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida from memory.

He came into prominence as a conductor in Italy and elsewhere and was appointed musical director of La Scala, Milan, in 1898, and of the Metropolitan Opera, New York City, in 1908.

He conducted the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra from 1928 to 1936 and appeared with orchestras all over the world, except those of Italy and Germany during the Fascist regimes.

From 1937 to 1954 he directed the NBC Symphony, an orchestra sponsored by the U.S. radio network.

Toscanini became principally known for his readings of the operas of Verdi and the symphonies of Beethoven, and he gave remarkable performances of the music of Wagner.

His interpretations were notable for detail of phrasing, dynamic intensity, and an essentially classical conception of form.


His phenomenal memory stood him in good stead when, suffering from poor eyesight, he was obliged always to conduct from memory. He commanded from the artists who worked under him a devotion that often made them reach something like his own fervour.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Arturo Toscanini
Arturo Toscanini
Ouverture Forza del destino
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Verdi: "Don Carlos"

Don Carlos is a five-act grand opera composed by Verdi Giuseppe to a French-language libretto by Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle, based on the dramatic play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien (Don Carlos, Infante of Spain) by Friedrich Schiller. In addition, it has been noted by David Kimball that the Fontainebleau scene and auto da fé "were the most substantial of several incidents borrowed from a contemporary play on Philip II by Eugène Cormon".


Given its premiere at the Salle Le Peletier on 11 March 1867, the opera's story is based on conflicts in the life of Carlos, Prince of Asturias (1545–1568), after his betrothed Elisabeth of Valois was married instead to his father Philip II of Spain as part of the peace treaty ending the Italian War of 1551–1559 between the Houses of Habsburg and Valois. It was commissioned and produced by the Théâtre Impérial de l'Opéra (Paris Opera).

When performed in one of its several Italian versions, the opera is generally called Don Carlo. The first Italian version given in Italy was in Bologna in March 1867. Revised again by Verdi, it was given in Naples in November/December 1872. Finally, two other versions were prepared: the first was seen in Milan in January 1884 (in which the four acts were based on some original French text which was then translated). It is now known as the "Milan version". The second, also sanctioned by the composer, was the "Modena version" and presented in that city in December 1886. It added the "Fontainebleau" first act to the Milan four-act version.

Over the following twenty years, cuts and additions were made to the opera, resulting in a number of versions being available to directors and conductors. No other Verdi opera exists in so many versions. At its full length (including the ballet and the cuts made before the first performance), it contains about four hours of music and is Verdi's longest opera.

Composition history
Pre-première cuts and first published edition

Verdi made a number of cuts in 1866, after finishing the opera but before composing the ballet, simply because the work was becoming too long. These were a duet for Elisabeth and Eboli in act 4, scene 1; a duet for Carlos and the King after the death of Posa in act 4, scene 2; and an exchange between Elisabeth and Eboli during the insurrection in the same scene.

After the ballet had been composed, it emerged during the 1867 rehearsal period that, without further cuts, the opera would not finish before midnight (the time by which patrons would need to leave in order to catch the last trains to the Paris suburbs). Verdi then authorised some further cuts, which were, firstly, the introduction to act 1 (with a chorus of woodcutters and their wives, and including the first appearance of Elisabeth); secondly, a short entry solo for Posa (J'étais en Flandres) in act 2, scene 1; and, thirdly, part of the dialogue between the King and Posa at the end of act 2, scene 2.

The opera, as first published at the time of the première, consisted of Verdi's original conception, minus all of the above-named cuts but including the ballet.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Title page of a libretto for performances at the Teatro Pagliano in Florence in April–May 1869 which used the Italian translation by Achille de Lauzières
Maria Callas-Elizaveta`s aria "Don Carlo". G. Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
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Granados Enrique

Enrique Granados, (born July 27, 1867, Lérida, Spain—died March 24, 1916, at sea), pianist and composer, a leader of the movement toward nationalism in late 19th-century Spanish music.


Enrique Granados
  Granados made his debut as a pianist at 16. He studied composition in Barcelona with Felipe Pedrell, the father of Spanish nationalism in music. He studied piano in Paris in 1887. Returning to Barcelona in 1889, he established himself as a pianist of the front rank, and his 12 Danzas españolas achieved great popularity. The first of his seven operas, María del Carmen, was produced in 1898.

In 1900 Granados founded a short-lived classical-concerts society and his own piano school, which produced a number of distinguished players. His interest in the 18th century is reflected in his tonadillas, songs written “in the ancient style.” He wrote extensively and fluently for the piano, in a somewhat diffuse, Romantic style.
His masterpieces, the Goyescas (1911–13), are reflections on Francisco de Goya’s paintings and tapestries. They were adapted into an opera that received its premiere in New York City in 1916. Returning home from this performance, Granados drowned when his ship, the Sussex, was torpedoed by a German submarine.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Enrique Granados - Spanish Dances
The twelve Spanish Dances, Op.37, were composed in 1890, and initially published in four sets of three dances each. These early works, inspired by the Spanish national school of Felipe Pedrell, were one of Granados' first successes as a composer, and have become one of his most popular piano works, second only to the masterly Goyescas.

The 12 Spanish Dances have been transcribed for guitar as well as for orchestra, and are more often heard on the guitar than on the piano, especially the famous 5th dance, Andaluza (sometimes named Playera), which is one of the most performed Spanish classical pieces.

Enrique Granados
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